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    An Examination of the Scope and Variety of Adventure Therapy Services within the State of Maine

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    This study involved an examination of the scope and variety of adventure therapy services that are currently being offered by mental health agencies within the state of Maine. A review of related literature has shown that there were a number of closely related therapeutic modalities which could be subsumed by the tam adventure therapy and an operational definition was proposed. The statistical conclusions of the study were compiled fiom the data collected by the use of a survey instrument which was designed and pilot tested before being mailed to 191 agencies and 56 responses were returned. Results of this survey were used to investigate the relationships between the types of mental health services being provided, the varieties of diagnosed populations being served, and the factors that either promoted or impeded the offering of adventure therapy programs. In this study, 33.9% of the agencies were offering adventure therapy services and that the majority of agencies that were not offering these services referred their clients out for them. The uses of descriptive as well as inferential statistics were employed in order to plot the frequency distributions and relative proportions of several important qualitative variables and to allow the analysis of specific relationships among these variables. In this study, factors that influenced the likelihood of offering this kind of therapy were explored. Among the variables which were investigated were psychotherapists\u27 perceptions of the utility of adventure therapy programs, the agency\u27s access to required financial resources, and the availability of appropriately trained staff who possessed the technical skills necessary to conduct adventure therapy programs. The findings of this study provided information about the extent of adventure therapy programs throughout Maine. This information will be valuable to mental health clinicians, social service caseworkers, and family members interested in either making or requesting referrals to those agencies offering adventure therapy services. The methodological contribution of a new survey instrument together with the development of an operational definition of the term adventure therapy will also allow subsequent researchers to conduct more empirical studies into the efficacy of this therapeutic modality

    Climatic and Lithogenic Controls on Soil Organic Matter-Mineral Associations

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    Interactions of organic matter (OM) with soil mineral phases strongly affect the storage and dynamics of soil OM as well as other ecosystem processes. This study examined aspects of organo-mineral associations in soils at different scales. First, I assessed the potential controls of climate and parent rock type on organo-mineral associations using two sets of undisturbed tropical forest soils developed on two contrasting rocks along an altitudinal gradient in Borneo, Southeast Asia. Density fractionations showed that OM stored in surface mineral soils partitioned towards plant detritus fraction under cooler climates on both rock types. Thus climate exerted stronger control on soil OM storage and partitioning patterns than parent rock in the study area. The plant detritus associated with soil mineral grains also increased its standing stock under cooler climates, suggesting that abundance of mineral-free detritus and its comminution had stronger control than soil mineralogical factors. Second, gas sorption approaches were applied to the same sets of soils to assess OM associations with soil mineral surfaces. Surface characterization before and after OM removal revealed that, with increasing altitude and OM loading, OM appear to accumulate in globular forms that incidentally encapsulate fine mineral grains, rather than accumulating via sorption onto all mineral surfaces. Similar control of soil OM loading on the organo-mineral arrangements was found in soils of different geographic areas and soil types (n = 33), suggesting much wider generality of this relationship. Third, I examined the importance of hydrous iron oxides (FeOx), a common soil mineral phase known to have strong sorptive capacity, for soil OM storage using a wider range of mineral soils spanning eight soil orders. With a modified selective FeOx dissolution method, I achieved the first quantification of the organic carbon (OC) that can be released from FeOx phases. Iron-bound OC accounted for only minor fractions of total soil OC (mean: 11%, range: 0-37%), indicating limited capacity of FeOx to sorptively store bulk of soil OM. The mass ratios of OC to iron (0C:Fe) of the extracts in some low pH, organic samples (e.g., spodic horizons) implied the presence of organo-iron complexes rather than adsorbed forms

    Physiology, Enzyme Production, and Zoospore Behavior of Balrachochytrium dendrobatidis, a Chytrid Pathogenic to Amphibians

