194 research outputs found

    Spatial Training and Calculus Ability: Investigating Impacts on Student Performance and Cognitive Style

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    Undergraduate calculus is a foundational mathematics sequence that previews the sophistication students will need to succeed in higher-level courses. However, students often struggle with concepts in calculus because they are more abstract and visual than those in other foundational mathematics courses. Additionally, women continue to be underrepresented in the STEM fields. This study builds on previous work indicating a malleability in spatial ability by testing whether improvement occurs in students’ spatial and mathematics ability after implementing spatial training in calculus courses. The researchers also measured associations between spatial training and self-reported cognitive style. While spatial training did not significantly improve calculus and spatial skills, the researchers measured impacts on the psychological correlate of cognitive learning style. This is important as non-spatial cognitive preferences can result in students not recognizing the dynamic information encapsulated in graphical images, which is a large component of calculus. These results may have practical implications for teaching calculus at the undergraduate level and may, with further research, help to narrow the gender gap in the STEM fields

    Lumbar spine bone mineral density and trabecular bone score-adjusted FRAX, but not FRAX without bone mineral density, identify subclinical carotid atherosclerosis

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    Purpose: Osteoporosis and atherosclerosis share common risk factors. Aim of this study was to test if FRAX (which is an algorithm that can identify subjects at risk of fracture), without or with BMD values, also adjusted for trabecular bone score (TBS) was able to identify subclinical atherosclerosis, evaluated by measurement of carotid intima media thickness (cIMT ≥ 0.9 mm) as compared to DXA values. Methods: Ninety postmenopausal women underwent DXA measurement and cIMT evaluation. For each patient, the FRAX algorithm for major osteoporotic fracture (M) and for hip fracture (H) without BMD was computed, together with FRAX with BMD and TBS-adjusted FRAX. Serum levels of osteoprotegerin, sRANKL, and interleukin-6 were also measured. Results: There were no differences in anthropometric parameters and cardiovascular risk factors between subjects with cIMT ≥ 0.9 mm (35% of subjects, group A) compared to those with cIMT < 0.9 mm (group B). The prevalence of osteoporosis and FRAX BMD, TBS-adjusted FRAX both for M and H were higher in group A compared to group B. The best ROC curves to identify subjects with a cIMT ≥ 0.9 mm were: lumbar spine T-score, with a threshold of − 2.5 SD (area under the curve, AUC 0.64; p = 0.02) with a sensibility of 50% and a specificity of 76%; TBS-adjusted FRAX H with a sensibility of 50% and a specificity of 72% (AUC 0.64; p = 0.01 with a threshold of 3%). Interleukin-6 positively correlated with FRAX BMD H and M. Conclusions: FRAX without BMD does not identify subclinical carotid atherosclerosis, while lumbar spine T-score and TBS-adjusted FRAX H similarly detected it with higher specificity for T-score

    Update on the safety and efficacy of teriparatide in the treatment of osteoporosis

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    Following the completion of the Fracture Prevention Trial, teriparatide was approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration and the European Medicine Agency as the first therapeutic anabolic agent for the treatment of postmenopausal women with severe osteoporosis. It subsequently received additional approval for the treatment of osteoporosis in men, and for the treatment of osteoporosis associated with glucocorticoid therapy in men and women at risk of fracture. In this review, we summarize the most important data concerning PTH 1-34 therapy before 2016 in the treatment of osteoporosis, and report some outstanding results published in the last 2 years. New data on safety will also discussed, together with the state of art of nonclassical utilization. Finally, in view of the recent approval of biosimilars, possible future landscapes are discussed

    Kajian Perbedaan Konsentrasi Larutan Garam Pada Perendaman Rgh Dan Vaksin Terhadap Kelulushidupan Dan Pertumbuhan Benih Ikan Lele Sangkuriang (Clarias Gariepinus)

