3 research outputs found

    Impairment of cerebrovascular reactivity in response to hypercapnic challenge in a mouse model of repetitive mild traumatic brain injury

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    Incidences of repetitive mild TBI (r-mTBI), like those sustained by contact sports athletes and military personnel, are thought to be a risk factor for development of neurodegenerative disorders. Those suffering from chronic TBI-related illness demonstrate deficits in cerebrovascular reactivity (CVR), the ability of the cerebral vasculature to respond to a vasoactive stimulus. CVR is thus an important measure of traumatic cerebral vascular injury (TCVI), and a possible in vivo endophenotype of TBI-related neuropathogenesis. We combined laser speckle imaging of CVR in response to hypercapnic challenge with neurobehavioral assessment of learning and memory, to investigate if decreased cerebrovascular responsiveness underlies impaired cognitive function in our mouse model of chronic r-mTBI. We demonstrate a profile of blunted hypercapnia-evoked CVR in the cortices of r-mTBI mice like that of human TBI, alongside sustained memory and learning impairment, without biochemical or immunohistopathological signs of cerebral vessel laminar or endothelium constituent loss. Transient decreased expression of alpha smooth muscle actin and platelet-derived growth factor receptor β, indicative of TCVI, is obvious only at the time of the most pronounced CVR deficit. These findings implicate CVR as a valid preclinical measure of TCVI, perhaps useful for developing therapies targeting TCVI after recurrent mild head trauma

    Apolipoprotein E isoforms differentially regulate matrix metallopeptidase 9 function in Alzheimer’s disease

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    Apolipoprotein E (APOE) has been shown to influence amyloid-β (Aβ) clearance from the brain in an isoform-specific manner. Our prior work showed that Aβ transit across the blood-brain-barrier was reduced by apoE4, compared to other apoE isoforms, due to elevated lipoprotein receptor shedding in brain endothelia. Recently, we demonstrated that matrix metallopeptidase 9 (MMP-9) induces lipoprotein receptor proteolysis in an apoE isoform-dependent manner, which impacts Aβ elimination from the brain. The current studies interrogated the relationship between apoE and MMP-9 and found that apoE impacted proMMP-9 cellular secretion from brain endothelia (apoE2 < apoE3 = apoE4). In a cell-free assay, apoE dose-dependently reduced MMP-9 activity, with apoE4 showing a significantly weaker ability to inhibit MMP-9 function than apoE2 or apoE3. Finally, we observed elevated MMP-9 expression and activity in the cerebrovasculature of both human and animal AD brain specimens with an APOE4 genotype. Collectively, these findings suggest a role for apoE in regulating MMP-9 disposition and may describe the effect of apoE4 on Aβ pathology in the AD brain