131,476 research outputs found

    Mediating Blackness: Afro Puerto Rican Women and Popular Culture

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    In my dissertation I discuss how blackness, femaleness and Puerto Ricanness (national identity) is presented in commercial media in Puerto Rico. National identity, no matter how differently defined, is often constructed through claims to heritage, "roots," tradition, and descent. In the western world, these claims, almost inevitably allude to questions of "race." In Puerto Rico, it is the mixture of the Spanish, the Taíno Indian, and the African, which come to epitomize the racial/traditional stock out of which "the nation" is constructed, defended, and naturalized. This mixture is often represented by images, statues, murals across the island that display the three racialized representatives, as the predecessors of the modern, racially mixed Puerto Rican people. In their portrayals of black women, figures as Mama Inés (the mammy) and fritoleras (women who cook and sell codfish fritters), Caribbean Negras (Black Caribbean women) contemporary media draw upon familiar representations to make black women bodies intelligible to Puerto Rican audiences. In this dissertation I argue that black women are challenging these images as sites for mediating blackness, femaleness, and Puerto Ricanness where hegemony and resistance are dialectical. I integrate a text-based analysis of media images with an audience ethnographic study to fully explore these processes of racial and gender representation. Ultimately, my project is to detail the ways in which Black women respond to folklorized representations and mediate their Blackness by adopting the cultural identity of Trigueñidad in order to establish a respectful place for themselves within the Puerto Rican national identity. The contributions from the participants of my audience ethnography, as well as my own experiences as a Trigueña woman, demonstrate how Black women are contesting local representations and practices that have folklorized their bodies. The women who form part of this study also responded to the pressures of a nation whose official stance is that race and racism do not exist. In addition, I present global and local forces␣and in particular commercial media␣as means for creating contemporary Black identities that speak to a global economy. By placing media images in dialogue with the lived experiences of Black-Puerto Rican women, my research addresses the multiple ways in which Black identities are (re)constituted vis-à-vis these forces.U of I OnlyU of I Access extension requested by author and approved by Thesis Office

    "Painting with faces": The casting director in American theatre, cinema, and television

