1,527 research outputs found

    Starless Cores

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    Dense low mass cores in nearby clouds like Taurus and Auriga are some of the simplest sites currently forming stars like our Sun. Because of their simplicity and proximity, dense cores offer the clearest view of the different phases of star formation, in particular the conditions prior to the onset of gravitational collapse. Thanks to the combined analysis of the emission from molecular lines and the emission/absorption from dust grains, the last several years have seen a very rapid progress in our understanding of the structure and chemical composition of starless cores. Previous contradictions between molecular tracers are now understood to arise from core chemical inhomogeneities, which are caused by the selective freeze out of molecules onto cold dust grains. The analysis of the dust emission and absorption, in addition, has allowed us to derive accurate density profiles, and has made finally possible to carry out self consistent modeling of the internal structure of starless cores. In this paper I briefly review the evolution of core studies previous to the current golden age, and show how multi-tracer emission can now be modeled in a systematic manner. Finally I show how we can start to reconstruct the early history of core formation taking advantage of the chemical changes in the gas.Comment: 16 pages, 7 figures. Review article to appear in the proceedings of the "Cores to Clusters" meeting held in Porto, Portugal, October 200

    HH 114 MMS: a new chemically active outflow

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    Context. A small group of bipolar protostellar outflows display strong emission from shock-tracer molecules such as SiO and CH3OH, and are generally referred to as "chemically active." The best-studied outflow from this group is the one in L 1157. Aims. We study the molecular emission from the bipolar outflow powered by the very young stellar object HH 114 MMS and compare its chemical composition with that of the L1157 outflow. Methods. We have used the IRAM 30m radio telescope to observe a number of transitions from CO, SiO, CH3OH, SO, CS, HCN, and HCO+ toward the HH 114 MMS outflow. The observations consist of maps and a two-position molecular survey. Results. The HH 114 MMS outflow presents strong emission from a number of shock-tracer molecules that dominate the appearance of the maps around the central source. The abundance of these molecules is comparable to the abundance in L 1157. Conclusions. The outflow from HH 114 MMS is a spectacular new case of a chemically active outflow.Comment: 4 pages, 3 figures. Accepted for publication in Astronomy & Astrophysic

    Molecules in Bipolar Outflows

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    Bipolar outflows constitute some of the best laboratories to study shock chemistry in the interstellar medium. A number of molecular species have their abundance enhanced by several orders of magnitude in the outflow gas, likely as a combined result of dust mantle disruption and high temperature gas chemistry, and therefore become sensitive indicators of the physical changes taking place in the shock. Identifying these species and understanding their chemical behavior is therefore of high interest both to chemical studies and to our understanding of the star-formation process. Here we review some of the recent progress in the study of the molecular composition of bipolar outflows, with emphasis in the tracers most relevant for shock chemistry. As we discuss, there has been rapid progress both in characterizing the molecular composition of certain outflows as well as in modeling the chemical processes likely involved. However, a number of limitations still affect our understanding of outflow chemistry. These include a very limited statistical approach in the observations and a dependence of the models on plane-parallel shocks, which cannot reproduce the observed wing morphology of the lines. We finish our contribution by discussing the chemistry of the so-called extremely high velocity component, which seems different from the rest of the outflow and may originate in the wind from the very vicinity of the protostar.Comment: 15 pages, 7 figures. Contribution to the IAU Conference "The Molecular Universe" held in Toledo in June 201

