3,825 research outputs found

    Experimental Procedure for the Metrological Characterization of Time-of-Flight Cameras for Human Body 3D Measurements

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    Time-of-flight cameras are widely adopted in a variety of indoor applications ranging from industrial object measurement to human activity recognition. However, the available products may differ in terms of the quality of the acquired point cloud, and the datasheet provided by the constructors may not be enough to guide researchers in the choice of the perfect device for their application. Hence, this work details the experimental procedure to assess time-of-flight cameras' error sources that should be considered when designing an application involving time-of-flight technology, such as the bias correction and the temperature influence on the point cloud stability. This is the first step towards a standardization of the metrological characterization procedure that could ensure the robustness and comparability of the results among tests and different devices. The procedure was conducted on Kinect Azure, Basler Blaze 101, and Basler ToF 640 cameras. Moreover, we compared the devices in the task of 3D reconstruction following a procedure involving the measure of both an object and a human upper-body-shaped mannequin. The experiment highlighted that, despite the results of the previously conducted metrological characterization, some devices showed evident difficulties in reconstructing the target objects. Thus, we proved that performing a rigorous evaluation procedure similar to the one proposed in this paper is always necessary when choosing the right device

    Monte Carlo-based 3D surface point cloud volume estimation by exploding local cubes faces

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    This article proposes a state-of-the-art algorithm for estimating the 3D volume enclosed in a surface point cloud via a modified extension of the Monte Carlo integration approach. The algorithm consists of a pre-processing of the surface point cloud, a sequential generation of points managed by an affiliation criterion, and the final computation of the volume. The pre-processing phase allows a spatial reorientation of the original point cloud, the evaluation of the homogeneity of its points distribution, and its enclosure inside a rectangular parallelepiped of known volume. The affiliation criterion using the explosion of cube faces is the core of the algorithm, handles the sequential generation of points, and proposes the effective extension of the traditional Monte Carlo method by introducing its applicability to the discrete domains. Finally, the final computation estimates the volume as a function of the total amount of generated points, the portion enclosed within the surface point cloud, and the parallelepiped volume. The developed method proves to be accurate with surface point clouds of both convex and concave solids reporting an average percentage error of less than 7 %. It also shows considerable versatility in handling clouds with sparse, homogeneous, and sometimes even missing points distributions. A performance analysis is presented by testing the algorithm on both surface point clouds obtained from meshes of virtual objects as well as from real objects reconstructed using reverse engineering techniques

    State of the art: iterative CT reconstruction techniques

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    Owing to recent advances in computing power, iterative reconstruction (IR) algorithms have become a clinically viable option in computed tomographic (CT) imaging. Substantial evidence is accumulating about the advantages of IR algorithms over established analytical methods, such as filtered back projection. IR improves image quality through cyclic image processing. Although all available solutions share the common mechanism of artifact reduction and/or potential for radiation dose savings, chiefly due to image noise suppression, the magnitude of these effects depends on the specific IR algorithm. In the first section of this contribution, the technical bases of IR are briefly reviewed and the currently available algorithms released by the major CT manufacturers are described. In the second part, the current status of their clinical implementation is surveyed. Regardless of the applied IR algorithm, the available evidence attests to the substantial potential of IR algorithms for overcoming traditional limitations in CT imaging

    Constraints on the Formation of the Globular Cluster IC 4499 from Multi-Wavelength Photometry

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    We present new multiband photometry for the Galactic globular cluster IC 4499 extending well past the main sequence turn-off in the U, B, V, R, I, and DDO51 bands. This photometry is used to determine that IC4499 has an age of 12 pm 1 Gyr and a cluster reddening of E(B-V) = 0.22 pm 0.02. Hence, IC 4499 is coeval with the majority of Galactic GCs, in contrast to suggestions of a younger age. The density profile of the cluster is observed to not flatten out to at least r~800 arcsec, implying that either the tidal radius of this cluster is larger than previously estimated, or that IC 4499 is surrounded by a halo. Unlike the situation in some other, more massive, globular clusters, no anomalous color spreads in the UV are detected among the red giant branch stars. The small uncertainties in our photometry should allow the detection of such signatures apparently associated with variations of light elements within the cluster, suggesting that IC 4499 consists of a single stellar population.Comment: accepted to MNRA

    New transcriptional-based insights into the pathogenesis of desmoplastic small round cell tumors (DSRCTs).

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    To gain new insights into desmoplastic small round cell tumors (DSRCTs) by means of gene expression profiling (GEP). Formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded surgical specimens obtained from seven pretreated DSRCT patients were interrogated using GEP complemented by immunohistochemistry, a cancer stem cell array, and miRNA in situ hybridisation, including the combined chimera modules miRNA-200/ZEB1 and miRNA-34/SLUG. The chimera modules divided the cases into three classes that respectively recapitulated the traits of mesenchymal epithelial reverse transition (MErT), epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT), and hybrid/partial EMT. This indicates a close correlation between the reprogramming governed by EMT regulators and DSRCT biology, which was further confirmed by miRNA-21 and is consistent with the broad morphological spectrum of DSRCTs. Starting from the miRNA-200/ZEB1 axis, we also found that DSRCTs carry a signature of immunological ignorance that is not responsive to PD--L1 blockade. Evidence that the up-regulation of miRNA-200 and E-cadherin, and quite a high level of miRNA-21 expression segregate with the MErT supports the idea that, in addition to the hybrid/partial state, MErT is also enriched in stemness: the androgen-positive cases, whose stemness traits were confirmed by stem cell arrays, all fell into these two classes. Our findings also confirmed that tumoral cell PDGFRA expression correlates with desmoplasia, and demonstrated the co-expression of PDGFRA and ISLR/Meflin, another marker of pluripotency. Despite the limited number of cases, these findings provide unexpectedly relevant information concerning the pathogenesis of DSRCTs, and prove the validity of miRNA-based chimera circuit modelling in the clinico-pathological setting

