1,047,031 research outputs found

    Developing and Evaluating ECM Data Persistence Architecture

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    A conceptual data persistence architecture and methodology to evaluate its performance is created. Results of the empirical research indicate that the architecture created is convenient for high intensity processing of large ECM data volumes. The synthesis of SQL and NoSQL technology allows to handle high volume transactions on current data and full-text search on large sets of history data. The history data is moved from SQL to NoSQL data store thus allowing to use a cluster of commodity hardware to store major volume of ECM data. Scaling out (increasing a number of cluster nodes) is less expensive than scaling up (buying a more powerful server hardware) that is normally needed to upgrade SQL database

    Topic-comment structures in information dialogues

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    Teleajakirjanik konstrueerimas uudisloo narratiivi

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    The hypocretin/orexin antagonist almorexant promotes sleep without impairment of performance in rats.

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    The hypocretin receptor (HcrtR) antagonist almorexant (ALM) has potent hypnotic actions but little is known about neurocognitive performance in the presence of ALM. HcrtR antagonists are hypothesized to induce sleep by disfacilitation of wake-promoting systems whereas GABAA receptor modulators such as zolpidem (ZOL) induce sleep through general inhibition of neural activity. To test the hypothesis that less functional impairment results from HcrtR antagonist-induced sleep, we evaluated the performance of rats in the Morris Water Maze in the presence of ALM vs. ZOL. Performance in spatial reference memory (SRM) and spatial working memory (SWM) tasks were assessed during the dark period after equipotent sleep-promoting doses (100 mg/kg, po) following undisturbed and sleep deprivation (SD) conditions. ALM-treated rats were indistinguishable from vehicle (VEH)-treated rats for all SRM performance measures (distance traveled, latency to enter, time within, and number of entries into, the target quadrant) after both the undisturbed and 6 h SD conditions. In contrast, rats administered ZOL showed impairments in all parameters measured compared to VEH or ALM in the undisturbed conditions. Following SD, ZOL-treated rats also showed impairments in all measures. ALM-treated rats were similar to VEH-treated rats for all SWM measures (velocity, time to locate the platform and success rate at finding the platform within 60 s) after both the undisturbed and SD conditions. In contrast, ZOL-treated rats showed impairments in velocity and in the time to locate the platform. Importantly, ZOL rats only completed the task 23-50% of the time while ALM and VEH rats completed the task 79-100% of the time. Thus, following equipotent sleep-promoting doses, ZOL impaired rats in both memory tasks while ALM rats performed at levels comparable to VEH rats. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that less impairment results from HcrtR antagonism than from GABAA-induced inhibition

    Introgression of Brown Norway \u3cem\u3eCYP4A\u3c/em\u3e Genes onto the Dahl Salt-Sensitive Background Restores Vascular Function in SS-5\u3csup\u3eBN\u3c/sup\u3e Consomic Rats

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    The present study tested the hypothesis that the Dahl SS (salt-sensitive) rat has vascular dysfunction due, in part, to the up-regulation of the CYP4A/20-HETE (cytochrome P450 ω-hydroxylase 4A)/20-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid) system. To assess the role of vascular 20-HETE, SS rats were compared with SS-5BN consomic rats, carrying CYP4A alleles on chromosome 5 from the normotensive BN (Brown Norway) introgressed on to the SS genetic background. Cerebral arteries from SS-5BN rats had less CYP4A protein than arteries from SS rats fed either NS (normal-salt, 0.4% NaCl) or HS (high-salt, 4.0% NaCl) diet. ACh (acetylcholine)-induced dilation of MCAs (middle cerebral arteries) from SS and SS-5BN rats was present in SS-5BN rats fed on either an NS or HS diet, but absent in SS rats. In SS rats fed on either diet, ACh-induced dilation was restored by acute treatment with the CYP4A inhibitor DDMS (N-methyl-sulfonyl-12,12-dibromododec-11-enamide) or the 20-HETE antagonist 20-HEDE [20-hydroxyeicosa-6(Z),15(Z)-dienoic acid]. The restored response to ACh in DDMS-treated SS rats was inhibited by L-NAME (NGnitro-L-arginine methyl ester) and unaffected by indomethacin or MS-PPOH [N-methylsulfonyl-6-(2-propargyloxyphenyl)hexanamide]. Vascular relaxation responses to the NO donor C5FeN6Na2O were intact in both SS and SS-5BN rats and unaffected by the acute addition of DDMS, indicating that the vascular dysfunction of the SS rat is due to a reduced bioavailability of NO instead of failure of the VSMCs (vascular smooth muscle cells) to respond to the vasodilator. Superoxide levels in cerebral arteries of SS-5BN rats [evaluated semi-quantitatively by DHE (dihydroethidium) fluorescence] were lower than those in the arteries of SS rats. These findings indicate that SS rats have an up-regulation of the CYP4A/20-HETE pathway resulting in elevated ROS (reactive oxygen species) and reduced NO bioavailability causing vascular dysfunction

    Dysfunctional play and dopamine physiology in the Fischer 344 rat

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    Juvenile Fischer 344 rats are known to be less playful than other inbred strains, although the neurobiological substrate(s) responsible for this phenotype is uncertain. In the present study, Fischer 344 rats were compared to the commonly used outbred Sprague-Dawley strain on several behavioral and physiological parameters in order to ascertain whether the lack of play may be related to compromised activity of brain dopamine (DA) systems. As expected, Fischer 344 rats were far less playful than Sprague-Dawley rats, with Fischer 344 rats less likely to initiate playful contacts with a playful partner and less likely to respond playfully to these contacts. We also found that Fischer 344 rats showed less of a startle response and greater pre-pulse inhibition (PPI), especially at higher prepulse intensities. The increase in PPI seen in the Fischer 344 rat could be due to reduced DA modulation of sensorimotor gating and neurochemical measures were consistent with Fischer 344 rats releasing less DA than Sprague-Dawley rats. Fast scan cyclic voltammetry (FSCV) revealed Fischer 344 rats had less evoked DA release in dorsal and ventral striatal brain slices and high-performance liquid chromatography revealed Fischer 344 rats to have less DA turnover in the striatum and prefrontal cortex. We also found DA-dependent forms of cortical plasticity were deficient in the striatum and prefrontal cortex of the Fischer 344 rat. Taken together, these data indicate that deficits in play and enhanced PPI of Fischer 344 rats may be due to reduced DA modulation of corticostriatal and mesolimbic/mesocortical circuits critical to the execution of these behaviors