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    陸游教子詩之家訓思想研究

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    摘要 中國古代的詩歌文化源遠流長,具有極強的歷史文化蘊意和時代價值,在紛繁的詩歌中,陸游的教子詩以其獨特的視野,佔據了重要歷史地位。陸游的教子詩,大多數成於六十五歲以後,這時候的陸游經過多次的貶官,歷經人生跌宕起伏,在人生最低潮時回到故居,他想將自己一生的經歷,包括為人處事的規準、齊家守業的家風與矢志復國的決心,以言教、身教與境教的方式教導子孫,勉勵自己兒孫在讀書方面要「六藝江河萬古流,吾徒鑽仰死方休」。告誡他們在生活中「躬耕百畝可無飢」、「除卻為農百不宜」,最重要的還是要以儒家精神提升生命意識的高度,以「仁民志士」、「忠義傳子孫」、「一生凜凜蹈春冰」的節操世代相傳。 本文在緒論中講述了研究動機、研究目的、文獻探討、研究範圍、研究方法 與目前學界對陸游教子詩的研究成果。第二章介紹詩教觀念的淵源、意義與目的以及傳統家訓的分期、演進與內涵,以期探索陸游在晚年以大量教子詩進行詩教的動機與目的。第三章介紹陸游的家世背景、生平事蹟與家訓思想淵源,對陸游教子詩內涵形成的影響,以此追溯其家族耕讀傳家的家風與強烈愛國精神的始末,探悉陸游在滿懷國仇與憂民的環境中,是如何激勵他寫出許多思想豐富的詩作。第四章介紹陸游詩教的思想淵源,通過淵源的考察,可以得知陸游詩作的接受史與其家訓思想內涵、影響程度,進而達到上有所承,下有所啟的目的。第五章對陸游教子詩之內涵作了四類的歸納與分析,分別以天倫慈愛之情、讀書為學的功夫、躬耕可無飢的概念和高風亮節的情操來探究。第六章經由陸游教子詩之精神,從強烈愛國意識的教育觀,為貧出仕退為農的教育觀與陸游言教、身教與境教的教育方法,探討其對現代家庭教育的啟示。第七章於結論中提出個人對教育的看法,即培養超然物外的胸懷,學習不斷的自我澄清與肯定的應世哲學,如此才能坦然立於瞬息多變的社會,進而確立自己的生命意識與價值

    明代後期「行旅書寫」研究

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    文學作品源自作者才情、經歷,更與時代、生活風貌呈現高度相關。明代後期文人創作出現大量的走山訪水的遊歷作品,形成中國文學史中一個深具特殊性的階段。在廟堂政治上,統治者荒淫穢亂、草菅擅權,因政爭導致官員流貶情況相當普遍;學術思想上,陽明心學帶動思想革新,文人捨棄了科舉當官之途,或走向山林田野,或在居家園林中品味生活,用文學作品譜寫出不同際遇的生命篇章。有鑑於此,本文以〈明代後期行旅書寫研究〉為題,探討此一時期遊記文風,採傳統文獻分析法,引用中國傳統文學理論與文學社會學理論互為佐證,資料來源屬古籍文獻與今人著作。分為七章:第一章著眼於明代後期文人遊歷創作,以文學社會學視角,打破傳統「記」體文學範圍,採韻、散文本兼融的研究方法;第二章論述先秦至明代後期行旅作品發展脈絡;第三章聚焦在政治層面,探討官員因貶謫、行戍產生的作品;第四章論述陽明心學對行旅作品的影響,包括王守仁、湛若水以及所屬心學門人的創作;第五章分析明代後期唐宋派、公安派、竟陵派等文人的行旅書寫;第六章寫明代後期行旅書寫的最高峰,聚焦在徐宏祖及張岱,以及對後世的傳播與影響;第七章結論。目的在探索自明武宗正德帝至思宗崇禎帝共七位帝王近一百四十年間,文人行旅書寫呈現的時代風貌

    Jakob von Uexküll’s theory of Umwelt revisited in the wake of the third culture: Staging reciprocity and cooperation between artistic agents

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    Reciprocity has been an issue in the interchange between humanities and sciences in view of divided observations concerning our motivation for relating to other people and their opinions. This study proposes to deal with the problem by way of reexamining Uexküll’s theory of Umwelt, seeking to deepen our appreciation of instincts, emotions, and intuitions in our absorption of alternative views. It is revealed that followers and interpreters of Uexküll’s work have actually embraced his functional cycle as a sort of mental work that induces pleasure, knowledge, and self-governance, regardless of the exact identities or even of the very being of others we are engaging with. From this point of view, we appear as really generous and brilliant agents by virtue of our capacity of ignoring certain traits or disparities that may reduce our chances of relating to others. It is argued that such a viewpoint is compatible with the idea of genuine altruism and reciprocity, much promoted in various fields of study today. The updated sense of Umwelt serves to explain why we may still work out intriguing ideas and relationships even with the least amount of feedback or payback from others

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