6,195 research outputs found

    Southern Cosmology Survey I: Optical Cluster Detections and Predictions for the Southern Common-Area Millimeter-Wave Experiments

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    We present first results from the Southern Cosmology Survey, a new multiwavelength survey of the southern sky coordinated with the Atacama Cosmology Telescope (ACT), a recently commissioned ground-based mm-band Cosmic Microwave Background experiment. This article presents a full analysis of archival optical multi-band imaging data covering an 8 square degree region near right ascension 23 hours and declination -55 degrees, obtained by the Blanco 4-m telescope and Mosaic-II camera in late 2005. We describe the pipeline we have developed to process this large data volume, obtain accurate photometric redshifts, and detect optical clusters. Our cluster finding process uses the combination of a matched spatial filter, photometric redshift probability distributions and richness estimation. We present photometric redshifts, richness estimates, luminosities, and masses for 8 new optically-selected clusters with mass greater than 3\times10^{14}M_{\sun} at redshifts out to 0.7. We also present estimates for the expected Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect (SZE) signal from these clusters as specific predictions for upcoming observations by ACT, the South Pole Telescope and Atacama Pathfinder Experiment.Comment: 12 pages, 8 figures, accepted in ApJ. Reflects changes from referee as well as a new Table providing mass estimates and positions for all clusters in the surve

    Pseudo-random number generators for Monte Carlo simulations on Graphics Processing Units

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    Basic uniform pseudo-random number generators are implemented on ATI Graphics Processing Units (GPU). The performance results of the realized generators (multiplicative linear congruential (GGL), XOR-shift (XOR128), RANECU, RANMAR, RANLUX and Mersenne Twister (MT19937)) on CPU and GPU are discussed. The obtained speed-up factor is hundreds of times in comparison with CPU. RANLUX generator is found to be the most appropriate for using on GPU in Monte Carlo simulations. The brief review of the pseudo-random number generators used in modern software packages for Monte Carlo simulations in high-energy physics is present.Comment: 31 pages, 9 figures, 3 table

    Cross-correlation Weak Lensing of SDSS galaxy Clusters II: Cluster Density Profiles and the Mass--Richness Relation

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    We interpret and model the statistical weak lensing measurements around 130,000 groups and clusters of galaxies in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey presented by Sheldon et al. 2007 (Paper I). We present non-parametric inversions of the 2D shear profiles to the mean 3D cluster density and mass profiles in bins of both optical richness and cluster i-band luminosity. We correct the inferred 3D profiles for systematic effects, including non-linear shear and the fact that cluster halos are not all precisely centered on their brightest galaxies. We also model the measured cluster shear profile as a sum of contributions from the brightest central galaxy, the cluster dark matter halo, and neighboring halos. We infer the relations between mean cluster virial mass and optical richness and luminosity over two orders of magnitude in cluster mass; the virial mass at fixed richness or luminosity is determined with a precision of 13% including both statistical and systematic errors. We also constrain the halo concentration parameter and halo bias as a function of cluster mass; both are in good agreement with predictions of LCDM models. The methods employed here will be applicable to deeper, wide-area optical surveys that aim to constrain the nature of the dark energy, such as the Dark Energy Survey, the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope and space-based surveys

    Cross-correlation Weak Lensing of SDSS Galaxy Clusters I: Measurements

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    This is the first in a series of papers on the weak lensing effect caused by clusters of galaxies in Sloan Digital Sky Survey. The photometrically selected cluster sample, known as MaxBCG, includes ~130,000 objects between redshift 0.1 and 0.3, ranging in size from small groups to massive clusters. We split the clusters into bins of richness and luminosity and stack the surface density contrast to produce mean radial profiles. The mean profiles are detected over a range of scales, from the inner halo (25 kpc/h) well into the surrounding large scale structure (30 Mpc/h), with a significance of 15 to 20 in each bin. The signal over this large range of scales is best interpreted in terms of the cluster-mass cross-correlation function. We pay careful attention to sources of systematic error, correcting for them where possible. The resulting signals are calibrated to the ~10% level, with the dominant remaining uncertainty being the redshift distribution of the background sources. We find that the profiles scale strongly with richness and luminosity. We find the signal within a given richness bin depends upon luminosity, suggesting that luminosity is more closely correlated with mass than galaxy counts. We split the samples by redshift but detect no significant evolution. The profiles are not well described by power laws. In a subsequent series of papers we invert the profiles to three-dimensional mass profiles, show that they are well fit by a halo model description, measure mass-to-light ratios and provide a cosmological interpretation.Comment: Paper I in a series; v2.0 includes ApJ referee's suggestion

    Southern Cosmology Survey II: Massive Optically-Selected Clusters from 70 square degrees of the SZE Common Survey Area