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    In Casting By (2012), HBO’s documentary on the casting director, Martin Scorsese praises his close working relationship with his casting director. “More than 90% of directing” he asserts, “is the right casting.” Taking as its starting point that the casting director is, as Scorsese’s enthusiasm reveals, a vital but often unrecognized part of the production team, “‘Painting with Faces’: The Casting Director in American Theatre, Cinema, and Television” offers the first extended scholarly analysis of the profession. This comparative history broadens the concept of what constitutes a decision-maker in three major culture industries by arguing that casting directors, often devalued as feminized clerical labor, exercise more control over the creative and economic aspects of production than we usually acknowledge. Chapter one, “The Pre-Professional Casting Director,” offers a pre-history of the theatrical casting processes to explain how and why the professions of casting director and talent scout emerged in the twentieth century. Examining how casting operated throughout different epochs and in diverse production practices (particularly the medieval cycle plays, the English early modern theatres, and the American stock companies), I contend that those who took on the functions of proto-casting director were, contrary to today’s perception of the casting director as “below-the-line” labor, usually the production’s most important creative personnel. Turning to the twentieth century, chapter two, “The Company Casting Director,” argues that in-house casting employees working during the golden age of Broadway, classical Hollywood, and early television eras exerted more creative influence within their respective companies than industrial scholarship allows. Seen as what one film historian calls “low-level decision-makers,” casting directors rarely figure in industry studies because these analyses typically focus on directors or producers. Archival documents such as memoirs, memos, and casting idea lists indicate, however, that casting personnel were not simply clerical workers, but, rather, by contributing to hiring decisions, among those who helped shape their respective companies’ aesthetic vision. My project’s third chapter, “The Independent Casting Director,” brings women into the historical record by explaining the rise of the female casting director and the concomitant gendering of the profession. The chapter’s first half argues that examining the major entertainment industries concurrently reveals that media scholars have profoundly misunderstood the rise of female labor in entertainment occupations such as casting. By focusing on Los Angeles and the classical Hollywood studio system, critics ignored the more permeable divisions of labor that existed in New York-based theatre and early television. The looser organizational structure of these two industries allowed women to pursue entertainment careers and produce culture on the east coast in ways they could not on the west. Also concentrating on gender, the latter half of this chapter contends that the disproportionate number of women who entered casting in the 1960s-70s led scholars, journalists, and industry professionals to devalue the profession by associating it with stereotypically feminine traits. Arlie Russell Hochschild’s theories of “emotional labor” and Vicki Mayer’s media scholarship on “nurturing,” accommodating feminized workers apply to common observations about casting directors. Whether or not casting is a service profession, certainly casting directors (male and female) perceive it as such and often use feminized language to describe what they do. Yet casting requires skills typically seen as masculine, which many industry studies theorists argue the role of decision-maker demands. For example, with production funding increasingly scarce in today’s weak economic climate, casting directors often serve as de facto producers by attaching talent to theatre and film projects to secure the necessary financing. The funding for the Oscar-winning Crash (Haggis, 2004) was cast-contingent, and that movie’s casting directors, Sarah Halley Finn and Randi Hiller, received credit for getting the film made. Chapter four, “The Digital-Age Casting Director,” explores the digital revolution’s impact on today’s casting practices. As I trace casting offices’ increased use of digital media to locate and audition actors, I argue that digital devices give casting directors more control over the decision-making process. Digital cameras and video-sharing websites, for example, allow casting directors to edit most auditions and regulate the content upon which many hiring decisions are now based. My work on casting culminates by examining the digital era’s implications for casting’s future. I contend that even those digital special effects such as vactors that could potentially limit the casting director’s creative input are unlikely to do so as most CG-manipulated characters are still modeled on live performers.U of I OnlyU of I Only Extension request made by author via Graduate Colleg

    Fuentes externas de información para el desarrollo de innovaciones: un análisis de la evidencia en Europa y España

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    p. 181-238La creciente complejidad y dinamismo que caracterizan los entornos actuales han obligado a las empresas a complementar su base interna de conocimientos con otros procedentes del exterior. Así, entre las diversas alternativas existentes, la cooperación con clientes y usuarios en materia de innovación se perfila como una de las más importantes fuentes de ideas innovadoras. Por este motivo, el presente trabajo profundiza en el análisis de distintas fuentes de información utilizadas por empresas europeas y españolas para el desarrollo de innovaciones, resaltando la importancia de las aportaciones realizadas por estos agentes. La investigación se completa con un estudio empírico en el que se compara la influencia de cuatro tipos de cooperación (con clientes, proveedores, universidades y expertos/ firmas consultoras) sobre la intensidad de la actividad innovadora en un conjunto de veinte sectores productivos españoles. De él se desprende que la colaboración con clientes para el desarrollo de innovaciones incide significativamente sobre dicha intensidad y que es un buen indicador de la importancia que la organización otorga a estas actividades.S

    Crime and Prejudice: Ming Criminal Justice as Seen in 16th Century Spanish Sources

