Stirling Online Research Repository

    Electrophysiological investigations of recognition memory: The role of pre-existing representations in recollection

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    Dual-process models of recognition memory propose that recognition memory can be supported by either a general sense of familiarity or the recollection of the encoding context. One source of evidence supporting dual-process models comes from event-related potential (ERP) studies of recognition memory, which have identified distinct patterns of neural activity associated with familiarity and recollection (the mid frontal and left parietal old/new effects, respectively). In this thesis, dual-process accounts of recognition memory were investigated in a series of ERP studies using three categories of stimulus: previously unknown faces, famous faces, and names. For previously unknown faces, familiarity was associated with activity over posterior scalp electrodes while recollection was associated with topographically dissociable activity over anterior electrodes. These dissociable patterns of activity support dual-process models. However, the typical pattern of old/new effects was only observed for stimuli associated with pre-existing representations (i.e., names and famous faces), suggesting that the presence/absence of pre-existing representations may determine the particular retrieval processes that support recognition memory. Furthermore, recollection was associated with two different patterns of activity (anterior and left parietal effects), suggesting that recollection is not a homogenous process. Dual-process theories may represent an important starting point for investigating recognition memory, but neither familiarity nor recollection appear to be functionally homogenous processes when theorizing is constrained by the analysis of scalp recorded electrophysiological activity

    Collective Re-Excavation and Lost Media from the Last Century of British Prehistoric Studies

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    There are thousands of forgotten archaeological archives hidden away in repositories all over the world, lost worlds where many scholars have toiled away for years, trying to record every detail and bit of information available about rare and precious archaeological objects in an attempt to bring order and understanding to an almost incomprehensible past. This paper discusses how these archives can be approached through Huhtamo's definition of media archaeology as a 'historically-attuned enterprise' that involves 'excavating forgotten media-cultural phenomena', focusing on the MicroPasts digitization project. It is shown that greater utilization of digital media simply changes and extends the terms of engagement, accessibility, and flow of information from antiquated archaeological archives to the community and back again

    Pre-Authorization: A Novel Decision-Making Heuristic That May Promote Autonomy

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    First paragraphs: While the nature of autonomy has been debated for centuries, recent scholarship has been re-examining our conception(s) of autonomy in light of findings from the behavioral, cognitive, and neural sciences (Felsen and Reiner 2011; Blumenthal-Barby 2016). Blumenthal-Barby’s target article provides us with a timely and helpful framework for thinking about this issue in a systematic way, specifically in relation to the wide range of cognitive biases and heuristics that we employ in our decision making. Building on this, we wish to expand the framework beyond the article’s focus on the threat posed by biases and heuristics by suggesting that it is possible for at least some heuristics to promote autonomy. We hope to demonstrate this point by introducing the conceptual framework for a novel heuristic that we call pre-authorization. Blumenthal-Barby argues that biases and heuristics “pose a serious threat to autonomous decision-making and human agency” and that, consequently, efforts should be made to remove, mitigate, or counter them. While recognizing the autonomy-threatening potential of these ‘fast thinking’ mechanisms, as well as agreeing with the author about the types of cases in which this potential is likely to be actualized, we suggest that it does not capture the full range of interactions that are relevant to a balanced assessment of their impact on autonomy. If, as is widely acknowledged, at least some heuristics are adaptive responses to particular real-world decision-making situations (Gigerenzer 2008), the issue at hand becomes elucidating whether, and under what conditions, the cognitive influence of any particular heuristic is autonomy-threatening, autonomy-preserving, or even autonomy-promoting. Blumenthal-Barby focuses on the first of these categories; and, with respect to the component of absence of controlling or alienating influence, she contends that if the person’s attitude towards the influence is one of feeling controlled or alienated from her decision on account of the workings of a cognitive bias or heuristic, her autonomy is diminishe

    "We must get in front of these blighters": Political Press Culture in the West Midlands, 1918-1925