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    We present a catalog of 105 rich and massive (M>3\times10^{14}M_{\sun}) optically-selected clusters of galaxies extracted from 70 square-degrees of public archival griz imaging from the Blanco 4-m telescope acquired over 45 nights between 2005 and 2007. We use the clusters' optically-derived properties to estimate photometric redshifts, optical luminosities, richness, and masses. We complement the optical measurements with archival XMM-Newton and ROSAT X-ray data which provide additional luminosity and mass constraints on a modest fraction of the cluster sample. Two of our clusters show clear evidence for central lensing arcs; one of these has a spectacular large-diameter, nearly-complete Einstein Ring surrounding the brightest cluster galaxy. A strong motivation for this study is to identify the massive clusters that are expected to display prominent signals from the Sunyaev-Zeldovich Effect (SZE) and therefore be detected in the wide-area mm-band surveys being conducted by both the Atacama Cosmology Telescope and the South Pole Telescope. The optical sample presented here will be useful for verifying new SZE cluster candidates from these surveys, for testing the cluster selection function, and for stacking analyzes of the SZE data.Comment: 13 pages, 7 Figures. Accepted for publication to ApJSS. Full resolution plots and additional material available at http://peumo.rutgers.edu/~felipe/e-prints

    The contributions of matter inside and outside of haloes to the matter power spectrum

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    Halo-based models have been successful in predicting the clustering of matter. However, the validity of the postulate that the clustering is fully determined by matter inside haloes remains largely untested, and it is not clear a priori whether non-virialised matter might contribute significantly to the non-linear clustering signal. Here, we investigate the contribution of haloes to the matter power spectrum as a function of both scale and halo mass by combining a set of cosmological N-body simulations to calculate the contributions of different spherical overdensity regions, Friends-of-Friends (FoF) groups and matter outside haloes to the power spectrum. We find that matter inside spherical overdensity regions of size R200,mean cannot account for all power for 1<k<100 h/Mpc, regardless of the minimum halo mass. At most, it accounts for 95% of the power (k>20 h/Mpc). For 2<k<10 h/Mpc, haloes with mass M200,mean<10^11 Msun/h contribute negligibly to the power spectrum, and our results appear to be converged with decreasing halo mass. When haloes are taken to be regions of size R200,crit, the amount of power unaccounted for is larger on all scales. Accounting also for matter inside FoF groups but outside R200,mean increases the contribution of halo matter on most scales probed here by 5-15%. Matter inside FoF groups with M200,mean>10^9 Msun/h accounts for essentially all power for 3<k<100 h/Mpc. We therefore expect halo models that ignore the contribution of matter outside R200,mean to overestimate the contribution of haloes of any mass to the power on small scales (k>1 h/Mpc).Comment: 13 pages, 9 figures. Replaced to match the version accepted by MNRA

    Formation of conjugated linoleic acid by a Lactobacillus plantarum strain isolated from an artisanal cheese: evaluation in miniature cheeses

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    Among 129 lactic acid bacteria previously isolated from raw-milk starter-free cheeses manufactured in Galicia (NW Spain), two strains of Lactobacillus plantarum were definitely recognised as producers of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA). Gas chromatography analysis identified cis-9, trans-11 C18:2 as the predominant CLA isomer formed in MRS broth supplemented with linoleic acid. A centrifugation-based model for the manufacture of miniature cheeses was used to evaluate the formation of CLA by Lb. plantarum L200, the highest producer of CLA in MRS broth. The miniature cheeses made with the addition of the L200 strain showed significantly (P < 0.05) higher contents of cis-9, trans-11 CLA than those of the control cheeses (1.09 versus 0.69 percentage of total fatty acids, respectively). These results suggest that Lb. plantarum L200 strain could be used as an adjunct culture to slightly increase the concentrations of CLA in short-ripened cows' milk cheeses.Ministerio de Ciencia e Innovación | Ref. RTA2008-00117-00-0

    Cross-correlation Weak Lensing of SDSS Galaxy Clusters III: Mass-to-light Ratios

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    We present measurements of the excess mass-to-light ratio measured aroundMaxBCG galaxy clusters observed in the SDSS. This red sequence cluster sample includes objects from small groups with masses ranging from ~5x10^{12} to ~10^{15} M_{sun}/h. Using cross-correlation weak lensing, we measure the excess mass density profile above the universal mean \Delta \rho(r) = \rho(r) - \bar{\rho} for clusters in bins of richness and optical luminosity. We also measure the excess luminosity density \Delta l(r) = l(r) - \bar{l} measured in the z=0.25 i-band. For both mass and light, we de-project the profiles to produce 3D mass and light profiles over scales from 25 kpc/ to 22 Mpc/h. From these profiles we calculate the cumulative excess mass M(r) and excess light L(r) as a function of separation from the BCG. On small scales, where \rho(r) >> \bar{\rho}, the integrated mass-to-light profile may be interpreted as the cluster mass-to-light ratio. We find the M/L_{200}, the mass-to-light ratio within r_{200}, scales with cluster mass as a power law with index 0.33+/-0.02. On large scales, where \rho(r) ~ \bar{\rho}, the M/L approaches an asymptotic value independent of cluster richness. For small groups, the mean M/L_{200} is much smaller than the asymptotic value, while for large clusters it is consistent with the asymptotic value. This asymptotic value should be proportional to the mean mass-to-light ratio of the universe . We find /b^2_{ml} = 362+/-54 h (statistical). There is additional uncertainty in the overall calibration at the ~10% level. The parameter b_{ml} is primarily a function of the bias of the L <~ L_* galaxies used as light tracers, and should be of order unity. Multiplying by the luminosity density in the same bandpass we find \Omega_m/b^2_{ml} = 0.02+/-0.03, independent of the Hubble parameter.Comment: Third paper in a series; v2.0 incorporates ApJ referee's suggestion
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