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    Adaptive stiffness in lattice metastructures through tensile-buckling inspired topology morphing

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    This paper explores the use of simultaneous tensile buckling of unit cells to induce a transformation in lattice topology. Under tension, unit cells undergo passive transformation from a rectangle-like to a triangle-/pentagon-like topology, with an associated change in the effective stiffness properties. This behaviour is investigated through finite element analysis and experiments, with analytical results providing insights into the observed behaviour. The analysis identifies (i) that the initial unit cell topology (rectangular) is dominated by membrane effects, (ii) the transformation phase is associated with negative stiffness, and (iii) once formed, the new topology (triangular/pentagonal) exhibits increased stiffness in both compression and tension. Finite element analysis confirms that the unit cell behaviour is also preserved in lattices. Under tension, the lattice undergoes a seven-fold increase in stiffness as it transitions from its initial to the new topology, with a regime of negative stiffness during this transformation accounting for approximately 82% of its total elastic deformation. This new approach to elastically tailor the nonlinear response of (meta-)materials/structures has the potential to contribute to the development of novel tensile energy absorbers

    Investigation of the displacement-based seismic performance of geogrid earth-retaining walls using three-dimensional finite element modeling

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    This study evaluates the earthquake-induced movement of geogrid earth-retaining (GER) walls. A thorough investigation was conducted on a GER wall model, utilizing a comprehensive finite element (FE) analysis. This research focuses on investigating and designing hollow prefabricated concrete panels and conventional gravity-type stone masonry GER walls. It also displays comparative studies such as the displacement of the wall, deflection of the wall, lateral pressure of the wall, settlement of the backfill reinforcement, vertical pressure of the backfill, lateral pressure of the backfill, vertical settlement of the foundation, and settlements of soil layers across the height and acceleration of the walls of the GER walls. The FE simulations used a three-dimensional (3D) nonlinear dynamic FE model of full-scale GER walls. The seismic performance of models has also been examined in terms of wall height. It was found that the seismic motion significantly impacts the height of the GER walls. In addition, the validity of the proposed study model was assessed by comparing it to the conventional reinforcement concrete and gravity-type GRE wall and ASSHTO guidelines using finite element (FE) simulation results. Based on the findings, the hollow prefabricated concrete panels were the most practical alternative due to their lower deflection and displacement. Based on the observation, it was also found that the hollow prefabricated GER wall is the most viable option, as the settlement and lateral pressure in the former type are high

    The potential of co-designing with living organisms: Towards a new ecological paradigm in architecture

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    Living organisms have been progressively used by designers to propose alternative design outcomes aiming towards more ecological aspects. The design development and manufacturing of new materials or design components from living organisms are more achievable in textile, fashion, or product design than in architecture and construction due to the scale, multi-layer constraints, and requirements. The aim of this paper is to investigate the interdisciplinary framework, the opportunities, and limitations of introducing living organisms into the design process, including the implementation from the design ideas to prototyping until commercialization. In this paper, we focus on three types of living organisms: algae, bacteria, and fungi. Firstly, we overviewed and studied existing projects and experimentations to understand the design process and fabrication of living organisms in other domains in comparison to architecture. Secondly, we selected three case studies in architecture for each organism to analyze. We collected the data and conducted interviews with multidisciplinary experts involved in each case. Our findings show a better understanding of the potential to integrate living organisms in architectural design, the advantages, and the difficulties towards ecological awareness. The results from the interview and a comparative analysis show the advantages and constraints of each case. The future outlooks towards the use of living organisms as part of design in architecture are also discussed

    Ambient Literature Guidebook

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    Ambient Literature is a way to describe and codify immersive, narrative-led experiences that respond to the presence of a reader within their fabric. Taking the form of a series of short conversations, this book explains what Ambient Literature is, discusses how it works and what to expect, and explains how the whole project came to be

    Imagining Contagion: Epidemic, Prisons, and Franco Spain's Politics of Space, 1936–1945

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    Recent accounting for disease in the aftermath of the Spanish Civil War has been contained within study of hunger in the early 1940s. Historians have cited the typhus epidemic which hit Spain between 1939 and 1945 as demonstrating a causal link between widespread semi-starvation and disease. Though important, the focus on hunger risks losing sight of other vital elements in the onset and transmission of typhus, however, as well as the way the epidemic's progress sheds light on population movement as central to the broader social history of the war and its aftermath. By paying close attention to epidemiological records, this article argues that the direct causes of typhus and its vertiginous spread were primarily ideological and spatial. It shows first how the war's victors used the language of political and bacterial contagion to claim spuriously that the wartime Republic was responsible for the epidemic. It then demonstrates how the intense confinement on a huge scale of those linked to the Republic was at the root of the disease. Transmission depended on this mass imprisonment and on the increased circulation of families to support those in captivity. Finally, typhus influenced the social imagination of the Franco regime and its anxiety about hygiene, prisons, and control of the movement of the urban poor

