62,496 research outputs found

    Big Ideas for Small Business Report

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    Big Ideas for Small Business is a national peer network led by the National League of Cities (NLC) that aims to accelerate efforts by local governments to support small businesses and encourage entrepreneurship.  This direct peer-to-peer engagement expands the capacity of city staff to explore common challenges, share proven strategies, and collaborate on new approaches for creating a more business-friendly city.  The Big Ideas for Small Business toolkit discusses important strategies for how local leaders can be better advocates for small businesses. Our report provides guidance on creating ecosystems that support small business growth; reorganizing city resources to better meet the needs of small businesses; and providing business owners with access to new sources of capital. Specific strategies highlighted in this report explain how to:Connect Small Businesses to Information and ResourcesEstablish a Small Business Resource Center Advocate for Small Businesses via Community-Led Councils or CommitteesProactively Engage the Local Business CommunityProvide Platforms for NetworkingCreate Incubator SpacesCelebrate Successful BusinessesDevelop One-Stop-Shops and Express Lanes at City Hall Streamline City Regulations and the Inspection ProcessHelp Small Businesses Build a Web PresenceSupport Microlending and CrowdfundingEncourage Local Small Businesses to Bid for City Contracts

    Livelihoods impacts of carbon sequestration

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    To Lansing

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    The Refugee Status: Challenge and Response

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    Preventing Falls in the Elderly

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    Falls are the leading cause of fatal and non-fatal injuries for older Americans, leading to 27,000 deaths every year and almost 3 million emergency room visits. Many view falls as just part of getting older; however fall risk can be significantly diminished through appropriate screening, education and community programs. Through literature review and talking to members of the local community, I learned about how fall risk is assessed along with what education and programs are provided for those at increased risk of falling. This project sought to educate patients about simple steps that can be made to decrease their fall risk and to educate providers about screening tools available to assess fall risk and how to work with patients who have an increased risk of falling.https://scholarworks.uvm.edu/fmclerk/1294/thumbnail.jp

    Cortical Bone Ontogeny: Activity, Nutritional Stress and Archaeology

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    This poster introduces the idea that femoral compact bone growth and development demonstrates a very different pattern among infants and children in a contemporary sample of well-nourished active children versus archaeological samples of stressed, malnourished children

