GEOMAR Helmholtz Centre for Ocean Research Kiel

Not a member yet
    44313 research outputs found

    Lithospheric Structure Controls Sequentially Active Detachment Faulting at the Longqi Segment on the Southwest Indian Ridge

    No full text
    Oceanic detachment faulting, a major mode of seafloor accretion at slow and ultraslow spreading ridges, is thought to occur during magma‐poor phases and be abandoned when magmatism increases. In this framework, detachment faulting is the result of temporal variations in magma flux, which is inconsistent with recent geophysical observations at the Longqi segment on the Southwest Indian Ridge (49°42′E). In this paper, we focus on this sequentially active detachment faulting system that includes an old, inactive detachment fault and a younger, active detachment fault. We investigate the mechanisms controlling the temporal evolution of this tectonomagmatic system by using 2D mid‐ocean ridge spreading models that simulate faulting and magma intrusion into a visco‐elasto‐plastic continuum. Our models show that temporal variations in magma flux alone are insufficient to match the inferred temporal evolution of the sequentially active detachment system. Rather we find that sequentially active detachment faulting spontaneously occurs at the Longqi segment as a function of lithospheric thickness. This finding is in agreement with an analytical model, which shows that a thicker axial lithosphere results in a smaller fault heave and that a flatter angle in lithosphere thickening away from the accretion axis stabilizes the active fault. A thicker axial lithosphere and its flatter off‐axis angle combined have the potential to modulate sequentially active detachment faulting at the Longqi segment. Our results thus suggest that temporal changes of magmatism are not necessary for the development and abandonment of detachment faults at ultraslow spreading ridges

    Seaweed farming environments do not always function as CO2 sink under synergistic influence of macroalgae and microorganisms

    No full text
    Seaweed farming contributes substantial amounts of organic carbon to the ocean, part of which can be locked for a long term in the ocean and perform the function of ocean carbon sequestration, and the other part can be converted into inorganic carbon through microbial mineralization and aerobic respiration, affecting the pCO2, pHT and dissolved oxygen of seawater. It is generally believed that seaweed farming will cause the seawater to become a sink of CO2 due to carbon fixation by macroalgal photosynthesis. However, little attention has been paid to the fact that seaweed farming environment may sometimes become a source rather than a sink of CO2. Here, through in-situ mesocosm cultivation experiments and eight field investigations covering different kelp growth stages in an intensive farming area in China, we found that compared with the surrounding seawater without kelps, the seawater at the fast-growth stage of kelp was a sink of CO2 (pCO2 decreased by 17−73 μatm), but became a source of CO2 at the aging stage of kelp (pCO2 increased by 20−37 μatm). Concurrently, seawater pHT experienced a transition from increase (by 0.02−0.08) to decline (by 0.03−0.04). In-situ mesocosm cultivation experiments showed that the positive environmental effects (i.e., pCO2 decrease and pHT increase) induced by kelps at the early growth stage could be offset within only 3 days at the late-growth and aging stages. The release of dissolved organic carbon by kelps at the late growth stage increased significantly, supporting the enhancement in microbial abundance and respiration, which was manifested by the remarkable decrease in seawater dissolved oxygen, ultimately leading to CO2 release exceeding photosynthetic CO2 absorption. This study suggests that mature farmed kelps should be harvested in time to best utilize their carbon sink function and environmental benefits, which has guiding significance for the rational management of seaweed farming

    “Seeing” Beneath the Clouds — Machine-Learning-Based Reconstruction of North African Dust Plumes

    No full text
    Mineral dust is one of the most abundant atmospheric aerosol species and has various far-reaching effects on the climate system and adverse impacts on air quality. Satellite observations can provide spatio-temporal information on dust emission and transport pathways. However, satellite observations of dust plumes are frequently obscured by clouds. We use a method based on established, machine-learning-based image in-painting techniques to restore the spatial extent of dust plumes for the first time. We train an artificial neural net (ANN) on modern reanalysis data paired with satellite-derived cloud masks. The trained ANN is applied to cloud-masked, gray-scaled images, which were derived from false color images indicating elevated dust plumes in bright magenta. The images were obtained from the Spinning Enhanced Visible and Infrared Imager instrument onboard the Meteosat Second Generation satellite. We find up to 15% of summertime observations in West Africa and 10% of summertime observations in Nubia by satellite images miss dust plumes due to cloud cover. We use the new dust-plume data to demonstrate a novel approach for validating spatial patterns of the operational forecasts provided by the World Meteorological Organization Dust Regional Center in Barcelona. The comparison elucidates often similar dust plume patterns in the forecasts and the satellite-based reconstruction, but once trained, the reconstruction is computationally inexpensive. Our proposed reconstruction provides a new opportunity for validating dust aerosol transport in numerical weather models and Earth system models. It can be adapted to other aerosol species and trace gases. Key Points: - We present the first fast reconstruction of cloud-obscured Saharan dust plumes through novel machine learning applied to satellite images - The reconstruction algorithm utilizes partial convolutions to restore cloud-induced gaps in gray-scaled Meteosat Second Generation-Spinning Enhanced Visible and Infrared Imager Dust RGB images - World Meteorological Organization dust forecasts for North Africa mostly agree with the satellite-based reconstruction of the dust plume exten

