10,231 research outputs found

    Effects of ion concentration and solvent composition on the properties of water-methanol solutions of NaCl. NPT molecular dynamics computer simulation results

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    Isothermal-isobaric molecular dynamics simulations are used to examine the microscopic structure and other properties of a model solution consisting of NaCl salt dissolved in water-methanol mixture. The SPC/E water model and the united atom model for methanol are combined with the force field for ions by Dang [J. Amer. Chem. Soc., 1995, 117, 6954] to describe the entire system. Our principal focus is to study the effects of two variables, namely, the solvent composition and ion concentrations on the solution's density, on the structural properties, self-diffusion coefficients of the species and the dielectric constant. Moreover, we performed a detailed analysis of the first coordination numbers of the species. Trends of the behaviour of the average number of hydrogen bonds between solvent molecules are evaluated.Comment: 18 pages, 13 figures, 1 tabl

    Changes in food access by mestizo communities associated with deforestation and agrobiodiversity loss in Ucayali, Peruvian Amazon

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    Few longitudinal studies link agricultural biodiversity, land use and food access in rural landscapes. In this paper, we test the hypothesis that, in a context of economic change, cash crop expansion is associated with deforestation, reduced agrobiodiversity and changes in food access. For this purpose, we analysed data collected from the same 53 upland and floodplain mestizo households in Ucayali, Peru, in 2000 and 2015. We found an emerging transition towards less diversified food access coupled with loss of forest cover and reduced agricultural biodiversity. In 2015, diets appeared to rely on fewer food groups, fewer food items, and on products increasingly purchased in the market compared to 2000. Wild fruits and plants were mentioned, but rarely consumed. Agricultural production systems became more specialised with a shift towards commercial crops. Peak deforestation years in the 15-year period appeared linked with incentives for agricultural expansion. Our results suggest an overall trend from diversified productive and “extractive” systems and more diverse food access, towards specialized productive systems, with less diverse food access and stronger market orientation (both in production and consumption). The assumption in the food and agricultural sciences that increased income and market-orientation is linked to improved food security, is challenged by our integrated analyses of food access, agrobiodiversity, land use and forest cover. Our results highlight the importance of longitudinal, multidimensional, systemic analyses, with major implications for land use, food and health policies. The potential risks of parallel homogenisation of diets and agricultural production systems require interdisciplinary research and policies that promote integrated landscape approaches for sustainable and inclusive food systems

    Efficient plot-based floristic assessment of tropical forests

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    The tropical flora remains chronically understudied and the lack of floristic understanding hampers ecological research and its application for large-scale conservation planning. Given scarce resources and the scale of the challenge there is a need to maximize the efficiency of both sampling strategies and sampling units, yet there is little information on the relative efficiency of different approaches to floristic assessment in tropical forests. This paper is the first attempt to address this gap. We repeatedly sampled forests in two regions of Amazonia using the two most widely used plot-based protocols of floristic sampling, and compared their performance in terms of the quantity of floristic knowledge and ecological insight gained scaled to the field effort required. Specifically, the methods are assessed first in terms of the number of person-days required to complete each sample (‘effort’), secondly by the total gain in the quantity of floristic information that each unit of effort provides (‘crude inventory efficiency’), and thirdly in terms of the floristic information gained as a proportion of the target species pool (‘proportional inventory efficiency’). Finally, we compare the methods in terms of their efficiency in identifying different ecological patterns within the data (‘ecological efficiency’) while controlling for effort. There are large and consistent differences in the performance of the two methods. The disparity is maintained even after accounting for regional and site-level variation in forest species richness, tree density and the number of field assistants. We interpret our results in the context of selecting the appropriate method for particular research purposes