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    Berdasarkan data KKP (2013), pencapaian produksi ikan lele pada tahun 2013 mampu melampaui target. Ikan lele merupakan ikan yang mudah dibudidayakan, sehingga banyak dilakukan penelitian agar didapatkan benih lele dengan pertumbuhan dan kelulushidupan yang lebih baik, serta tahan terhadap serangan penyakit. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui pengaruh konsentrasi larutan garam yang berbeda dan konsentrasi yang terbaik pada perendaman rGH dan vaksin terhadap kelulushidupan dan pertumbuhan benih lele sangkuriang. Penelitian ini dilaksanakan pada tanggal 13 November 2014 – 15 Februari 2015 di Satuan Kerja Pembenihan dan Budidaya Ikan Air Tawar (SATKER PBIAT), Siwarak, Ungaran, Semarang. Ikan uji yang digunakan adalah benih lele sangkuriang umur 12 hari. Metode yang digunakan adalah eksperimental dengan rancangan acak lengkap (RAL) 4 perlakuan dan 3 ulangan, yaitu: (A) perlakuan tanpa larutan garam, (B) konsentrasi 0,5%, (C) konsentrasi 1,0% dan (D) konsentrasi 1,5%. Pemeliharaan ikan dilakukan selama 42 hari. Variabel data yang diamati meliputi kelulushidupan, SGR, panjang mutlak, FCR, EPP dan kelulushidupan setelah uji tantang. Analisa data dengan menggunakan anova untuk mengetahui pengaruh perlakuan yang berbeda nyata, apabila hasil yang didapatkan berbeda nyata, maka dilanjutkan dengan uji duncan untuk mengetahui perlakuan yang terbaik. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan perlakuan terbaik adalah perlakuan C, dengan nilai kelulushidupan (87,00±1,00%), SGR (7,79±0,03%), nilai panjang mutlak (6,75±0,15cm), nilai FCR (0,71±0,01) dan nilai EPP (140,28±1,25%), sedangkan untuk kelulushidupan setelah uji tantang didapatkan hasil yang tidak berbeda nyata, dimana: A (93,33±5,77%), B (96,67±5,77%), C (96,67±5,77%) dan D (96,67±5,77%). Kesimpulan dari penelitian ini ialah pemberian konsentrasi larutan garam yang berbeda berpengaruh sangat nyata terhadap kelulushidupan, SGR, panjang mutlak, FCR dan EPP, namun tidak berpengaruh nyata terhadap kelulushidupan setelah uji tantang. Konsentrasi larutan garam terbaik pada penelitian ini adalah 1,0%. Based on data from KKP (2013), the achievement of the production of catfish in 2013 was able of exceeding the target. Catfish is a fish that easily cultivated, so a lot of research done to get catfish\u27s seed with better survival and growth, and it can resistant to attack of deseases. This research was aimed to find out the effect of different salt solution concentrations and the best concentration from immersion of rGH and vaccine for survival rate and growth of sangkuriang catfish\u27s seed. This research was conducted on November 13th, 2014 – February 15th, 2015 at Satuan Kerja Pembenihan dan Budidaya Ikan Air Tawar (SATKER PBIAT), Siwarak, Ungaran, Semarang. The fish that used for this research is sangkuriang catfish\u27s seed aged 12 days. Completely randomized design (CRD) was used in this research with four treatments and three replication, which treatments are: (A) without salt solution concentration, (B) Using concentration 0.5%, (C) Concentration 1.0% and (D) Concentration 1.5%. The Fishes are maintained for 42 days. Observational variable are survival rate, SGR, absolute length, FCR, EPP and survival rate after challenge test. Data analysis using anova to know the effect of treatment is significantly different, if the result is significantly different, then continue with duncan test to know the best treatment. The best result is treatment C, with survival rate (87.00±1.00%), SGR (7.79±0.03%), absolute length (6.75±0.15cm), FCR (0.71±0.01), EPP (140.28±1.25%), and for survival rate after challenge test are not significantly different, where: treatment A (93.33±5.77%), B (96.67±5.77%), C (96.67±5.77%) and D (96.67±5.77%). The conclusion of this research is giving of salt solution with different concentration take significantly effect for survival rate, SGR, absolute length, FCR and EPP, but did not take significantly effect for survival rate after challenge test. The best salt solution concentration is 1.0%