    The Refugee Status: Challenge and Response

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    What do executives do, and how do their actions impact on the company’s results? Questions such as these are constantly targeted in leadership research. Despite thousands of reports in the field, there is no consensus on what the concept of leadership entails. Nor can companies and organisations be said to have a clear idea of what executives actually do. Nevertheless, the investments in leadership development seem to indicate that executives are considered vital to the company’s results. The vague notions about what executive work entails, together with assumptions concerning their importance to the company or organisation, lend a certain magical aura to their work. In this study, executives are regarded as a professional category, and are consequently examined with a qualitative method whereby the professionals begin by reflecting in writing on their skills, and then take part in a group discussion on their skills based on their written reflections. This method, known as the dialogue seminar method, has been used on other professional categories with good results. Since executives have not previously been studied in terms of their skills, the results have been compared to leadership research. Leadership studies with a gender perspective have shown that gender impacts on the likelihood of obtaining and practising executive positions and skills. Therefore, the results of this study have also been analysed from a gender perspective. The skills of executives and other staff are described as the capacity to follow rules, i.e. interpreting rules and then applying them in concrete situations. A rule says nothing about how it should be followed, however. If the way in which a rule should be followed were to be described in a rule, another rule would be needed to describe how that rule should be followed, and so on, ad infinitum. Thus, rules must be interpreted as something that requires access to an “archive” of examples. One specific executive skill consists of developing co-workers’ rule-following skills. For executives, following the rules involves making decisions based on tacit knowledge. Tacit knowledge, in turn, is based on an inner vision of what is taking place right now in the organisation, and what is crucial to customers, employees, the organisation and the world at large. It also includes understanding people’s urges, thoughts, needs, wishes, and what they are saying. Tacit knowledge develops in the interplay between reflecting over examples and taking strategic action. Decision-making situations can often be unclear and contradictory. Therefore the executive’s skills must include the ability to handle uncertainty in three different ways. The first is by being honest about the fact that all decisions cannot be made, and that some decisions take time. The second is explaining to employees that an organisation cannot be entirely regulated by guidelines, and that judgement in the form of reflected experience is therefore a crucial element in all action. The third is coping with the fact that an executive position does not automatically entail being able to make the right decision. Thus, the executive must accommodate uncertainty in the world at large, the employees’ uncertainty, and his or her own uncertainty. Empirical analysis also highlights another aspect of executive skills. Executives need to be fast, not merely in the sense of having a high work capacity, but in the sense of never saying no or questioning deliveries. Above all, comparisons with leadership research reveal differences in the interpretation of empirical data. The way in which executives follow rules, for instance, is also described in research on leadership, but only as a phenomenon linked with unusual situations, as when executives need to take emergency action in unforeseen circumstances, or make decisions in cases that are not covered by the general rules, rather than as a day-to-day occurrence. Similarly, there is a difference in perspectives on handling uncertainty. In leadership research, this is described as the executive dealing with something that has gone wrong and putting it right. In the study at hand, the concept is expanded, to demonstrate that the executive’s actions can involve accommodating the worries that this uncertainty breeds within the organisation. Empirical data do not show any differences in the descriptions of the executive skills of women and men. Women and men practise these executive skills similarly. Men’s tendency to identify themselves with senior management, however, is interpreted as a sign of homosocial structures in the organisation. The fact that men are more ambivalent than women faced with the opportunity and responsibility of promoting change consequently indicates that admittance into a homosocial structure restricts their freedom of action. There is a difference, however, between the executive skills of women and men in that women, unlike men, have to relate to the issue of their own gender. Their approach to this can vary between two leadership discourses; one that is gender-neutral, and one where gender is significant. Women’s knowledge of how gender is constructed in organisations, in leadership and in other structures and processes, is thus included in the tacit knowledge that comprises