108 research outputs found

    Residents’ perceptions of environmental certification, environmental impacts and support for the world expo 2015: the moderating effect of place attachment

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    Purpose: Based on social exchange theory (SET) and signaling theory (ST), this study aims to evaluate how an event’s perceived environmental certification (PEC) by residents, affect their evaluations of environmental impacts and subsequent event support (ES). The moderating role of place attachment (PA) on some of these relationships is also evaluated. Design/methodology/approach: Using partial least square structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM), a theoretical model is tested on a sample of 450 residents who attended the 2015 Milan World Expo. Findings: PEC positively affects evaluations of positive environmental impacts (PEI) but negatively affects evaluations of negative environmental impacts (NEI). PEC positively affects ES while the relationship between PEC and NEI is moderated by PA. Research limitations/implications: Items used to measure PEC, PEI and NEI are not exhaustive. SET has its own limitations in explaining residents’ ES, which the authors have attempted to attenuate by using ST. Practical implications: Using environmental certification as a communication tool must demonstrate to residents how it reduces negative externalities, rather than focusing only on its positive community benefits. Less well-educated residents had the lowest ES, suggesting the need to use social media to increase ES. Originality/value: This study contributes to understandings of the perceptions of the benefits of event certification by residents, and how this affects their ES. PA moderates the relationship between PEC and NEI

    Sepsis in tropical regions: Report from the task force on tropical diseases by the World Federation of Societies of Intensive and Critical Care Medicine

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    Sepsis and septic shock in the tropics are caused by a wide array of organisms. These infections are encountered mainly in low and middle-income countries (LMIC) where a lack of infrastructure and medical facilities contribute to the high morbidity and mortality. Published sepsis guidelines are based on studies primarily performed in high income countries and as such recommendations may or may not be relevant to practice in the tropics. Failure to adhere to guidelines, particularly among non-intensive care specialists even in high-income countries, is an area of concern for sepsis management. Additionally, inappropriate use of antimicrobials has led to significant antimicrobial resistance. Access to rapid, low-cost, and accurate diagnostic tests is critical in countries where tropical diseases are prevalent to facilitate early diagnosis and treatment. Implementation of performance improvement programs may improve outcomes for patients with sepsis and the addition of resuscitation and treatment bundles may further reduce mortality. Associated co-morbidities such as malnutrition and HIV influence outcomes and must be considered

    The use of optically active O-alkyl ester hydrochlorides of L-phenylalanine and L-tyrosine as chiral micellar media for the catalysis of diels-alder reactions

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    The effect of a range of O-alkyl ester hydrochloride surfactants derived from L-phenylalanine and L-tyrosine as catalysts on the Diels-Alder reaction between cyclopentadiene and methyl acrylate was studied. Both chain lengths (C8-C14) and head groups of the surfactants were found to influence the yield and selectivity of the Diels-Alder product. The C10 derivatives of both phenylalanine and tyrosine surfactants gave the highest yields and selectivity. Phenylalanine ester hydrochlorides showed better catalytic activity than the tyrosine derivatives. Adduct optimum yield was obtained at a concentration relating to their critical micelle concentration (CMC) values. The Diels-Alder reaction was also found to be favored in acidic condition (pH 3) as well as in the presence of lithium chloride (LiCl) as salting out agent

    Segmenting Markets by Bagged Clustering: Young Chinese Travelers to Western Europe.

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    Market segmentation is ubiquitous in marketing. Hierarchical and nonhierarchical methods are popular for segmenting tourism markets. These methods are not without controversy. In this study, we use bagged clustering on the push and pull factors of Western Europe to segment potential young Chinese travelers. Bagged clustering overcomes some of the limitations of hierarchical and nonhierarchical methods. A sample of 403 travelers revealed the existence of four clusters of potential visitors. The clusters were subsequently profiled on sociodemographics and travel characteristics. The findings suggest a nascent young Chinese independent travel segment that cannot be distinguished on push factors but can be differentiated on perceptions of the current independent travel infrastructure in Western Europe. Managerial implications are offered on marketing and service provision to the young Chinese outbound travel market

