763 research outputs found

    Knowledge convergence in collaborative learning

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    In collaborative learning the question has been raised as to how learners in small groups influence one another and converge or diverge with respect to knowledge. Knowledge convergence can be conceptualised as knowledge equivalence and as shared knowledge prior to, during, and subsequent to collaborative learning. Knowledge equivalence refers to learners becoming more similar to their learning partners with regard to the extent of their individual knowledge. Shared knowledge means that learners have knowledge on the very same concepts as their learning partners. In this article, we provide measures for assessing both, knowledge equivalence and shared knowledge

    Beverage consumption, and its associations with BMI and lifestyle factors in rural community participants

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    Beverages with little nutritional value, such as carbonated beverages, may negatively impact nutrition and have long-term health implications, including but not limited to obesity. This study examined the risks for beverage consumption choices and intake of participants living in a rural community. Multiple questionnaires adapted from the Chronic Illness Resources Survey, the Harvard Food Frequency Questionnaire, Michigan Alcohol Screening Test (MAST), the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test Questionnaire and 24 Hour Food Recall were administered to a cross sectional sample (n=706) using trained interviewers. The mean age of participants was 23.67 years of age (SD +/- 7.32) with 49.7% females and 50.1% males. Results indicated that carbonated beverages and alcohol consumption were related to increased caloric intake and Body Mass Index (BMI) in the sample (p 53 years old), both male and female, drank fewer carbonated beverages and consumed significantly (p < .05) more caffeinated beverages such as coffee, tea and hot chocolate. The study results suggest an increased need for research into beverage consumption and its relationship to BMI

    Interpreting health events in big data using qualitative traditions

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    © The Author(s) 2020. The training of artificial intelligence requires integrating real-world context and mathematical computations. To achieve efficacious smart health artificial intelligence, contextual clinical knowledge serving as ground truth is required. Qualitative methods are well-suited to lend consistent and valid ground truth. In this methods article, we illustrate the use of qualitative descriptive methods for providing ground truth when training an intelligent agent to detect Restless Leg Syndrome. We show how one interdisciplinary, inter-methodological research team used both sensor-based data and the participant’s description of their experience with an episode of Restless Leg Syndrome for training the intelligent agent. We make the case for clinicians with qualitative research expertise to be included at the design table to ensure optimal efficacy of smart health artificial intelligence and a positive end-user experience

    Perceptions of Non-university Affiliated Dietetic Internship Program Directors Regarding Education Requirements to Obtain a Master’s Degree as an Entry-level Dietitian

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    Purpose: The Commission on Dietetic Registration announced that entry-level eligibility requirements to become a registered dietitian would increase to include obtaining a Master’s degree. The objective of this study was to explore perceptions of non-university affiliated dietetic internship program directors regarding proposed education requirements. Methods: Directors participated in a phone survey of structured questions related to the topic. The population of focus was non-university affiliated dietetic internship program directors. Results: Program directors expressed viewpoints of positive, negative, and mixed regarding the increase in education requirements. Diversity and autonomy were among concerns expressed by program directors. Conclusion: The research found that this subset of stake holders remains conflicted with the decision by the Commission on Dietetic Registration that a Master’s degree would be the entry-level requirement to become a registered dietitian

    Designing Effective Questions for Classroom Response System Teaching

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    Classroom response systems (CRSs) can be potent tools for teaching physics. Their efficacy, however, depends strongly on the quality of the questions used. Creating effective questions is difficult, and differs from creating exam and homework problems. Every CRS question should have an explicit pedagogic purpose consisting of a content goal, a process goal, and a metacognitive goal. Questions can be engineered to fulfil their purpose through four complementary mechanisms: directing students' attention, stimulating specific cognitive processes, communicating information to instructor and students via CRS-tabulated answer counts, and facilitating the articulation and confrontation of ideas. We identify several tactics that help in the design of potent questions, and present four "makeovers" showing how these tactics can be used to convert traditional physics questions into more powerful CRS questions.Comment: 11 pages, including 6 figures and 2 tables. Submitted (and mostly approved) to the American Journal of Physics. Based on invited talk BL05 at the 2005 Winter Meeting of the American Association of Physics Teachers (Albuquerque, NM

