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    Programmes d’action nitrates : les résultats ne sont à la hauteur ni des attentes ni des enjeux

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    National audienceLa directive européenne du 12 décembre 1991 donnait deux ans à la France pour se conformer à ses instructions « concernant la protection des eaux contre la pollution par les nitrates à partir de sources agricoles ». Plus de trente ans après, alors que l’État français est sur le point de mettre en œuvre le septième programme d’action nitrates, l’Autorité environnementale vient d’établir un constat sans appel. Les tendances à long terme de la concentration en nitrates dans les eaux de surface et souterraines, mesurée par l’augmentation du nombre de communes classées en zones vulnérables, l’eutrophisation croissante des cours d’eau et l’augmentation de la teneur en nitrates dans les eaux souterraines, signent une absence d’amélioration et ce malgré un plafonnement des ventes d’engrais depuis le début du siècle.https://www.lagrandeconversation.com/ecologie/programmes-daction-nitrates-les-resultats-ne-sont-a-la-hauteur-ni-des-attentes-ni-des-enjeux

    La loi de finances pour 2024 : une loi de continuité dans un contexte recentralisateur

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    L'accord Agirc-Arrco 2023-2026 : une victoire pour le paritarisme ?

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    Neointimal myofibroblasts contribute to maintaining Th1/Tc1 and Th17/Tc17 inflammation in giant cell arteritis

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    International audienceVascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) have been shown to play a role in the pathogenesis of giant cell arteritis (GCA) through their capacity to produce chemokines recruiting T cells and monocytes in the arterial wall and their ability to migrate and proliferate in the neointima where they acquire a myofibroblast (MF) phenotype, leading to vascular stenosis. This study aimed to investigate if MFs could also impact T-cell polarization. Confocal microscopy was used to analyze fresh fragments of temporal artery biopsies (TABs). Healthy TAB sections were cultured to obtain MFs, which were then treated or not with interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and analyzed by immunofluorescence and RT-PCR. After peripheral blood mononuclear cells and MFs were co-cultured for seven days, T-cell polarization was analyzed by flow cytometry. In the neointima of GCA arteries, we observed a phenotypic heterogeneity among VSMCs that was consistent with a MF phenotype (α-SMA + CD90 + desmin + MYH11 +) with a high level of STAT1 phosphorylation. Co-culture experiments showed that MFs sustain Th1/Tc1 and Th17/Tc17 polarizations. The increased Th1 and Tc1 polarization was further enhanced following the stimulation of MFs with IFN-γ and TNF-α, which induced STAT1 phosphorylation in MFs. These findings correlated with increases in the production of IL-1β, IL-6, IL-12 and IL-23 by MFs. Our study showed that MFs play an additional role in the pathogenesis of GCA through their ability to maintain Th17/Tc17 and Th1/Tc1 polarizations, the latter being further enhanced in case of stimulation of MF with IFN-γ and TNF-α

    A cryptically diverse microbial community drives organic matter decomposition in forests

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    Abstract Background Major advances over the past decade in molecular ecology are providing access to soil fungal diversity in forest ecosystems worldwide, but the diverse functions and metabolic capabilities of this microbial community remain largely elusive. We conducted a field survey in montane old-growth broadleaved and conifer forests, to investigate the relationship between soil fungal diversity and functional genetic traits. To assess the extent to which variation in community composition was associated with dominant tree species (oak, spruce, and fir) and environmental variations in the old-growth forests in the Jade Dragon Snow Mountain in Yunnan Province, we applied rDNA metabarcoding. We also assessed fungal gene expression in soil using mRNA sequencing and specifically assessed the expression of genes related to organic matter decomposition and nutrient acquisition in ectomycorrhizal and saprotrophic fungi. Results Our taxonomic profiling revealed striking shifts in the composition of the saprotrophic and ectomycorrhizal guilds among the oak-, fir-, and spruce-dominated forests. The core fungal microbiome comprised only ~ 20% of the total OTUs across all soil samples, although the overlap between conifer-associated communities was substantial. In contrast, seasonality and soil layer explained only a small proportion of the variation in community structure. However, despite their highly variable taxonomic composition, fungal guilds exhibited remarkably similar functional traits for growth-related and core metabolic pathways across forest associations, suggesting ecological redundancy. However, we found that the expression profiles of genes related to polysaccharide and protein degradation and nutrient transport notably varied between and within the fungal guilds, suggesting niche adaptation. Conclusions Overall, our metatranscriptomic analyses revealed the functional potential of soil fungal communities in montane old-growth forests, including a suite of specialized genes and taxa involved in organic matter decomposition. By linking genes to ecological traits, this study provides insights into fungal adaptation strategies to biotic and environmental factors, and sheds light on the importance of understanding functional gene expression patterns in predicting ecosystem functioning

    Assessing available care time and nursing shortage in a hospital

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    Health is one of the main components of well-being and medical progress has enabled many people to live better lives than at any time in history. Moreover, since the second half of the 20th century, the right to health has been recognized as a human right by international law as well as by many national laws. Unfortunately for many years now - and the phe- nomenon has become even more acute since COVID-19 pandemic - there has been a worldwide shortage of healthcare workers. This is particularly true for nurses, especially in poor countries. The aim of the paper is to help assess the number of nurses needed to ensure both healthier care- givers and healthier patients. To achieve this goal, we propose a model with random arrivals and exits of patients who may be of a single type (or several), and calculate the average care time they can receive. The results are given in closed form when arrivals follow a Poisson probability distribution. We also propose an analysis of the impact of working conditions on the average time that can be devoted to a patient

    Telework, travel times, and peak hour avoidance in England: An overview using travel times across five weekdays

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    International audienceThis study examines the association of telework and travel times for work and non-work purposes at peak and off-peak times over the five-day workweek (Monday-Friday). Two seemingly competing hypotheses are considered. The first is that teleworkers travel less and avoid peak hours because of a greater flexibility of their working hours. The second is that teleworkers have to travel at peak times as much as others, due to the temporal ordering of the cities and society. Data for residents of England from the 2015–2019 UK National Travel Surveys (NTS) are used. Overall, the analysis suggests that when considering the five-day workweek, teleworkers experience longer travel times than other workers for both work and non-work purposes. The longer travel times for work reflect the fact that teleworkers are more likely to hold professional or managerial positions, have higher incomes, commute by train, and/or work in London. The association of telework and non-work travel times remains once employment, commute, socioeconomic and location factors are taken into account. There is also indicative evidence for some net peak avoidance among teleworkers for commuting but not for non-work travel. The findings thus suggest that both hypotheses may hold, although the first for commuting and the second for non-work travel. Whether the conclusions extend to teleworking after the COVID-19 pandemic remains to be examined using NTS or similar data, but it is not implausible that qualitative differences in teleworkers’ travel times and peak hour travel pre- and post-pandemic may not be as large as public discourse might suggest

    Synthèse

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    International audienceThis monograph presents the findings at Beaumont "le Crot aux Moines" (Yonne), a remarkable archaeological site of the Chasséen Culture. Enclosures, fireplaces and circular structures, with exceptionally abundant associated material, document and renew the regional Chasséen Culture. The high datation of the site's oldest structures, around 4500 BCE, raises the question of the emergence of this culture in Burgundy.Cette monographie présente les vestiges du site de Beaumont (Yonne), un gisement archéologique remarquable. Enceintes, foyers et structures circulaires auxquels un matériel exceptionnellement abondant est associé, documentent tout en les renouvelant le Chasséen régional. La haute datation des plus anciennes structures du site, autour de 4500 BCE, pose la question de l'émergence de cette culture en Bourgogne

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