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    胡安•冈萨雷斯•德•门多萨于1585年出版的 《中华大帝国史》第一次以西班牙语和葡萄 牙语全面整理了有关中国的记述。该书正面 记录了中国明朝司法制度,并探讨了这些司 法制度与当代西班牙和墨西哥司法制度之间 的巨大差别。其中包括对法律和公共框架的 曲解,公众对证人的质疑,多层面不同形式 的惩罚,经济上的惩罚以及死刑的场景。作 者在书中强调通过奖励和惩罚双重方式对各 级官员、下属大臣进行严格控制,以保证对 各级官员的选拔任用标准,这一点也曾在蒙 田对明代官员的评价中得到过体现。此外, 胡安•冈萨雷斯•德•门多萨还十分崇敬守护印 第安人的拉斯卡萨斯,他决定从他的文献中 删掉那些为对抗中国而向强硬派提供的所谓 正当权利的论辩,如洛阿尔卡所目睹的邪恶 和杜拉埃尼亚所描述的死刑等。 González de Mendoza’s book on China, published in 1585, compiled all the first narratives about China, both Portuguese and Spanish. It contains a highly positive account of Ming criminal justice in which he emphasizes those elements of Chinese justice that deeply contrasts with Spanish and Mexican practices: the legal and public frame of torture, the public questioning of witnesses, the multilayered revisions of penalties, the public placing of the monetary fines, and the mise en scène of the death penalty. He insistently highlights the strict control upon every layer of officers and inferior ministers through a double procedure of rewards and punishments that guarantees the high standing of Chinese officials, an appraisal that Montaigne would pick up in his extremely rare allusions to China. At the same time, González de Mendoza, a thorough admirer of father Las Casas, the defender of Indians, decided to omit from his sources those elements that could provide the hardliners with arguments, the just title, to confront China, such as the nefandous sin witnessed by Loarca and the death by a thousand cuts described by Dueñas

    Review of the Concept of wu wei (无为): Its Relationship with Anarchism and Soft Power

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    本文通过对中国文学的不同古典文本的 分析,旨在对“无为”的道教观念进行梳 理,并将其作为道教的政治观念与当前无政 府主义的关系进行近似化。文章讨论了道教 态度和基本行为与领导之间的关系,以及今 天管理国际关系的软实力观念。了解和内 化“无为”领导的定义和原则,可以帮助社 会形成更好的面对冲突的领导者:用更多的 思考和耐心,通过道教领导管理力量和软实 力,来获得世界的平衡与和谐。 Through the analysis of different classical texts of Chinese literature, this article aims to carry out a review of the Taoist concept of wu wei and to make an approximation to the relationship between Taoism’s political conception and current anarchism. The article discusses, also from this review, the links between basic behavior and Taoist attitude and leadership and the concept of soft power that govern international relations today. Getting to understand and internalize the definition and principles of leadership wu wei, could help society to form leaders who face and manage conflicts better: with more reflection and patience and achieve, with a Taoist leadership management, of its strength and of its soft power, a more balanced and harmonious world

    Application of lactic acid bacteria for the biopreservation of meat products: A systematic review

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    .The increasing concern of consumers about food quality and safety and their rejection of chemical additives has promoted the breakthrough of the biopreservation field and the development of studies on the use of beneficial bacteria and their metabolites as potential natural antimicrobials for shelf life extension and enhanced food safety. Control of foodborne pathogens in meat and meat products represents a serious challenge for the food industry which can be addressed through the intelligent use of bio-compounds or biopreservatives. This article aims to systematically review the available knowledge about biological strategies based on the use of lactic acid bacteria to control the proliferation of undesirable microorganisms in different meat products. The outcome of the literature search evidenced the potential of several strains of lactic acid bacteria and their purified or semi-purified antimicrobial metabolites as biopreservatives in meat products for achieving longer shelf life or inhibiting spoilage and pathogenic bacteria, especially when combined with other technologies to achieve a synergistic effect.S

    Absurdos digitales: una serie de podcast sobre redes sociales y cultura política contemporánea