    One-Two Quench: A Double Minor Merger Scenario

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    Using the N-body+Smoothed particle hydrodynamics code, ChaNGa, we identify two merger-driven processes—disk disruption and supermassive black hole (SMBH) feedback—which work together to quench L* galaxies for over 7 Gyr. Specifically, we examine the cessation of star formation in a simulated Milky Way (MW) analog, driven by an interaction with two minor satellites. Both interactions occur within ~100 Myr of each other, and the satellites both have masses 5–20 times smaller than that of their MW-like host galaxy. Using the genetic modification process of Roth et al., we generate a set of four zoom-in, MW-mass galaxies all of which exhibit unique star formation histories due to small changes to their assembly histories. In two of these four cases, the galaxy is quenched by z = 1. Because these are controlled modifications, we are able to isolate the effects of two closely spaced minor merger events, the relative timing of which determines whether the MW-mass main galaxy quenches. This one–two punch works to: (1) fuel the SMBH at its peak accretion rate and (2) disrupt the cold, gaseous disk of the host galaxy. The end result is that feedback from the SMBH thoroughly and abruptly ends the star formation of the galaxy by z ≈ 1. We search for and find a similar quenching event in Romulus25, a hydrodynamical (25 Mpc)3 volume simulation, demonstrating that the mechanism is common enough to occur even in a small sample of MW-mass quenched galaxies at z = 0

    Intermediation for technology diffusion and user innovation in a developing rural economy:a social learning perspective

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    Technology intermediaries are seen as potent vehicles for addressing perennial problems in transferring technology from university to industry in developed and developing countries. This paper examines what constitutes effective user-end intermediation in a low-technology, developing economy context, which is an under-researched topic. The social learning in technological innovation framework is extended using situated learning theory in a longitudinal instrumental case study of an exemplar technology intermediation programme. The paper documents the role that academic-related research and advisory centres can play as intermediaries in brokering, facilitating and configuring technology, against the backdrop of a group of small-scale pisciculture businesses in a rural area of Colombia. In doing so, it demonstrates how technology intermediation activities can be optimized in the domestication and innofusion of technology amongst end-users. The design components featured in this instrumental case of intermediation can inform policy making and practice relating to technology transfer from university to rural industry. Future research on this subject should consider the intermediation components put forward, as well as the impact of such interventions, in different countries and industrial sectors. Such research would allow for theoretical replication and help improve technology domestication and innofusion in different contexts, especially in less-developed countries

    Metal-THINGS: The association and optical characterization of SNRs with HI holes in NGC 6946

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    NGC~6946, also known as the `Fireworks' galaxy, is an unusual galaxy that hosts a total of 225 supernova remnant (SNR) candidates, including 147 optically identified with high [SII]/Ha line ratios. In addition, this galaxy shows prominent HI holes, which were analyzed in previous studies. Indeed, the connection between SNRs and HI holes together with their physical implications in the surrounding gas is worth of attention. This paper explores the connection between the SNRs and the HI holes, including an analysis of their physical link to observational optical properties inside and around the rims of the holes, using new integral field unit (IFU) data from the Metal-THINGS survey. We present an analysis combining previously identified HI holes, SNRs candidates, and new integral field unit (IFU) data from Metal-THINGS of the spiral galaxy NGC 6946. We analyze the distributions of the oxygen abundance, star formation rate surface density, extinction, ionization, diffuse ionized gas, and the Baldwin-Phillips-Terlevich classification throughout the galaxy. By analyzing in detail the optical properties of the 121 previously identify HI holes in NGC 6946, we find that the SNRs are concentrated at the rims of the HI holes. Furthermore, our IFU data shows that the star formation rate and extinction are enhanced at the rims of the holes. To a lesser degree, the oxygen abundance and ionization parameter show hints of enhancement on the rims of the holes. Altogether, this provides evidence of induced star formation taking place at the rims of the holes, whose origin can be explained by the expansion of superbubbles created by multiple supernova explosions in large stellar clusters dozens of Myr ago.Comment: Accepted by A&

    P-P Total Cross Sections at VHE from Accelerator Data

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    Comparison of P-P total cross-sections estimations at very high energies - from accelerators and cosmic rays - shows a disagreement amounting to more than 10 %, a discrepancy which is beyond statistical errors. Here we use a phenomenological model based on the Multiple-Diffraction approach to successfully describe data at accelerator energies. The predictions of the model are compared with data On the basis of regression analysis we determine confident error bands, analyzing the sensitivity of our predictions to the employed data for extrapolation. : using data at 546 and 1.8 TeV, our extrapolations for p-p total cross-sections are only compatible with the Akeno cosmic ray data, predicting a slower rise with energy than other cosmic ray results and other extrapolation methods. We discuss our results within the context of constraints in the light of future accelerator and cosmic ray experimental results.Comment: 26 pages aqnd 11 figure
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