    Variability of total alkalinity in coastal surface waters determined using an in-situ analyzer in conjunction with the application of a neural network-based prediction model

    No full text
    Total alkalinity (TA) is an important variable of the ocean carbonate system. In coastal oceans, carbonate system dynamics are controlled by a range of processes including photosynthesis and respiration, calcification, mixing of water masses, continental inputs, temperature changes, and seasonal upwelling. Assessments of diel, seasonal and interannual variations in TA are required to understand the carbon cycle in coastal oceans. However, our understanding of these variations remains underdeveloped due to limitations in observational techniques. Autonomous TA measurements are therefore required. In this study, an in situ TA analyzer (ISA-TA) based on a single-point titration with spectrophotometric pH detection was deployed in Tong'an Bay, Xiamen, China, over a five-month period in 2021 to determine diel and seasonal TA variations. The TA observations were combined with an artificial neural network (ANN) model to construct TA prediction models for this area. This provided a simple method to investigate TA variations in this region and was applied to predict surface water TA between March and April 2021. The in situ TA observations showed that TA values in Tong'an Bay varied within a range from 1931 to 2294 μmol kg−1 over the study period, with low TA in late winter, early summer and late summer, and high TA in early winter. The TA variations in late summer and early winter were mainly controlled by mixing of water bodies. The diel variations of TA were greatly determined by tides, with a diel amplitude of 9 to 247 μmol kg−1. The ANN model used temperature, salinity, chlorophyll, and dissolved oxygen to estimate TA, with a root-mean-square error (RMSE) of ∼14 μmol kg−1, with salinity as the input variable with the greatest weight. The approach of combining ISA-TA observations with an ANN model can be extended to study the carbonate system in other coastal regions

    Polychaete composition from the abyssal plain adjacent to the Kuril–Kamchatka Trench with the description of a new species of Sphaerephesia (Polychaeta: Sphaerodoridae)

    No full text
    During the KuramBio expedition, the abyssal plain adjacent to the Kuril–Kamchatka Trench was sampled in July–August 2012. More than 5200 individuals of Polychaeta belonging to 38 families, 108 genera and about 144 species were found. Six genera have been reported for the Northwest Pacific for the first time. About 50% of the collected polychaete species are considered as new to science. One of these, Sphaerephesia lesliae sp. n., is described herein. The detailed description of the new species is presented and its differences from similar species are shown. This eighth species of the genus is characterized by the presence of macrotubercles with two paired terminal papillae. The genus Sphaerephesia Fauchald, 1972 is newly recorded in the Northwest Pacific. An updated key to the species of the genus Sphaerephesia is provided

    Marine Lake Mogilnoe (Kildin Island, the Barents Sea): one hundred years of solitude

    No full text
    Lake Mogilnoe (Kildin Island, the Barents Sea) is a marine stratified lake, a refuge for landlocked populations of marine organisms. Unlike other known marine lakes from polar areas, which communicate with the sea by water percolation at the surface, Mogilnoe has a subterranean connection with the sea like tropical and subtropical anchialine lakes. Similarly to some other marine lakes, Mogilnoe has traditionally been considered to be biologically isolated from the sea and subject to little change. We review the current status of the physical features, zooplankton and benthos of Mogilnoe and trace changes that have occurred in the lake since the start of observations in 1894. The anaerobic bottom water layer has expanded by 100 %, while the upper freshwater layer has diminished by 40 %. The species diversity of zooplankton and macrobenthos has halved. The occurrence of Atlantic cod likens Mogilnoe to some other Arctic marine lakes while the presence of large flocks of sea anemones, scyphomedusae and suberitid sponges makes it similar to tropical anchialine lakes. Lake Mogilnoe is not entirely biologically isolated; accidental introduction of species from the sea does occur. We argue that the idealised model of an isolated steady-state ecosystem can be applied to a marine lake with caution. A model of fluctuating abiotic environment and partial biological isolation portrays the real situation better

    Environmental evolution of the southern Chukchi Sea in the Holocene

    No full text
    The molluscan shells from three drill and two piston cores obtained in the southern Russian sector of the Chukchi Sea are dated by the AMS 14C measurement method back to 0.8–3.5 and 9.2–10.5 ka. The period of 9–10 ka was marked by increased sedimentation rates related to the transgression onset. The fossils in the lower Holocene section exhibit the successive upward replacement of brackish-water organisms by their marine counterparts. After the opening of the Bering Strait in the middle Holocene, the sedimentation was under influence of the increased bioproductivity of the waters. The climatic optimum in the Chukotka region corresponds to the early Holocene, while the late Holocene was characterized by the wider development of the ice cover on the shelf