    The burden of imported malaria in Cape Town, South Africa

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    BACKGROUND: The Western Cape Province of South Africa (SA) is not malaria endemic; however, a considerable number of patients present with malaria to our healthcare services. OBJECTIVES: To establish the frequency of patients presenting with malaria at Groote Schuur Hospital (GSH), Cape Town, SA, and to describe their demographics, clinical outcomes and laboratory findings. METHODS: An observational, retrospective, descriptive study was conducted, which included all patients presenting with smear-positive malaria to GSH over a 4-year period between 1 April 2008 and 31 March 2012. RESULTS: During the study period, 134 malaria patients presented to GSH for management; 85% (n=114) were male, median age was 27 years. Of the total smear-positive tests, 96% (n=128) were Plasmodium falciparum, 3% (n=4) P. ovale, and in 1% (n=2) the species was not identified. The number of malaria patients increased markedly, from 6 cases in 2008 to 50 cases in 2012. Of the patients, 48.3% (n=57) were from Somalia, 8.5% (n=10) from SA and 29% (n=30) from other African countries. One SA patient acquired transfusion-transmitted malaria from a pooled platelet product, and the other SA patients had travelled to malaria-endemic areas. The remaining cases were from countries outside of Africa, including 13% (n=15) from Bangladesh. Almost two-thirds (62%; n=72) were admitted to hospital with a median length of stay of 3 days (range 1 - 32). Clinical outcomes were good with only one death and the remaining patients being discharged. CONCLUSION: Imported malaria is imposing a significant burden on health resources. The costs of medical care for the emergency treatment of foreign nationals needs to be recognised, and adequately budgeted for

    Revitalizing Pre-service Teacher Pedagogical Competence and Approaches in Teaching Mathematical Comprehension

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    his study assessed the preservice teacher's pedagogical competence and approach to teaching mathematical comprehension to the fourth-year learners was evaluated in this study. The research estimates the preservice teacher's level of pedagogical competence in terms of communication, adaptability, collaboration, inclusivity, and compassion and the level of pedagogical approaches in terms of constructivist, collaborative, integrative, reflective, and inquiry-based as well as improving the preservice teacher's knowledge input Enhancement training program as an invention. The study employed a descriptive-correlational research design to test the viability of the preservice teacher pedagogical competence and approaches in teaching mathematical competence that the fourth-year learners will utilize for their improvement in teaching mathematics findings revealed that the preservice teachers showed high competence as exposure to input enhancement training programs had a positive effect on teaching mathematics. The significant relationship between the preservice teacher's pedagogical competence and approaches is moderately positively correlated in teaching mathematical comprehension. Additionally, the findings of this study will benefit the preservice teachers to enhance their knowledge in teaching mathematics by providing them with attending the Proposed Enhancement Program entitled Reimagining the Current Pedagogical Trends in Teaching Mathematical Word Problems to the fourth-year learners

    Online Mathematics Homework Increases Student Achievement

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    In a randomized field trial with 2,850 seventh-grade mathematics students, we evaluated whether an educational technology intervention increased mathematics learning. Assigning homework is common yet sometimes controversial. Building on prior research on formative assessment and adaptive teaching, we predicted that combining an online homework tool with teacher training could increase learning. The online tool ASSISTments (a) provides timely feedback and hints to students as they do homework and (b) gives teachers timely, organized information about students’ work. To test this prediction, we analyzed data from 43 schools that participated in a random assignment experiment in Maine, a state that provides every seventh-grade student with a laptop to take home. Results showed that the intervention significantly increased student scores on an end-of-the-year standardized mathematics assessment as compared with a control group that continued with existing homework practices. Students with low prior mathematics achievement benefited most. The intervention has potential for wider adoption

    Weight Changes Post-Phentermine Use

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    Purpose: Evaluate weight maintenance in subjects who lost weight while taking phentermine (PTM). Methods: This study was conducted by utilizing a validated survey to collect self-reported data about weight changes post-PTM use. The survey was sent to 19,986 email addresses of current and former patients of a PTM-based outpatient clinic, located in Chicago, IL; 546 participants completed the survey. Results were analyzed using a variety of techniques. Results: At the time of the survey, 42% of responders maintained all the weight lost while on PTM, and 25.2% had maintained a weight loss of at least 10% of their body weight. The average weight lost and maintained at the time of the survey was 3.75% ± 13.8% of body weight or 8.74 lbs ± 27.45 lbs. Nineteen responders had no net weight change. Fifty-nine responders reported a net weight gain, ranging from 2 to 70 lbs with a mean net weight gain of 16.07 lbs ± 13.87 lbs. The duration of time since discontinuing PTM use had a significant correlation with weight maintenance: r = 0.340, p value = .000. There was no significant correlation between duration of time using PTM and weight maintenance. No correlations were identified between education, income, or ethnicity and weight maintenance. A correlation was identified between weight maintenance and current exercise level: r = 0.218, p value = .000. Conclusions: Although more research is needed, with the results of this study, the investigators suggest that post-PTM use, weight regain is not significantly higher than weight regain through other weight loss programs. In order to achieve long-term weight loss maintenance, it may behoove patients to receive professional guidance about behavior modifications to maintain weight lost, particularly related to exercise and dietary changes. The investigators of this study suggest greater emphasis on behavior modification in patients taking PTM is indicated
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