their skills. Keywords: executive, manager, management, leadership, gender, skills, tacit knowledge, follow rules, breaking rules, rules, decision-making, accommodate uncertainty, homosocial structures.Vad en chef gör och vilken betydelse chefens agerande har för företagets resultat Ă€r frĂ„gor som stĂ€ndigt sysselsĂ€tter ledarskapsforskare. Men trots mĂ„nga tusen studier finns det inom forskningen inte nĂ„gon gemensam uppfattning om vad begreppet ledarskap innebĂ€r. Inte heller inom företag och organisationer finns nĂ„gon tydlig bild av vad chefer egentligen gör. DĂ€remot visar till exempel satsningar pĂ„ ledarutveckling att cheferna uppfattas som mycket viktiga för företagets resultat. Otydligheten i vad chefers arbete innebĂ€r tillsammans med förestĂ€llningen om chefens betydelse för företag och organisationer resulterar i att bilden av chefers arbete fĂ„r inslag av magi. I den hĂ€r studien ses chefskap som ett yrke och undersöks dĂ€rför med en kvalitativ metod som innebĂ€r att yrkesutövare först skriftligt reflekterar över sitt yrkeskunnande och sedan i grupp diskuterar yrkeskunnandet utifrĂ„n de skriftliga reflektionerna. Metoden som kallas dialogseminariemetoden har anvĂ€nts i andra yrkesgrupper Ă€n chefer med goda resultat. Eftersom chefers yrkeskunnande inte tidigare undersökts som yrkeskunnande har resultaten jĂ€mförts med ledarskapsforskning. Att kön har betydelse för förutsĂ€ttningarna att fĂ„ och att utöva chefskap visas i ledarskapsforskning med könsperspektiv. DĂ€rför har Ă€ven studiens resultat analyserats ur detta forskningsperspektiv. Yrkeskunnande för sĂ„vĂ€l chefer som medarbetare beskrivs som regelföljande det vill sĂ€ga att tolka regler och dĂ€refter agera i en konkret situation. En regel sĂ€ger ingenting om hur den ska följas. Om följandet av en regel skulle beskrivas i en regel skulle följandet av denna regel behöva beskrivas i en regel och sĂ„ vidare i all oĂ€ndlighet. IstĂ€llet mĂ„ste regler tolkas nĂ„got som krĂ€ver tillgĂ„ng till ett ”bibliotek” av exempel. Ett specifikt yrkeskunnande för chefer Ă€r att utveckla medarbetarnas yrkeskunnande i form av regelföljande. För chefer innebĂ€r regelföljande att fatta beslut utifrĂ„n tyst kunskap. Den tysta kunskapen bygger pĂ„ en inre bild av vad som hĂ€nder just nu i verksamheten och Ă€r viktigt för kunder, medarbetare, organisation och omvĂ€rld. Samt en förstĂ„else för vad mĂ€nniskor drivs av, tĂ€nker, behöver, önskar och sĂ€ger. Den tysta kunskapen byggs upp i ett vĂ€xelspel mellan reflektion över exempel och ett strategiskt agerande. Ofta Ă€r beslutssituationerna otydliga och motstridiga. Det innebĂ€r att chefens yrkeskunnande innebĂ€r att hĂ€rbĂ€rgera osĂ€kerhet pĂ„ tre olika sĂ€tt. Det första genom att stĂ„ för att alla beslut inte kan fattas och att vissa inte kan fattas snabbt. Det andra genom att tydliggöra för medarbetarna att verksamheten inte gĂ„r att fullt ut styra med regelverk och att omdöme i form av reflekterad erfarenhet dĂ€rför Ă€r en viktig del i allt handlande. Det tredje genom att hantera insikten om att chefspositionen inte automatiskt innebĂ€r att det gĂ„r att fatta rĂ€tt beslut. Chefen hĂ€rbĂ€rgerar sĂ„ledes omvĂ€rldens osĂ€kerhet, medarbetarnas osĂ€kerhet och den egna osĂ€kerheten. I analys av empirin framkommer ocksĂ„ en annan aspekt av chefers yrkeskunnande. Chefer mĂ„ste vara snabba, inte bara i betydelsen att ha hög arbetskapacitet utan ocksĂ„ som att aldrig sĂ€ga nej till eller ifrĂ„gasĂ€tta leveranser. JĂ€mförelsen med ledarskapsforskning visar framför allt pĂ„ skillnader i tolkningen av empirin. Chefers regelföljande beteende beskrivs till exempel Ă€ven inom ledarskapsforskningen. Men dĂ€r beskrivs det som nĂ„got som sker ibland, att chefen gör en brandkĂ„rsutryckning nĂ€r nĂ„got ovĂ€ntat hĂ€nder eller fattar beslut i de fall som inte hanteras av regelverken, inte som nĂ„got som sker stĂ€ndigt. PĂ„ samma sĂ€tt finns en skillnad i synen pĂ„ hanterandet av osĂ€kerhet. Det beskrivs inom ledarskapsforskningen som att chefen hanterar det som gĂ„tt fel och stĂ€ller allt till rĂ€tta. I denna studie utvecklas begreppet genom att visa att hanterandet för chefen kan innebĂ€ra att hĂ€rbĂ€rgera den oro osĂ€kerheten medför i organisationen. Empirin visar inte nĂ„gra skillnader mellan kvinnor och mĂ€n i beskrivningarna av chefers yrkeskunnande. Kvinnor och mĂ€n utövar chefskap pĂ„ samma sĂ€tt. MĂ€nnens identifikation med högre chefer tolkas dock som tecken pĂ„ homosociala strukturer i organisationen. Att mĂ€nnen Ă€r mer ambivalenta Ă€n kvinnorna till bĂ„de möjligheten och det egna ansvaret för att driva förĂ€ndring innebĂ€r dĂ„ att upptagande i en homosocial struktur begrĂ€nsar handlingsutrymmet. DĂ€remot finns det en skillnad mellan kvinnors och mĂ€ns yrkeskunnande som chefer pĂ„ sĂ„ sĂ€tt att kvinnor till skillnad frĂ„n mĂ€n mĂ„ste förhĂ„lla sig till sitt kön. Kvinnorna vĂ€ljer att hantera detta genom att vĂ€xla mellan tvĂ„ ledarskapsdiskurser; en könsneutral och en dĂ€r kön har betydelse. Kvinnornas kunskap om hur kön görs i organisationer, i konstruktionen av ledarskap sĂ„vĂ€l som i övriga strukturer och processer, Ă€r sĂ„ledes en del i den tysta kunskap som utgör deras yrkeskunnande.QC 20120514</p

    Rwanda Country Snapshot

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    This document presents an overview of CARE's programming in Rwanda, including WEE programs
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