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    Trabajo Final para optar al grado académico de Licenciatura en Comunicación Social, Universidad Nacional de Córdoba (inédita). Calificación: 10 (diez) Orientación radiofónica“Absurdos Digitales: Un podcast sobre redes sociales y cultura política contemporánea” es un producto sonoro presentado en formato podcast como propuesta de trabajo final para la Licenciatura en Comunicación Social. Este trabajo tiene como objetivo generar una reflexión en torno a los nuevos repertorios de acción política en redes sociales y a las modalidades que adopta el debate público en el espacio digital. Para ello, nos centramos en el análisis de dos fenómenos de la cultura digital que canalizan discursos políticos en redes sociales: los memes y las fake news. La producción cuenta con dos piezas sonoras que corresponden a los primeros episodios de la serie y abordan respectivamente el uso político de los memes y el empleo estratégico de las fake news como elementos constitutivos de la comunicación política. El análisis toma como referencia los principales discursos y eventos que conciernen a la política nacional e internacional de la última década (2010-2020), a los fines de ejemplificar lo expuesto con una realidad actual. Esta propuesta parte de una premisa en torno a la consolidación de las redes sociales como espacio público de encuentro y debate ciudadano y de la inquietud por abordar los desafíos que transitamos como sujetos políticos frente al desarrollo de las tecnologías de comunicación e información. El producto es el resultado de una instancia de relevamiento teórico, un trabajo de recolección de información mediante entrevistas y un proceso de producción y diseño sonoro. Es una iniciativa que propone aportar a la comprensión de nuestras prácticas digitales cotidianas como actos políticos transformadores, a los fines de construir herramientas para mejorar nuestra experiencia como usuarios de redes sociales y enriquecer nuestra participación en espacio público digital. Por último, nos proponemos utilizar la diversidad de recursos sonoros y radiales existentes y atender a la potencialidad expresiva de lo sonoro para generar un producto atractivo y entretenido a la escucha, capaz de interpelar a una audiencia usuaria de redes sociales.Fil: Hernández Mazzola, Diego Ernesto. Universidad Nacional de Córdoba. Facultad de Ciencias de la Comunicación; Argentina.Fil: Stejman, Debora. Universidad Nacional de Córdoba. Facultad de Ciencias de la Comunicación; Argentina

    Sponsorship image and value creation in E-sports

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    .E-sports games can drive the sports industry forward and sponsorship is the best way to engage consumers of this new sport. The purpose of this study is to examine the effect of sponsorship image and consumer participation in co-creation consumption activities on fans’ sponsorship response (represented by the variables interest, purchase intention and word of mouth) in e-sports. Four antecedent variables build sponsorship image (i.e., ubiquity of sport, sincerity of sponsor, attitude to sponsor and team identification). A quantitative approach is used for the purposes of this study. Some 445 questionnaires were filled in by fans who watch e-sports in Spain; these are analyzed using partial least squares structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM). The outcomes show that sponsor antecedents are crucial factors if a sponsor wants to change their sponsorship image and influence sponsorship response, and that it is also possible to use participation to improve responsesS

    Relaciones sociales y creatividad en la empresa: la importancia de la calidad de las interacciones del empleado con su entorno más cercano

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    pp. 1-16La creatividad se está convirtiendo en un fenómeno de especial importancia para las organizaciones. Por ello, existe un interés creciente por comprender cuáles son los factores responsables del rendimiento creativo en los entornos laborales. A pesar de ello, todavía existen lagunas importantes en la literatura sobre la influencia del liderazgo y del comportamiento de los grupos en la creatividad. Con el fin de aportar nueva evidencia empírica al respecto, el objetivo del presente trabajo consiste en analizar cómo influyen las relaciones de intercambio que mantiene el empleado con su superior inmediato y con su grupo de trabajo en la creatividad que pone de manifiesto.S

    Interactive Sonic Environments: Sonic artwork via gameplay experience

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    The purpose of this study is to investigate the use of video-game technology in the design and implementation of interactive sonic centric artworks, the purpose of which is to create and contribute to the discourse and understanding of its effectiveness in electro-acoustic composition highlighting the creative process. Key research questions include: How can the language of electro-acoustic music be placed in a new framework derived from videogame aesthetics and technology? What new creative processes need to be considered when using this medium? Moreover, what aspects of 'play' should be considered when designing the systems? The findings of this study assert that composers and sonic art practitioners need little or no coding knowledge to create exciting applications and the myriad of options available to the composer when using video-game technology is limited only by imagination. Through a cyclic process of planning, building, testing and playing these applications the project revealed advantages and unique sonic opportunities in comparison to other sonic art installations. A portfolio of selected original compositions, both fixed and open are presented by the author to complement this study. The commentary serves to place the work in context with other practitioners in the field and to provide compositional approaches that have been taken