55,234 research outputs found

    The Knowledge Application and Utilization Framework Applied to Defense COTS: A Research Synthesis for Outsourced Innovation

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    Purpose -- Militaries of developing nations face increasing budget pressures, high operations tempo, a blitzing pace of technology, and adversaries that often meet or beat government capabilities using commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) technologies. The adoption of COTS products into defense acquisitions has been offered to help meet these challenges by essentially outsourcing new product development and innovation. This research summarizes extant research to develop a framework for managing the innovative and knowledge flows. Design/Methodology/Approach – A literature review of 62 sources was conducted with the objectives of identifying antecedents (barriers and facilitators) and consequences of COTS adoption. Findings – The DoD COTS literature predominantly consists of industry case studies, and there’s a strong need for further academically rigorous study. Extant rigorous research implicates the importance of the role of knowledge management to government innovative thinking that relies heavily on commercial suppliers. Research Limitations/Implications – Extant academically rigorous studies tend to depend on measures derived from work in information systems research, relying on user satisfaction as the outcome. Our findings indicate that user satisfaction has no relationship to COTS success; technically complex governmental purchases may be too distant from users or may have socio-economic goals that supersede user satisfaction. The knowledge acquisition and utilization framework worked well to explain the innovative process in COTS. Practical Implications – Where past research in the commercial context found technological knowledge to outweigh market knowledge in terms of importance, our research found the opposite. Managers either in government or marketing to government should be aware of the importance of market knowledge for defense COTS innovation, especially for commercial companies that work as system integrators. Originality/Value – From the literature emerged a framework of COTS product usage and a scale to measure COTS product appropriateness that should help to guide COTS product adoption decisions and to help manage COTS product implementations ex post

    An active-architecture approach to COTS integration

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    Commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) software products are increasingly used as standard components within integrated information systems. This creates challenges since both their developers and source code are not usually available, and the ongoing development of COTS cannot be predicted. The ArchWare Framework approach recognises COTS products as part of the ambient environment of an information system and therefore an important part of development is incorporating COTS as effective system components. This integration of COTS components, and the composition of components, is captured by an active architecture model which changes as the system evolves. Indeed the architecture modelling language used enables it to express the monitoring and evolution of a system. This active architecture model is structured using control system principles. By modelling both integration and evolution it can guide the system’s response to both predicted and emergent changes that arise from the use of COTS products.Publisher PDFPeer reviewe

    Resolving Architectural Mismatches of COTS Through Architectural Reconciliation

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    The integration of COTS components into a system under development entails architectural mismatches. These have been tackled, so far, at the component level, through component adaptation techniques, but they also must be tackled at an architectural level of abstraction. In this paper we propose an approach for resolving architectural mismatches, with the aid of architectural reconciliation. The approach consists of designing and subsequently reconciling two architectural models, one that is forward-engineered from the requirements and another that is reverse-engineered from the COTS-based implementation. The final reconciled model is optimally adapted both to the requirements and to the actual COTS-based implementation. The contribution of this paper lies in the application of architectural reconciliation in the context of COTS-based software development. Architectural modeling is based upon the UML 2.0 standard, while the reconciliation is performed by transforming the two models, with the help of architectural design decisions.

    HLA-CSPIF panel on commercial off-the-shelf distributed simulation

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    Commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) simulation packages are widely used in many areas of industry. Several research groups are attempting to integrate distributed simulation principles and techniques with these packages to potentially give us COTS distributed simulation. The High Level Architecture-COTS Simulation Package Interoperation Forum (HLA-CSPIF) is a group of researchers and practitioners that are studying methodological and technological issues in this area. This panel paper presents the views of four members of this forum on the technical problems that must be overcome for this emerging field to be realized

    A comparison of CMB- and HLA-based approaches to type I interoperability reference model problems for COTS-based distributed simulation

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    Commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) simulation packages (CSPs) are software used by many simulation modellers to build and experiment with models of various systems in domains such as manufacturing, health, logistics and commerce. COTS distributed simulation deals with the interoperation of CSPs and their models. Such interoperability has been classified into six interoperability reference models. As part of an on-going standardisation effort, this paper introduces the COTS Simulation Package Emulator, a proposed benchmark that can be used to investigate Type I interoperability problems in COTS distributed simulation. To demonstrate its use, two approaches to this form of interoperability are discussed, an implementation of the CMB conservative algorithm, an example of a so-called “light” approach, and an implementation of the HLA TAR algorithm, an example of a so-called “heavy” approach. Results from experimentation over four federation topologies are presented and it is shown the HLA approach out performs the CMB approach in almost all cases. The paper concludes that the CSPE benchmark is a valid basis from which the most efficient approach to Type I interoperability problems for COTS distributed simulation can be discovered

    A requirements engineering framework for developing COTS GIS applications : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Information Science in Information Systems at Massey University

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    There has been an increase in recent years in the number of Geographic Information System (GIS) applications being developed for stakeholders using Commercial Off-The-Shelf (COTS) software. There are a lack of guidelines in both industry and the literature on how to acquire user requirements for the development of GIS applications in this COTS software environment. This study investigates process activities in order to build a framework to address these inadequacies. The construction of the framework incorporates requirements engineering and COTS software evaluation and selection process activities from the Information Systems (IS) area. The framework is used to explore three issues related to developing GIS applications and used to determine whether: 1) a life cycle model is used to guide the gathering and analysing of requirements when developing GIS applications, 2) standard IS requirements processes can be used for developing GIS solutions, and 3) standard IS COTS software acquisition processes can be used for developing GIS solutions. Case studies were used to analyse current practices in the GIS industry and to validate the usefulness of these activities in the framework. The results of this investigation suggest that RE practices associated with the COTS paradigm within the IS arena are suitable for developing GIS applications based on user requirements