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    This chapter seeks to challenge the current orthodoxy that a 'national' political culture had emerged by 1918 and that the provincial press failed to reflect the new, class-based politics of the period. By focusing on the experience of Birmingham and the West Midlands, it seeks to demonstrate that although national issues dominated the political debate in the area, these were refracted through the local press and played out in a regional context. The rise and fall of two local political newspapers acts as a prism for the changing political culture of the inter-war years but demonstrates that a resilient Midlands identity was present in the politics of the period

    The Contact Structure of Great Britain's Salmon and Trout Aquaculture Industry

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    We analyse the network structure of the British salmonid aquaculture industry from the perspective of infectious disease control. We combine for the first time live fish transport (or movement) data covering England and Wales with data covering Scotland and include network layers representing potential transmission by rivers, sea water and local transmission via human or animal vectors in the immediate vicinity of each farm or fishery site. We find that 7.2% of all live fish transports cross the England-Scotland border and network analysis shows that 87% of English and Welsh sites and 72% of Scottish sites are reachable from cross-border connections via live fish transports alone. Consequently, from a disease-control perspective, the contact structures of England and Wales and of Scotland should not be considered in isolation. We also show that large epidemics require the live fish movement network and so control strategies targeting movements can be very effective. While there is relatively low risk of widespread epidemics on the live fish transport network alone, the potential risk is substantially amplified by the combined interaction of multiple network layers

    National and sub-national trend of prevalence and burden of dementia in Iran, from 1990 to 2013; Study protocol

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    Background: Dementia is a disabling syndrome, which generally affects aged population more than any other age groups. This syndrome has a growing prevalence and incidence worldwide. The prevalence and burden of this group of diseases in Iran have not been estimated in a community-based study yet. This paper aims to explain the systematic approach, data sources, research methodology, and statistical analysis that will be used to quantify the prevalence and burden of dementia at national and sub-national levels. Methods: This is the protocol of a secondary data study that explains the design and method of conducting the study. We will use several sources of data that will include a systematic review of articles and gray literature which have reported the prevalence or incidence of dementia and its uncertainty at national and sub-national levels in Iran, in addition to data about dementia-specific drug sales per each year at provincial levels, as well as data extracted from 23 million health insurance prescriptions over 8 years and some data from medical documents of Iranian Alzheimer's Association members. The technical groups of National and Sub-national Burden of Disease will collect some covariate data, such as age and sex structure of population, urbanization status, mean years of schooling, plasma cholesterol, fasting plasma glucose, and systolic and diastolic blood pressure at provincial levels which will be used in our models. Two statistical models, namely spatio-temporal and hierarchical autoregressive models, will be used for interpolation and extrapolation of missing data. Conclusion: It seems that the study of national and subnational burden of dementia could provide more accurate estimation of prevalence and burden of dementia in Iran with an acceptable level of uncertainty than the previous studies

    Frequency and socio-demographic correlates of eating meals out and take-away meals at home: cross-sectional analysis of the UK national diet and nutrition survey, waves 1-4 (2008-12)

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    Background: Food prepared out-of-home tends to be less healthful than food prepared at home, with a positive association between frequency of consumption and both fat intake and body fatness. There is little current data on who eats out-of-home food. We explored frequency and socio-demographic correlates of eating meals out and take-away meals at home, using data from a large, UK, population representative study. Methods: Data were from waves 1-4 of the UK National Diet and Nutrition Survey (2008-12). Socio-demographic variables of interest were gender, age group, and socio-economic position. Self-reported frequency of consuming meals out and take-away meals at home was categorised as: less than once per week and once per week or more. Analyses were performed separately for adults (aged 18 years or older) and children. Results: Data from 2001 adults and 1963 children were included. More than one quarter (27.1%) of adults and one fifth (19.0%) of children ate meals out once per week or more. One fifth of adults (21.1%) and children (21.0%) ate take-away meals at home once per week or more. There were no gender differences in consumption of meals out, but more boys than girls ate take-away meals at home at least weekly. The proportion of participants eating both meals out and take-away meals at home at least weekly peaked in young adults aged 19-29 years. Adults living in more affluent households were more likely to eat meals out at least once per week, but children living in less affluent households were more likely to eat take-away meals at home at least once per week. There was no relationship between socio-economic position and consumption of take-away meals at home in adults. Conclusions: One-fifth to one-quarter of individuals eat meals prepared out-of-home weekly. Interventions seeking to improve dietary intake by reducing consumption of out-of-home food may be more effective if tailored to and targeted at adults aged less than 30 years. It may also be important to develop interventions to help children and adolescents avoid becoming frequent consumers of out-of-home food