    If racism vanished for a day: Towards a kinder, anti-racist society

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    In this article the RESPECT team (Racialised Experiences Project: Education, Children and Trust) give an overview of their research about the impact of racism on the mental health and well being of primary school children, and share some examples of their participating children's work in visualising a kinder, anti-racist society

    Seeing others’ side to serve: Understanding how and when servant leadership impacts employee knowledge-hiding behaviors

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    Previous studies have overlooked critical differences between different aspects of employees’ knowledge-hiding behaviors. Using Social Information Processing theory as an anchor, we fill this void by investigating the impact of servant leadership on three distinct aspects of employees’ knowledge-hiding behaviors: evasive hiding, playing dumb, and rationalized hiding. Specifically, we propose that servant leadership is negatively related to evasive hiding and playing dumb, and yet, paradoxically, positively related to rationalized hiding. We further propose employee perspective taking as a crucial underlying mechanism and employee justice orientation as a relevant boundary condition of the hypothesized relationships between servant leadership and employees’ knowledge-hiding behaviors. Our time-lagged and two-source data provide support for our hypotheses. The theoretical and practical implications of our findings are discussed

    Psychosocial interventions for children and young people with visible differences resulting from appearance altering conditions, injury, or treatment effects: An updated systematic review

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    Objective: Children and young people with visible differences can experience psychosocial difficulties, such as anxiety and teasing by others. Interventions targeting difficulties have previously been reviewed by Jenkinson et al. (2015). This review aimed to identify and critically assess recent studies evaluating the effectiveness of psychosocial interventions for children and young people with visible differences on psychosocial wellbeing, self-esteem, and social experiences and compare the findings with Jenkinson et al (2015) using a replacement review process. Methods: Inclusion criteria: studies with participants aged 0-18 years with visible differences; investigating a psychosocial intervention; including comparison with an alternative intervention, control group, or pre- and post-intervention; including a quantitative measure assessed pre- and post-intervention. Exclusion criteria: participants with body dysmorphic disorder or appearance changes due to eating disorders or obesity and studies not written in English. MEDLINE, AMED, and PsycInfo were searched and grey literature was included. Results were reviewed against eligibility criteria, data were extracted, and studies were evaluated using the Cochrane Risk of Bias 2 tool. Results: Using Jenkinson et al. (2015) as one source of studies, twenty-four studies were included evaluating a range of interventions such as social interaction skills training, residential social camps, and cognitive behavioural therapy. Risk of bias was high in twenty studies and of some concern in four studies. Conclusions: There is some evidence of the effectiveness of hypnotherapy, a relaxation response resiliency program, integrative body-mind-spirit group, and therapeutic patient education, but more rigorous research is needed to confirm their impact on psychosocial outcomes

    Names in adoption law and policy: Representations of family, rights and identities

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    Names have heightened importance in adoption, affecting the identities of individuals who are adopted and adoptive family making. In this article, we use critical discourse analysis to gauge how names, and especially children’s forenames, are addressed in the specificities of legal and policy texts governing and guiding the milieu of people affected by adoption in England. We argue that the inclusions, omissions and opacity of content on names we uncover are outcomes of underlying representations of ‘family’ within the texts, whereby ‘family surnaming’ is constructed as the pre-eminent naming issue in adoption, above children’s forename-based identity rights. Our focus on names in adoption advances sociological understandings of the power of names in representing family relationships and individual identities, and of how official discourses of law and policy can privilege some types of relationships over others, and the rights of some family members over others

    Personalised care packages for people with rheumatoid arthritis: a mixed-methods study.

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    Disease management in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) requires holistic assessment. We aimed to design personalised care packages suitable for people with RA. This study was conducted using a mixed-methods approach and exploratory sequential design. Consensus workshops were held, involving people with RA and healthcare professionals (HCPs) treating them. Subsequently, an online survey sought views on future care packages for people with RA at relevant disease progression/stages, based on (1) results from previous quantitative data analyses (eg, socioeconomic/clinical factors), and (2) themes identified during workshops. Two conceptual care pathways were identified: (1) around the time of RA diagnosis, an early opportunity to influence the disease course; (2) for individuals with established RA, emphasising the importance of 'the right MDT member at the right time'.Three care packages were suggested: (1) early care package (around RA diagnosis): introduction to MDT; (2) continuity of care package (established RA): primary/secondary providers; and (3) personalised holistic care package: integral to packages 1 and 2, implemented alongside allied health professionals.The survey received 41 responses; 82.9% agreed that people with RA need a consistent 'early care package' at diagnosis. 85.4% approved of additional care packages tailored to individuals' clinical, psychological and social needs when moving to different stages of their long-term disease. Fleiss' Kappa calculations demonstrated fair level of agreement among respondents. Two care pathways, with three tailored care packages, were identified, with potential to improve management of people with RA. Future research will help to determine if such care packages can impact clinical (including patient-reported) outcomes. [Abstract copyright: © Author(s) (or their employer(s)) 2024. Re-use permitted under CC BY-NC. No commercial re-use. See rights and permissions. Published by BMJ.

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