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    Balrachochytrium dendrobatidis is a pathogen of amphibians that has caused severe population declines on several continents, and little is known about the conditions that favor epidemics. The zoospore activity, temperature, and pH requirements of B. dendrobutidis were investigated to help understand the ecology and transmission of this pathogen. Over 95% of the chytrid\u27s zoospores stop moving in less than 24 hours, and the zoospores swam less than 2 cm before encysting on tryptone agar. B. dendrobutidis zoospores were not attracted to tryptone, gelatin hydrolysate, casamino acids, keratin, gelatin, glucose, or lactose. The chytrid grew and reproduced at temperatures ranging from 4 to 25 OC, and grew best from 17 to 25 OC; it survived and reproduced for more than 6 months at 4 C. Exposure of cultures to 30 OC for 8 days killed 50% of the cultures. Different isolates of B, dendrobutidis did not differ in their temperature optima. The chytrid grew best at a pHs ranging from 6 to 7, but live zoospores were present after two weeks of incubation at pHs ranging from 4 to 8. The zoospore activity and physiological parameters could determine the transmission and persistence of B. dendrobutidis in the environment. The nutritional requirements of Butrachochytriunz dendrobatidis were studied to help determine if the chytrid could live on saprophytic substrates outside its host, and to aid in designing an optimal culture medium for the fungus. No synthetic medium tested supported growth. B. dendrobutidis cultures grew densest with tryptone or peptonized milk as a nitrogen source. The chytrid did not require additional sugars when grown in tryptone; and grew densest in a liquid medium with 0.5 % tryptone alone. Liquid media with glucose concentrations greater than 1.8% or tryptone concentrations greater than 2% hindered growth. The chytrid grew on autoclaved snakeskin in water or on 1 % keratin agar. B. dendrobutidis produced extracellular proteases that degraded casein and gelatin, but had no measurable activity against keratin azure. The proteases were most active against casein at temperatures from 23 to 30 OC at pH 8.0; however, they were active at temperatures from 6 to 37 OC, and in a pH range from 6 to 8. SDS-PAGE analysis of the culture supernatant yielded no visible protein bands when stained with Coomassie blue or copper chloride; but activity gels with 0.5% skim milk revealed two distinct clearing

    Analysis of the Spatial Dynamics of the American Lobster (Homarus Americanus) Fishery along the Coast of Maine

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    The American lobster (Homarus americanus) supports the most valuable commercial fishery in the northeastern United States, thus the fishery is critical to Maine\u27s economy. No systematic study has been done to collect information about, identify, and quantify the spatial dynamics of the Maine lobster fishery. This project helps to provide a better understanding of Maine\u27s lobster fishery dynamics, and it will aid f\u27iture efforts to improve the stock assessment of Maine\u27s lobster fishery. The analysis consists of three distinct parts: (1) comparison of data collected by two separate fishery dependent sampling programs; (2) spatial analysis of electronic logbook data; and (3) harbor gang temtoriality evidenced by electronic logbook data. The Maine Department of Marine Resources has established two fishery- dependent sampling programs: sea sampling and port sampling. Using data from 1998 - 2000, we evaluated the consistency in size composition and catch per unit of effort (CPUE) between the sea and port sampling programs. The overall pattern that emerged was a stronger relationship between sea and port sampling data over time from 1998- 2000, implying the two sampling programs were consistent in describing temporal variations in CPUE. This study suggests that either program should be sufficient in monitoring temporal trends of the lobster fishery. The American lobster fishery exhibits strong seasonal variations in spatial distributions of traps. In this study, we developed and applied two spatial statistical models, a moving window model and the empirical distribution function (EDF) model, to explore and describe data from the lobster fishery in order to quantify the spatial and temporal dynamics of fishing effort. This study suggests that fishing effort data were clustered rather than randomly distributed for the entire fishing season in the Stonington area. Therefore, we can state the data are not random in space or in time, but rather trap locations are clustered. Plots of nearest trap locations from May to December indicated that the trap locations were also not random at the smaller time scale. The nearest location distances of trap locations varied by month, but a general trend of decreased distances from May to September was observed, followed by increased distances from October to December. Electronic logbook data were displayed using GIs software to analyze the various boundaries observed by lobstermen. Management zone boundaries affected Stonington, Vinalhaven, Tenants Harbor, Spruce Head, New Harbor, and Long Island fishing areas to varying degrees in most seasons. Unofficial or territorial boundaries were assumed to have affected all areas, but some more obviously than others. Among these most affected were Stonington, Tenants Harbor, Port Clyde, Metinic, Round Pond, New Harbor, Cousins Island, and Harpswell. Territoriality among harbor gangs was shown to have at least partially structured the fishing areas observed through Thistle Marine data. These analyses have provided the DMR with important information on their current sampling programs, methodologies for future analysis of the fishery, and information affecting future management decisions and stock assessments