    A grounded theory of positive youth development through sport based on results from a qualitative meta-study

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    The overall purpose of this study was to create a model of positive youth development (PYD) through sport grounded in the extant qualitative literature. More specifically, the first objective was to review and evaluate qualitative studies of PYD in sport. The second objective was to analyze and synthesize findings from these studies. Following record identification and screening, 63 articles were retained for analysis. Meta-method analysis revealed strengths of studies were the use of multiple data collection and validity techniques, which produced high-quality data. Weaknesses were limited use of ‘named’ methodologies and inadequate reporting of sampling procedures. Philosophical perspectives were rarely reported, and theory was used sparingly. Results of an inductive meta-data analysis produced three categories: PYD climate (adult relationships, peer relationships, and parental involvement), life skills program focus (life skill building activities and transfer activities), and PYD outcomes (in personal, social, and physical domains). A model that distinguishes between implicit and explicit processes to PYD is presented

    Protected Areas in Tropical Africa: Assessing Threats and Conservation Activities

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    Numerous protected areas (PAs) have been created in Africa to safeguard wildlife and other natural resources. However, significant threats from anthropogenic activities and decline of wildlife populations persist, while conservation efforts in most PAs are still minimal. We assessed the impact level of the most common threats to wildlife within PAs in tropical Africa and the relationship of conservation activities with threat impact level. We collated data on 98 PAs with tropical forest cover from 15 countries across West, Central and East Africa. For this, we assembled information about local threats as well as conservation activities from published and unpublished literature, and questionnaires sent to long-term field workers. We constructed general linear models to test the significance of specific conservation activities in relation to the threat impact level. Subsistence and commercial hunting were identified as the most common direct threats to wildlife and found to be most prevalent in West and Central Africa. Agriculture and logging represented the most common indirect threats, and were most prevalent in West Africa. We found that the long-term presence of conservation activities (such as law enforcement, research and tourism) was associated with lower threat impact levels. Our results highlight deficiencies in the management effectiveness of several PAs across tropical Africa, and conclude that PA management should invest more into conservation activities with long-term duration.Additional co-authors: Jef Dupain, Atanga Ekobo, Manasseh Eno-Nku, Gilles Etoga, Takeshi Furuichi, Sylvain Gatti, Andrea Ghiurghi, Chie Hashimoto, John A. Hart, Josephine Head, Martin Hega, Ilka Herbinger, Thurston C. Hicks, Lars H. Holbech, Bas Huijbregts, Hjalmar S. Kühl, Inaoyom Imong, Stephane Le-Duc Yeno, Joshua Linder, Phil Marshall, Peter Minasoma Lero, David Morgan, Leonard Mubalama, Paul K. N'Goran, Aaron Nicholas, Stuart Nixon, Emmanuelle Normand, Leonidas Nziguyimpa, Zacharie Nzooh-Dongmo, Richard Ofori-Amanfo, Babafemi G. Ogunjemite, Charles-Albert Petre, Hugo J. Rainey, Sebastien Regnaut, Orume Robinson, Aaron Rundus, Crickette M. Sanz, David Tiku Okon, Angelique Todd, Ymke Warren, Volker Somme
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