    Ancient DNA re-opens the question of the phylogenetic position of the Sardinian pika Prolagus sardus (Wagner, 1829), an extinct lagomorph

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    Palaeogenomics is contributing to refine our understanding of many major evolutionary events at an unprecedented resolution, with relevant impacts in several fields, including phylogenetics of extinct species. Few extant and extinct animal species from Mediterranean regions have been characterised at the DNA level thus far. The Sardinian pika, Prolagus sardus (Wagner, 1829), was an iconic lagomorph species that populated Sardinia and Corsica and became extinct during the Holocene. There is a certain scientific debate on the phylogenetic assignment of the extinct genus Prolagus to the family Ochotonidae (one of the only two extant families of the order Lagomorpha) or to a separated family Prolagidae, or to the subfamily Prolaginae within the family Ochotonidae. In this study, we successfully reconstructed a portion of the mitogenome of a Sardinian pika dated to the Neolithic period and recovered from the Cabaddaris cave, an archaeological site in Sardinia. Our calibrated phylogeny may support the hypothesis that the genus Prolagus is an independent sister group to the family Ochotonidae that diverged from the Ochotona genus lineage about 30 million years ago. These results may contribute to refine the phylogenetic interpretation of the morphological peculiarities of the Prolagus genus already described by palaeontological studies

    Application of pharmacogenomics and bioinformatics to exemplify the utility of human <i>ex vivo</i> organoculture models in the field of precision medicine

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    Here we describe a collaboration between industry, the National Health Service (NHS) and academia that sought to demonstrate how early understanding of both pharmacology and genomics can improve strategies for the development of precision medicines. Diseased tissue ethically acquired from patients suffering from chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), was used to investigate inter-patient variability in drug efficacy using ex vivo organocultures of fresh lung tissue as the test system. The reduction in inflammatory cytokines in the presence of various test drugs was used as the measure of drug efficacy and the individual patient responses were then matched against genotype and microRNA profiles in an attempt to identify unique predictors of drug responsiveness. Our findings suggest that genetic variation in CYP2E1 and SMAD3 genes may partly explain the observed variation in drug response

    HGF Mediates the Anti-inflammatory Effects of PRP on Injured Tendons

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    Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) containing hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) and other growth factors are widely used in orthopaedic/sports medicine to repair injured tendons. While PRP treatment is reported to decrease pain in patients with tendon injury, the mechanism of this effect is not clear. Tendon pain is often associated with tendon inflammation, and HGF is known to protect tissues from inflammatory damages. Therefore, we hypothesized that HGF in PRP causes the anti-inflammatory effects. To test this hypothesis, we performed in vitro experiments on rabbit tendon cells and in vivo experiments on a mouse Achilles tendon injury model. We found that addition of PRP or HGF decreased gene expression of COX-1, COX-2, and mPGES-1, induced by the treatment of tendon cells in vitro with IL-1β. Further, the treatment of tendon cell cultures with HGF antibodies reduced the suppressive effects of PRP or HGF on IL-1β-induced COX-1, COX-2, and mPGES-1 gene expressions. Treatment with PRP or HGF almost completely blocked the cellular production of PGE2 and the expression of COX proteins. Finally, injection of PRP or HGF into wounded mouse Achilles tendons in vivo decreased PGE2 production in the tendinous tissues. Injection of platelet-poor plasma (PPP) however, did not reduce PGE2 levels in the wounded tendons, but the injection of HGF antibody inhibited the effects of PRP and HGF. Further, injection of PRP or HGF also decreased COX-1 and COX-2 proteins. These results indicate that PRP exerts anti-inflammatory effects on injured tendons through HGF. This study provides basic scientific evidence to support the use of PRP to treat injured tendons because PRP can reduce inflammation and thereby reduce the associated pain caused by high levels of PGE2. © 2013 Zhang et al
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