3,461 research outputs found

    Thermal and mechanical structure of the upper mantle: A comparison between continental and oceanic models

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    Temperature, velocity, and viscosity profiles for coupled thermal and mechanical models of the upper mantle beneath continental shields and old ocean basins show that under the continents, both tectonic plates and the asthenosphere, are thicker than they are beneath the oceans. The minimum value of viscosity in the continental asthenosphere is about an order of magnitude larger than in the shear zone beneath oceans. The shear stress or drag underneath continental plates is also approximately an order of magnitude larger than the drag on oceanic plates. Effects of shear heating may account for flattening of ocean floor topography and heat flux in old ocean basins

    Oceanic lithosphere and asthenosphere: The thermal and mechanical structure

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    A coupled thermal and mechanical solid state model of the oceanic lithosphere and asthenosphere is presented. The model includes vertical conduction of heat with a temperature dependent thermal conductivity, horizontal and vertical advection of heat, viscous dissipation or shear heating, and linear or nonlinear deformation mechanisms with temperature and pressure dependent constitutive relations between shear stress and strain rate. A constant horizontal velocity u sub 0 and temperature t sub 0 at the surface and zero horizontal velocity and constant temperature t sub infinity at great depth are required. In addition to numerical values of the thermal and mechanical properties of the medium, only the values of u sub 0, t sub 0 and t sub infinity are specified. The model determines the depth and age dependent temperature horizontal and vertical velocity, and viscosity structures of the lithosphere and asthenosphere. In particular, ocean floor topography, oceanic heat flow, and lithosphere thickness are deduced as functions of the age of the ocean floor

    Experimental prospects at the LHC

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    Invited talk at DISCRETE0

    The UARS microwave limb sounder version 5 data set: Theory, characterization, and validation

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    Nitric acid (HNO3) is a major player in processes controlling the springtime depletion of polar ozone. It is the main constituent of the Polar Stratospheric Clouds (PSCs) and a primary reservoir for reactive nitrogen. Potential variations in the stratospheric circulation and temperature may alter the extent and duration of PSCs activity, influencing the future ozone levels significantly. Monitoring HNO3 and its long-term variability, especially in polar region, is then crucial for better understanding issues related to ozone decline and expected recovery. In this study we present an intercomparison between ground based HNO3 measurements, carried out by means of the Ground-Based Millimeter-wave Spectrometer (GBMS), and two satellite data sets produced by the two NASA/JPL Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) experiments. In particular, we compare UARS MLS measurements (1991-1999) with those carried out by the GBMS at South Pole, Antarctica (90°S), Fall of 1993 and 1995. A similar intercomparison is made between Aura MLS HNO3 observations (2004 - to date) and GBMS measurements obtained during the period February 2004 - March 2007, at the mid-latitudes/high altitudes station of Testa Grigia (45.9° N, 7.7° E, elev. 3500 m), and during polar winters 2008/09 and 2009/2010 at Thule Air Base (76.5°N 68.8°W), Greenland. We assess systematic differences between GBMS and both UARS and Aura HNO3 data sets at seven potential temperature levels (θ) spanning the range 465 – 960 K. The UARS data set advected to the South Pole shows a low bias, within 20% for all θ levels but the 960 K, with respect to GBMS measurements. A very good agreement, within 5%, is obtained between Aura and GBMS observations at Testa Grigia, while larger differences, possibly due to latitude dependent effects, are observed over Thule. These differences are under further investigations but a preliminary comparison over Thule among MLS v3, GBMS, and ACE-FTS measurements suggests that GBMS measurements carried out during winter 2009 might not be reliable. These comparisons have been performed in the framework of the NASA JPL GOZCARDS project, which is aimed at developing a long-term, global data record of the relevant stratospheric constituents in the context of ozone decline. GBMS has been selected in GOZCARDS since its HNO3 dataset, although sampling different latitudes in different years, is the only one spanning a sufficiently long time interval for cross-calibrating HNO3 measurements by the UARS and Aura MLS experiments

    A new method for extracting the bottom quark Yukawa coupling at the CERN Large Hadron Collider

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    We propose a new method for measuring the H -> bb rate at the CERN LHC in a manner which would allow extraction of the b quark Yukawa coupling. Higgs boson production in purely electroweak WHjj events is calculated. The Standard Model signal rate including decays W -> l nu and H -> bb is 11 fb for M_H = 120 GeV. It is possible to suppress the principal backgrounds, Wbbjj and ttjj, to approximately the level of the signal. As the top quark Yukawa coupling does not appear in this process, it promises a reliable extraction of g_Hbb in the context of the Standard Model or some extensions, such as the MSSM.Comment: added background, updated/added references, additional comment

    Origin and age of an ongoing radioactive contamination of soils near La hague reprocessing plant based on <sup>239+240</sup>Pu/<sup>238</sup>Pu and <sup>241</sup>Am/<sup>241</sup>Pu current ratios and <sup>90</sup>Sr and Ln(III) soil contents.

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    Nuclear reprocessing plants are sources of environmental contamination by gaseous or liquid discharges. Numerous radionuclides are of concern, with actinides and &lt;sup&gt;90&lt;/sup&gt; Sr being the most radiotoxic. Environmental radioactivity survey programs mostly use γ-spectrometry to track contaminations because γ-spectrometry is very cost effective and can be carried out on raw samples. On the other hand, the determination of β- or α-emitting radionuclides in environmental samples requires rather sophisticated analytical methods, and are thus dedicated to specific goals. However, measuring radionuclides such as Pu, Am, and Sr often provides more information about the presence of a current or prior contamination and on its origin, based on the isotopic composition of the samples. We found that the analysis of &lt;sup&gt;241&lt;/sup&gt; Pu, &lt;sup&gt;239+240&lt;/sup&gt; Pu, &lt;sup&gt;241&lt;/sup&gt; Am, and &lt;sup&gt;90&lt;/sup&gt; Sr of a few selected soil samples taken near the nuclear reprocessing plant of La Hague, France, revealed the presence of a previous environmental contamination originating from several incidents in La Hague site involving atmospheric transfer and leaks in flooded waste pits. The &lt;sup&gt;241&lt;/sup&gt; Am- &lt;sup&gt;241&lt;/sup&gt; Pu dating method indicated a contamination period prior to 1983. The presence of elevated levels of light non-radioactive lanthanides and yttrium in the soil samples confirmed the involvement of cold fuel. Our results demonstrate how long-lived actinides are likely to reveal a long-term contamination of the environment by spent fuel. Our study indicates that there is a requirement to use more sophisticated tools than γ-spectrometry when surveying the environments surrounding industrial plants for nuclear power and nuclear reprocessing with a potential for the accidental release of radioactivity into the environment

    More Signatures of the Intermediate Mass Higgs Boson

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    We examine the potential signatures of the Higgs boson when it decays into a tau-lepton pair. We show that with the proper identification of the tau-jet, this decay mode can lead to the identification of the Higgs boson over most of the intermediate mass range (\mW << \mH << 2 \mW).Comment: 10 pages, LaTeX fil

    Ozone-depleting substances (ODSs) and related chemicals

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    The amended and adjusted Montreal Protocol continues to be successful at reducing emissions and atmospheric abundances of most controlled ozone-depleting substances (ODSs).Global Ozone Research and Monitoring Projec