    Seawater physics and chemistry along the Med-SHIP transects in the Mediterranean Sea in 2016

    No full text
    The Mediterranean Sea has been sampled irregularly by research vessels in the past, mostly by national expeditions in regional waters. To monitor the hydrographic, biogeochemical and circulation changes in the Mediterranean Sea, a systematic repeat oceanographic survey programme called Med-SHIP was recommended by the Mediterranean Science Commission (CIESM) in 2011, as part of the Global Ocean Ship-based Hydrographic Investigations Program (GO-SHIP). Med-SHIP consists of zonal and meridional surveys with different frequencies, where comprehensive physical and biogeochemical properties are measured with the highest international standards. The first zonal survey was done in 2011 and repeated in 2018. In addition, a network of meridional (and other key) hydrographic sections were designed: the first cycle of these sections was completed in 2016, with three cruises funded by the EU project EUROFLEETS2. This paper presents the physical and chemical data of the meridional and key transects in the Western and Eastern Mediterranean Sea collected during those cruises

    The Arctic summer microbiome across Fram Strait: Depth, longitude, and substrate concentrations structure microbial diversity in the euphotic zone

    No full text
    The long-term dynamics of microbial communities across geographic, hydrographic, and biogeochemical gradients in the Arctic Ocean are largely unknown. To address this, we annually sampled polar, mixed, and Atlantic water masses of the Fram Strait (2015–2019; 5–100 m depth) to assess microbiome composition, substrate concentrations, and oceanographic parameters. Longitude and water depth were the major determinants (~30%) of microbial community variability. Bacterial alpha diversity was highest in lower-photic polar waters. Community composition shifted from west to east, with the prevalence of, for example, Dadabacteriales and Thiotrichales in Arctic- and Atlantic-influenced waters, respectively. Concentrations of dissolved organic carbon peaked in the western, compared to carbohydrates in the chlorophyll-maximum of eastern Fram Strait. Interannual differences due to the time of sampling, which varied between early (June 2016/2018) and late (September 2019) phytoplankton bloom stages, illustrated that phytoplankton composition and resulting availability of labile substrates influence bacterial dynamics. We identified 10 species clusters with stable environmental correlations, representing signature populations of distinct ecosystem states. In context with published metagenomic evidence, our microbial-biogeochemical inventory of a key Arctic region establishes a benchmark to assess ecosystem dynamics and the imprint of climate change

    Geochemistry of vent fluids from the Daxi Vent Field, Carlsberg Ridge, Indian Ocean: Constraints on subseafloor processes beneath a non-transform offset

    No full text
    Highlights • The hydrothermal fluids were sampled from a neovolcanic ridge within a non-transform offset. • Serpentinization has been involved on the pathway of hydrothermal circulation • The fluids are strongly affected by phase separation with extremely high Cl content in brine phase • A hybrid model of hydrothermal circulation controlled by tectonic and magmatic activities simultaneously was proposed. The Daxi Vent Field (DVF) is located on a neovolcanic ridge within a non-transform offset at water depths of ∼3500 m, on the Carlsberg Ridge, northwest Indian Ocean. In 2017, we investigated this site using the submersible Jiaolong and collected two fluid samples from orifices of chimneys named “Buddha's Hands” and “A1”, about 37 m apart. Their in-situ measured temperatures are 273 °C and 272 °C, respectively. The Buddha's Hands fluid is highly Cl-enriched (928 mM), while the A1 fluid is Cl-depleted (303 mM). This indicates that they have undergone phase separation. The segregated phases must have remixed during the ascent because the vapor and brine phases sampled cannot be produced by the same phase separation history without other processes. Olivine-rich and/or ultramafic mantle rocks must have been involved during the hydrothermal circulation as evidenced by high dissolved H2 (7.07 mM) and methane (0.884 mM) concentrations, a depletion in B relative to seawater, high Ca and low K, and large positive Eu anomalies. The Fe content in Buddha's Hands fluid is extremely high (11,900 μM) as a result of phase separation, while the Cu concentrations in both fluids are relatively low due to entrainment of seawater which results in precipitation of Cu-rich sulfides in the subseafloor. The concentrations of Zn, Ag, Ga, Sn, Sb, and Cd in A1 vent fluid are significantly elevated due to generation of acidity and remobilization of these elements as Cu-rich sulfides are deposited. The subseafloor processes and associated geochemistry of hydrothermal fluids at the DVF are distinct from other mid-ocean ridge hydrothermal systems due to the specific geologic setting. Hence a hybrid model of hydrothermal circulation is proposed. This study broadens our understanding of the hydrothermal processes occurring in areas of NTO setting and provides more information on mass fluxes discharging from hydrothermal systems and the formation of sulfide deposits


    full texts


    metadata records
    Updated in last 30 days.
    OceanRep is based in Germany
    Access Repository Dashboard
    Do you manage Open Research Online? Become a CORE Member to access insider analytics, issue reports and manage access to outputs from your repository in the CORE Repository Dashboard! 👇