    Understanding the Relationships between Tourists’ Emotional Experiences, Perceived Overall Image, Satisfaction, and Intention to Recommend

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    The purpose of this study is to empirically test an integrative model linking tourists' emotional experiences, perceived overall image, satisfaction, and intention to recommend. The model was tested using data collected from domestic tourists visiting Sardinia, Italy. Results show that tourists' emotional experiences act as antecedents of perceived overall image and satisfaction evaluations. In addition, overall image has a positive influence on tourist satisfaction and intention to recommend. The study expands current theorizations by examining the merits of emotions in tourist behavior models. From a practical perspective, the study offers important implications for destination marketers

    Consumer behaviour in tourism: Concepts, influences and opportunities

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    Although consumer behaviour (CB) is one of the most researched areas in the field of tourism, few extensive reviews of the body of knowledge in this area exist. This review article examines what we argue are the key concepts, external influences and opportune research contexts in contemporary tourism CB research. Using a narrative review, we examine the CB literature published in three major tourism journals from 2000 to 2012. Of 519 articles identified and reviewed, 191 are included in this article. We examine the development of and scope for future research on nine key concepts, including decision-making, values, motivations, self-concept and personality, expectations, attitudes, perceptions, satisfaction, trust and loyalty. We then examine three important external influences on tourism behaviour, technology, Generation Y and the rise in concern over ethical consumption. Finally, we identify and discuss five research contexts that represent major areas for future scholarship: group and joint decision-making, under-researched segments, cross-cultural issues in emerging markets, emotions and consumer misbehaviour. Our examination of key research gaps is concluded by arguing that the hedonic and affective aspects of CB research in tourism must be brought to bear on the wider CB and marketing literature

    Explaining effervescence: Investigating the relationship between shared social identity and positive experience in crowds

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    We investigated the intensely positive emotional experiences arising from participation in a large-scale collective event. We predicted such experiences arise when those attending a collective event are (1) able to enact their valued collective identity and (2) experience close relations with other participants. In turn, we predicted both of these to be more likely when participants perceived crowd members to share a common collective identity. We investigated these predictions in a survey of pilgrims (N = 416) attending a month-long Hindu pilgrimage festival in north India. We found participants’ perceptions of a shared identity amongst crowd members had an indirect effect on their positive experience at the event through (1) increasing participants’ sense that they were able to enact their collective identity and (2) increasing the sense of intimacy with other crowd members. We discuss the implications of these data for how crowd emotion should be conceptualised

    Mediating Effects of Place Attachment and Satisfaction on the Relationship between Tourists’ Emotions and Intention to Recommend

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    This study develops a model based on the developmental theory of place attachment. The model considers the influence of tourists’ emotions on place attachment and the mediating effects of satisfaction and place attachment on the relationship between tourists’ emotions and intention to recommend. The model was tested using data collected from 464 international tourists at the end of their trip to Thailand. Results show that positive emotions, negative emotions and satisfaction are significant determinants of place attachment. In particular, negative emotions display a positive relationship with place attachment. In addition, only satisfaction mediates the relationship between tourists’ emotions and intention to recommend. Findings highlight the need for researchers to incorporate emotions in modeling place attachment and offer implications for marketers promoting Thailand as a tourist destination

    Authenticity and place attachment of major visitor attractions

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    This paper aims to explore the relationships between place attachment and perceived authenticity of major visitor attractions. The empirical study was conducted with a sample of international tourists to major visitor attractions in two capital cities, Helsinki, Finland and Jerusalem, Israel. The results indicate a positive correlation between place attachment and authenticity. Major visitor attractions located in places with considerable heritage experience value are considered more authentic, and that authenticity of visitor attractions is influenced by place attachment moderated by iconicity and heritage value of the destination region. These findings provide insight to the ways tourists perceive authenticity of visitor attractions and highlight the importance of the heritage value of tourism destinations for strategic planning and marketing purposes
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