    Fibers in the NGC1333 proto-cluster

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    Are the initial conditions for clustered star formation the same as for non-clustered star formation? To investigate the initial gas properties in young proto-clusters we carried out a comprehensive and high-sensitivity study of the internal structure, density, temperature, and kinematics of the dense gas content of the NGC1333 region in Perseus, one of the nearest and best studied embedded clusters. The analysis of the gas velocities in the Position-Position-Velocity space reveals an intricate underlying gas organization both in space and velocity. We identified a total of 14 velocity-coherent, (tran-)sonic structures within NGC1333, with similar physical and kinematic properties than those quiescent, star-forming (aka fertile) fibers previously identified in low-mass star-forming clouds. These fibers are arranged in a complex spatial network, build-up the observed total column density, and contain the dense cores and protostars in this cloud. Our results demonstrate that the presence of fibers is not restricted to low-mass clouds but can be extended to regions of increasing mass and complexity. We propose that the observational dichotomy between clustered and non-clustered star-forming regions might be naturally explained by the distinct spatial density of fertile fibers in these environments.Comment: 25 pages, 17 figures; Accepted for publication in A&

    Chemical modeling of the L1498 and L1517B prestellar cores: CO and HCO+ depletion

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    Prestellar cores exhibit a strong chemical differentiation, which is mainly caused by the freeze-out of molecules onto the grain surfaces. Understanding this chemical structure is important, because molecular lines are often used as probes to constrain the core physical properties. Here we present new observations and analysis of the C18O (1-0) and H13CO+ (1-0) line emission in the L1498 and L1517B prestellar cores, located in the Taurus-Auriga molecular complex. We model these observations with a detailed chemistry network coupled to a radiative transfer code. Our model successfully reproduces the observed C18O (1-0) emission for a chemical age of a few 10^5 years. On the other hand, the observed H13CO+ (1-0) is reproduced only if cosmic-ray desorption by secondary photons is included, and if the grains have grown to a bigger size than average ISM grains in the core interior. This grain growth is consistent with the infrared scattered light ("coreshine") detected in these two objects, and is found to increase the CO abundance in the core interior by about a factor four. According to our model, CO is depleted by about 2-3 orders of magnitude in the core center.Comment: Accepted for publication in A&

    Entrevista a Raimund Herder, director de Herder Editorial

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    Entrevista a Raimund Herder, director de Herder Editorial.Interview with Raimund Herder, Herder Editorial’s director.Entrevista a Raimund Herder, director de Herder Editorial

    The Aesthetic Appreciation of Animals in Zoological Parks

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    Can we appreciate in a serious and deep way the aesthetic qualities of wild species in exemplars held captive for exhibition in the artificial installations of a zoo? To answer this question I invoke theories concerning the aesthetic appreciation of nature propounded by Yuriko Saito and Allen Carlson. I then argue that zoos impose their story on animals, thereby preventing us from appreciating the animals on their own terms. I claim that captivity and its effects on the health, behavior, and appearance of animals make serious and deep appreciation of the aesthetic qualities of wild species impossible

    Detection of interstellar HCS and its metastable isomer HSC: new pieces in the puzzle of sulfur chemistry

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    We present the first identification in interstellar space of the thioformyl radical (HCS) and its metastable isomer HSC. These species were detected toward the molecular cloud L483 thanks to observations carried out with the IRAM 30m telescope in the 3 mm band. We derive beam-averaged column densities of 7e12 cm-2 for HCS and 1.8e11 cm-2 for HSC, which translate to fractional abundances relative to H2 of 2e-10 and 6e-12, respectively. Although the amount of sulfur locked by these radicals is low, their detection allows to put interesting constraints on the chemistry of sulfur in dark clouds. Interestingly, the H2CS/HCS abundance ratio is found to be quite low, around 1, in contrast with the oxygen analogue case, in which the H2CO/HCO abundance ratio is around 10 in dark clouds. Moreover, the radical HCS is found to be more abundant than its oxygen analogue, HCO. The metastable species HOC, the oxygen analogue of HSC, has not been yet observed in space. These observational constraints are confronted with the outcome of a recent model of the chemistry of sulfur in dark clouds. The model underestimates the fractional abundance of HCS by at least one order of magnitude, overestimates the H2CS/HCS abundance ratio, and does not provide an abundance prediction for the metastable isomer HSC. These observations should prompt a revision of the chemistry of sulfur in interstellar clouds.Comment: Accepted for publication in A&A Letter
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