91,409 research outputs found

    Master\u27s Project: Assessing Unpaved Road Runoff in the Mad River Watershed of Central Vermont

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    Over half of the local town roads in Vermont are unpaved (VBB, 2009). In the Mad River Watershed of central Vermont, 58% of the roads are unpaved. These compacted surfaces, despite their lack of tar, provide hundreds of miles of impermeable surfaces that extend the stream network, and transport runoff and pollutants to our water bodies. In this project, 12 sites within the Mad River watershed were monitored with the goal of evaluating the amount of runoff that is generated on the road surface itself as compared to flow that enters roadside ditches via groundwater seeps and overland flow from adjacent land. Each site was monitored for stage using an ISCO 6712 Automated Water Sampling Unit with an attached pressure transducer, and rating curves were developed from manual volume measurements in order to connect stage values with runoff volumes. Each site was mapped to determine the contributing road surface drainage area, and these values were compared to the slope of linear regressions developed for storm precipitation and runoff totals. Modeled road surface hydrographs were developed for 11 of the 12 sites, using the rational method, and were compared to hydrographs developed using measured runoff. One-quarter of the sites appear to have regular runoff contributions that originate outside of the bounds of the mapped drainage area. Five of the eleven sites also displayed seasonal variations where runoff originated outside of the mapped road surface area during times of greater land saturation. These results indicate that roads can sometimes contribute far more than just the runoff that is generated on their surface alone, and that the quantity and occurrence of these external contributions may increase with an increase in the drainage source area that can be seen in seasons when the ground is saturated

    Studies of the Habits and Development of Neocerata rhodophaga Coquillett

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    About the year 1897, in the vicinity of Chicago, Illinois, certain varieties of roses grown under glass, notably the Meteor, were attacked by great numbers of minute cecidomyian larvae which destroyed the terminal leaf and blossom buds. In the greenhouses of one extensive rose-grower, the injury was so severe as to render the production of the Meteor unprofitable, and he stopped growing it for a time, until the pest seemed to have disappeared. Strangely enough, another grower, whose houses were separated from those of the first only by a narrow alley, did not at that time suffer at all from the ravages of the insect, but continued to grow the Meteor in his rose-houses without difficulty until sometime after, when he, too, began to experience severe losses on account of its depredations. The species was not definitely determined at that time, and it is impossible in the light of later investigations to say with certainty whether or not more than one was engaged in these attacks. Since then, however, a number of extensive rose-growers about Chicago have been obliged to abandon the growing of this particular variety of rose on account of its extreme liability to attack from these larvae.Ope

    State Regulation of Tender Offers for Insurance Companies After Edgar v. Mite

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    'JSA Sanctions and Disallowances', Evidence submitted to the House of Commons Work and Pensions Committee Inquiry into the Role of Jobcentre Plus in the reformed welfare system, Second Report of Session 2013-14, Vol. II, pp. Ev w90-w101

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    This submission presents key findings to date from a critical examination of unemployment benefit sanctions and disallowances based primarily on statistical analysis. It shows that the severity of the regime has increased drastically under the Coalition and is increasing further. One fifth of JSA claimants have been sanctioned/disallowed, 4.2% per month of all claimants and 8% per month of those aged 18-24. Disallowances for ‘voluntary leaving’ and ‘losing a job through misconduct’ were previously a major component but have almost disappeared in the recession, with disallowances for (not) ‘actively seeking work’ showing a very big increase, and big increases also for non-participation in training (including the Work Programme) and non-compliance with a Jobseeker’s Direction. Severity is greater at times when it is least productive. A gap has been emerging in the treatment of white and minority ethnic groups, and disabled people are over-represented among repeat sanctions/disallowances. The reasons for these differences should be investigated. Although sanctions increase job search and exit from benefits, they cannot be justified when all their effects are considered. These include worse matches of people to jobs, lower productivity, wastefully large numbers of job applications, damage to health, families and relationships, homelessness, destitution as reflected in the rise of Food Banks, increased crime, diversion of Jobcentre resources from their proper role, and creation of a climate of fear and hostility which undermines the whole system. Sanctions, which are financial penalties intended to affect behaviour, should be abolished. Entitlement conditions have to be retained, but should be accompanied by a proper safety net for those disallowed, and an approach to influencing claimants, where justified, which is properly based on behavioural psychology, as pioneered by the Prime Minister’s ‘nudge unit’

    Geometry and categorification

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    We describe a number of geometric contexts where categorification appears naturally: coherent sheaves, constructible sheaves and sheaves of modules over quantizations. In each case, we discuss how "index formulas" allow us to easily perform categorical calculations, and readily relate classical constructions of geometric representation theory to categorical ones.Comment: 23 pages. an expository article to appear in "Perspectives on Categorification.
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