    Scope for Activity, Specific Dynamic Action and Growth in Early Juvenile Stages of Atlantic Cod, Gadus morhua

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    Growth rates of early life stages of Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) are very high, but decline, as the fish grow larger. Little is know about the physiological processes that facilitate and regulate this growth pattern. In this study, feeding and swimming metabolism were measured in individual juvenile Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) in order to investigate how energy are allocated to swimming and growth in fast growing stages of fishes. Metabolic rates were measured by the means of oxygen consumption using two Brett-type respirometers. The metabolic measurements were repeated several times in individual juvenile Atlantic cod with a wet body mass of 0.5-5.0 g over a period of 100 d. Wet body mass and total length of individual cod were measured biweekly during the experimental period and used together with metabolic measurements to determine the relationship between energy utilization and growth. The study consisted of two parts, 1) determination of aerobic scope for activity (the difference between standard and active metabolism), and 2) measurement of specific dynamic action (SDA, which represents the energy expenditure for ingesting, digesting, absorption of foodstuff, biochemical transformation of nutrients and assimilation of proteins). Power-performance relationships between oxygen consumption and swimming speed were established for juvenile Atlantic cod for the first time. Standard metabolic rate (RJ and active metabolic rate (R) were calculated fiom the power-performance relationships by extrapolating to zero swimming speed and maximum sustained swimming speed, respectively. Scope for activity was calculated as the difference between active and standard metabolism (&-F&). SDA duration, amplitude and magnitude were calculated by measuring oxygen consumption of fed and unfed fish swimming at a low cruising speed. Specific growth rates (G) ranged fiom 1.4 - 4.4% wet body mass dm\u27 and decreased with increasing body mass. Scope for activity ranged fiom 10.2 to 40.7pmol 0 2 h-\u27 for juvenile cod with a mass of 0.53-2.89 g. Scope for activity increased with increasing body mass, while mass-specific scope for activity (pmol02/M) decreased with increasing body mass. SDA peaked within 1 h after feeding for juvenile cod with a wet body mass of O.45-4.2Og, and peak values were 1.12-2.22 times the unfed values. SDA duration for juvenile Atlantic cod ranged fiom 2 to 8 hours. SDA magnitude ranged fiom 2.8 to 60.0 pmol 0 2 and increased with increasing wet body mass. Relative magnitude of SDA (percentage of the energy value of the ingested food) was found to be 0.18-3.84%. SDA amplitude accounted for 14.8-44.0% of the scope for activity. Results fiom this study suggest that the swimming and feeding metabolism in early stages of juvenile Atlantic cod differs fiom that of larger juvenile and adult cod. Major physiological differences include higher specific growth rates, shorter time to peak SDA, shorter SDA duration, lower relative SDA magnitude and a smaller portion of scope for activity taken up by SDA. Physiological differences among early juvenile and adult cod may be the result of the metabolic demand for high growth rates in small juvenile cod. Further research is needed to determine the physiological differences and the underlying mechanisms for different life stages of Atlantic cod and other temperate fishes

    A Thematic Exploration of For Colored Girls Who Have Considered Suicide/ When the Rainbow is Enuf, by Ntozake Shange

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    White customs and values have traditionally monopolized commercial theatre. It is not until recently that theatre has taken on multicultural influences in order to incorporate minorities into the audience. There are many artists who have pushed beyond the barrier of modern traditional theatre and influenced their generation One of these artists has challenged not only traditional theatre, but also addressed gender and race issues as well, with controversial results. This artist is named Ntozake Shange and the play that received so much attention is for colored girls who have considered suicide/ when the rainbow is enuf. This piece is intended to speak to women of color and to offer guidance for Black girls. The thesis covers a brief history of Shange\u27s life and experiences into the piece. The paper also addresses Shange\u27s intentions for the piece as it evolved from writing to production and then onto the Broadway stage. Shange termed her work a choreopoem that, by definition, incorporated music, dance, and poetry. Each of these three elements flow together creating a performance that is organic in nature. African storytelling, religion, dance, and music inspired the choreopoem. In order to demonstrate Shange\u27s intentions for the piece, the thesis then describes each element of a choreopoem and analyzes Shange\u27s use of it within for colored girls. Next, the paper discusses the play by analyzing the content of related poems in the piece. By doing this, the paper pulls out certain pieces of subject matter in order to prove Shange\u27s intentions. As well as discussing the performance, the thesis briefly touches upon some critical reactions to the piece and influences it has had on the audience. By acknowledging the awards and impact the piece has had, this analyzes whether or not Shange\u27s intentions were successful