    Non-invasive nanoscale potentiometry and ballistic transport in epigraphene nanoribbons

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    The recent observation of non-classical electron transport regimes in two-dimensional materials has called for new high-resolution non-invasive techniques to locally probe electronic properties. We introduce a novel hybrid scanning probe technique to map the local resistance and electrochemical potential with nm- and őľ\muV resolution, and we apply it to study epigraphene nanoribbons grown on the sidewalls of SiC substrate steps. Remarkably, the potential drop is non uniform along the ribbons, and őľ\mum-long segments show no potential variation with distance. The potential maps are in excellent agreement with measurements of the local resistance. This reveals ballistic transport in ambient condition, compatible with micrometer-long room-temperature electronic mean free paths

    Valoración global del corazón en el paciente con transplante cardiaco mediante tomografía computarizada de doble fuente

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    In routine clinical practice surveillance of heart transplant recipients is usually performed using echocardiography and conventional coronary angiography. The latter permits diagnosis and follow-up of coronary allograft vasculopathy. However, this procedure is invasive and is not free of complications. Conventional multislice computed tomography (MSCT) has been shown to be a useful non-invasive tool for ruling out coronary artery disease and evaluating cardiac function. However, due to its limited temporal resolution betablocker administration is required, and its usefulness in certain patient populations with restricted response to this medication, such as heart transplant recipients, may therefore be limited. Dual-source CT (DSCT) allows evaluation of the coronary arteries in all individuals independent of their heart rate. In the case presented here, we demonstrate that DSCT may be useful for evaluating cardiac function and ruling out coronary allograft vasculopathy in heart transplant recipients

    Mining of self-organizing map gene-expression portraits reveals prognostic stratification of HPV-positive head and neck squamous cell carcinoma

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    Patients (pts) with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) have different epidemiologic, clinical, and outcome behaviors in relation to human papillomavirus (HPV) infection status, with HPV-positive patients having a 70% reduction in their risk of death. Little is known about the molecular heterogeneity in HPV-related cases. In the present study, we aim to disclose the molecular subtypes with potential biological and clinical relevance. Through a literature review, 11 studies were retrieved with a total of 346 gene-expression data points from HPV-positive HNSCC pts. Meta-analysis and self-organizing map (SOM) approaches were used to disclose relevant meta-gene portraits. Unsupervised consensus clustering provided evidence of three biological subtypes in HPV-positive HNSCC: Cl1, immune-related; Cl2, epithelial\u2013mesenchymal transition-related; Cl3, proliferation-related. This stratification has a prognostic relevance, with Cl1 having the best outcome, Cl2 the worst, and Cl3 an intermediate survival rate. Compared to recent literature, which identified immune and keratinocyte subtypes in HPV-related HNSCC, we confirmed the former and we separated the latter into two clusters with different biological and prognostic characteristics. At present, this paper reports the largest meta-analysis of HPV-positive HNSCC studies and offers a promising molecular subtype classification. Upon further validation, this stratification could improve patient selection and pave the way for the development of a precision medicine therapeutic approach

    SOCS2 controls proliferation and stemness of hematopoietic cells under stress conditions and its deregulation marks unfavorable acute leukemias

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    Hematopoietic stem cells (HSC) promptly adapt hematopoiesis to stress conditions, such as infection and cancer, replenishing bone marrow-derived circulating populations, while preserving the stem cell reservoir. SOCS2, a feedback inhibitor of JAK-STAT pathways, is expressed in most primitive HSC and is upregulated in response to STAT5-inducing cytokines. We demonstrate that Socs2 deficiency unleashes HSC proliferation in vitro, sustaining STAT5 phosphorylation in response to IL3, thrombopoietin, and GM-CSF. In vivo, SOCS2 deficiency leads to unrestricted myelopoietic response to 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) and, in turn, induces exhaustion of long-term HSC function along serial bone marrow transplantations. The emerging role of SOCS2 in HSC under stress conditions prompted the investigation of malignant hematopoiesis. High levels of SOCS2 characterize unfavorable subsets of acute myeloid and lymphoblastic leukemias, such as those with MLL and BCR/ABL abnormalities, and correlate with the enrichment of genes belonging to hematopoietic and leukemic stemness signatures. In this setting, SOCS2 and its correlated genes are part of regulatory networks fronted by IKZF1/Ikaros and MEF2C, two transcriptional regulators involved in normal and leukemic hematopoiesis that have never been linked to SOCS2. Accordingly, a comparison of murine wt and Socs2-/- HSC gene expression in response to 5-FU revealed a significant overlap with the molecular programs that correlate with SOCS2 expression in leukemias, particularly with the oncogenic pathways and with the IKZF1/Ikaros and MEF2C-predicted targets. Lentiviral gene transduction of murine hematopoietic precursors with Mef2c, but not with Ikzf1, induces Socs2 upregulation, unveiling a direct control exerted by Mef2c over Socs2 expression
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