93,329 research outputs found

    Multicriteria mapping manual: version 1.0

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    This Manual offers basic advice on how to do multicriteria mapping (MCM). It suggests how to: go about designing and building a typical MCM project; engage with participants and analyse results – and get the most out of the online MCM tool. Key terms are shown in bold italics and defined and explained in a final Annex. The online MCM software tool provides its own operational help. So this Manual is more focused on the general approach. There are no rigid rules. MCM is structured, but very flexible. It allows many more detailed features than can be covered here. MCM users are encouraged to think for themselves and be responsible and creative

    Mini-chromosome maintenance complexes form a filament to remodel DNA structure and topology.

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    Deregulation of mini-chromosome maintenance (MCM) proteins is associated with genomic instability and cancer. MCM complexes are recruited to replication origins for genome duplication. Paradoxically, MCM proteins are in excess than the number of origins and are associated with chromatin regions away from the origins during G1 and S phases. Here, we report an unusually wide left-handed filament structure for an archaeal MCM, as determined by X-ray and electron microscopy. The crystal structure reveals that an α-helix bundle formed between two neighboring subunits plays a critical role in filament formation. The filament has a remarkably strong electro-positive surface spiraling along the inner filament channel for DNA binding. We show that this MCM filament binding to DNA causes dramatic DNA topology change. This newly identified function of MCM to change DNA topology may imply a wider functional role for MCM in DNA metabolisms beyond helicase function. Finally, using yeast genetics, we show that the inter-subunit interactions, important for MCM filament formation, play a role for cell growth and survival

    The dynamics of replication licensing in live Caenorhabditis elegans embryos

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    Accurate DNA replication requires proper regulation of replication licensing, which entails loading MCM-2-7 onto replication origins. In this paper, we provide the first comprehensive view of replication licensing in vivo, using video microscopy of Caenorhabditis elegans embryos. As expected, MCM-2-7 loading in late M phase depended on the prereplicative complex (pre-RC) proteins: origin recognition complex (ORC), CDC-6, and CDT-1. However, many features we observed have not been described before: GFP-ORC-1 bound chromatin independently of ORC-2-5, and CDC-6 bound chromatin independently of ORC, whereas CDT-1 and MCM-2-7 DNA binding was interdependent. MCM-3 chromatin loading was irreversible, but CDC-6 and ORC turned over rapidly, consistent with ORC/CDC-6 loading multiple MCM-2-7 complexes. MCM-2-7 chromatin loading further reduced ORC and CDC-6 DNA binding. This dynamic behavior creates a feedback loop allowing ORC/CDC-6 to repeatedly load MCM-2-7 and distribute licensed origins along chromosomal DNA. During S phase, ORC and CDC-6 were excluded from nuclei, and DNA was overreplicated in export-defective cells. Thus, nucleocytoplasmic compartmentalization of licensing factors ensures that DNA replication occurs only once

    Tailor-Made Nanostructured Ion Selective MCM-48 Membranes

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    Mesoporous templated MCM-48 silica was prepared using a C16 surfactant as template. The MCM-48 powders and thin films were characterized by different techniques. Two types of porous supports were used, namely macroporous ¿-alumina and silicon microsieves. The supported MCM-48 layers were applied as liquid permeable membranes in pressure-driven nanofiltration and electric field-mediated ion transport experiments

    Synthesis of mesoporous MCM-41 materials with low power microwave heating

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    Crystalline, high surface area, hexagonal mesoporous MCM-41 having uniform pore sizes and good thermal stability was successfully synthesized at 90-120oC in 30 minutes using low power microwave irradiation. This appears to be the first comprehensive and quantitative investigation of the comparatively rapid synthesis of mesoporous MCM-41 using low power microwave heating of 80W (90oC) and 120W (120oC). The influence of reaction temperature and the duration of heating were carefully investigated and the calcined MCM-41 materials were characterized by XRD, SEM, TEM, nitrogen adsorption, TGA and FTIR. The mesoporous MCM-41 product synthesized in 30 minutes at 120W and calcined at 550oC had a very high surface area of 1438 m2/g and was highly ordered, contained uniform pores with diameters in the range of 3.5-4.5 nm. The wall thickness of the materials highly depended on the power of the microwave energy used during the synthesis. Synthesis of the mesoporous MCM-41 products at 120oC resulted with a structure having thinner walls. The mesoporous MCM-41 materials synthesized in the present work had good thermal stability

    Synthesis and characterization of mesoporic materials containing highly dispersed cobalt

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    Highly dispersed Co particles in MCM-41 were prepared by direct addition of CoCl2 to the synthesis gel. The small clusters of Co did not sinter during reduction and sulfidation. Incorporation of Co into the MCM-41 lattice was not observed. The addition of Co to the synthesis gel did not alter the structural characteristics of the MCM-41 samples

    Structure and mechanics of active colloids

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    11 pages Acknowledgments MCM thanks Xingbo Yang and Lisa Manning for their contribution to some aspects of the work reviewed here and for fruitful discussions. MCM was supported by NSF-DMR-305184. MCM and AP acknowledge support by the NSF IGERT program through award NSF-DGE-1068780. MCM, AP and DY were additionally supported by the Soft Matter Program at Syracuse University. AP acknowledges use of the Syracuse University HTC Campus Grid which is supported by NSF award ACI-1341006. YF was supported by NSF grant DMR-1149266 and the Brandeis Center for Bioinspired Soft Materials, an NSF MRSEC, DMR-1420382.Peer reviewedPreprin

    Male Clients of Male Sex Workers in China: An Ignored High-Risk Population.

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    BackgroundThere is a high prevalence of HIV/syphilis among male sex workers, but no formal study has ever been conducted focusing on male clients of male sex workers (MCM). A detailed investigation was thus called for, to determine the burden and sociobehavioral determinants of HIV and syphilis among these MCM in China.MethodsAs part of a multicenter cross-sectional study, using respondent-driven and snowball sampling, 2958 consenting adult men who have sex with men (MSM) were recruited, interviewed, and tested for HIV and syphilis between 2008 and 2009. The distributions of sociodemographic characteristics, risk behaviors, and HIV/syphilis prevalence were determined and compared between MCM and other MSM.ResultsAmong recruited MSM, 5.0% (n = 148) were MCM. HIV prevalences for MCM and other MSM were 7.4% and 7.7%, whereas 18.9% and 14.0% were positive for syphilis, respectively. Condomless anal intercourse (CAI) was reported by 59.5% of MCM and 48.2% of MSM. Multiple logistic regression revealed that compared with other MSM, MCM were more likely to have less education [for ≤ elementary level, adjusted odds ratio (aOR) = 3.13, 95% confidence interval (95% CI): 1.42 to 6.90], higher income (for >500 US Dollars per month, aOR = 2.97, 95% CI: 1.53 to 5.77), more often found partners at parks/restrooms (aOR = 4.01, 95% CI: 2.34 to 6.85), reported CAI (aOR = 1.49, 95% CI: 1.05 to 2.10), reported a larger sexual network (for ≥ 10, aOR = 2.70, 95% CI: 1.44 to 5.07), and higher odds of syphilis (aOR = 1.54, 95% CI: 1.00 to 2.38).ConclusionsThe greater frequency of risk behaviors and high prevalence of HIV and syphilis indicated that HIV/syphilis prevention programs in China need to pay special attention to MCM as a distinct subgroup, which was completely ignored until date
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