    Anthropogenic Influences and Meteorological Effects: How They are Changing the Sand Beaches in Southern Maine

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    Although sand beaches in southern Maine comprise only a small segment of the coastline, they are economically important to the state. From September 1999-March 2001, volunteers made monthly topographic profiles along nine beaches in southern Maine to monitor changes. The volunteers used the Emery Method of beach profiling to take simultaneous measurements at spring low tide. The beaches are significantly different with respect to physiography, incident wave energy and direction, available sediment supply and extent of development. An average of the profiles for each category demonstrates that the undeveloped beaches experienced regular seasonal fluctuations and a consistent berm elevation from one hill to the next. The moderately and developed beaches also showed seasonal fluctuations, but the berm during the &I1 2000 was close to 0.5 m higher than the berm in fkll1999, a response that was not observed on the undeveloped beaches. Weather, particularly storms, are one of the most important controls on the cycle of erosion and accretion. Current meters placed in shoreface locations of Saco Bay and Wells Embayment, Maine, recorded bottom currents during the winter months of 2000 and 2001. The current meters documented three unique types of storms: frontal passages, southwest storms, and northeast storms. In general, frontal passages and southwest storms were responsible for bringing sediment towards the shore, while northeast storms resulted in a net movement of sediment away from the beach. A northeast storm on March 5-6,2001, resulted in currents in excess of one mlsec and wave heights that reached six meters. The storm persisted over 10 high tides and caused coastal flooding and damage to property. Topographic profiles made before and after the storm demonstrate that developed beaches experienced a loss of sediment during the storm while sediment was redistributed along the profile on moderately developed and undeveloped beaches. Two months after the storm, the profiles along the developed beaches had not reached their pre-storm elevation. In comparison, the moderately developed and undeveloped beaches reached and exceeded their pre-storm elevation and began to show berm buildup characteristic of the summer months. The amount of sediment available to the system was another factor that played a role in the changes observed along the profiles. The expected high sand volumes in the summer and low volumes in the winter were generally not observed along any of the barriers. Eight out of the nine beaches showed a net gain in the active volume of sediment during the sampling interval. Results from the past year and a half suggest that profiling efforts need to continue into the future to minimize the effects of seasonal and other short-term changes and to determine whether the beaches are in a stable state. It is probable that the barriers are currently in equilibrium with human-induced alterations and a significant storm event is necessary to cause extreme erosion and movement of the shoreline

    The Effects of Forest Practices on a Maine Amphibian Community

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    Changes in forest habitat have been linked to global declines in amphibian populations, but little research has been conducted into the mechanisms causing these declines. This study evaluated the effects of changes in forest habitat on the spatial distribution of a Maine amphibian community, focusing on juvenile wood frogs, Rana sylvatica. Juvenile wood frogs emerging from artificial ponds did not orient towards preferred habitat and a significant number of animals maintained the same directionality documented at the site from which larval individuals were collected. Abundance and habitat use differed among adults of 9 species of amphibians in a replicated landscape (n = 4, each 10 ha in size) of 4 forestry treatments (clearcut with coarse woody debris [CWD] removed, clearcut with CWD retained, partial-cut of 50% of canopy cover, and an uncut control) centered on a breeding pool. Lower captures of juveniles of all species (statistically significant for 7 of 9 species) were seen in clearcuts compared to forested treatments. Juvenile wood frogs marked as they emerged from the breeding pools preferred forested treatments to the clearcuts, but patterns of captures within each treatment at different distances from the pond’s edge did not differ. The response of juvenile wood frogs to habitat heterogeneity (in the 10 ha landscapes, a 12x16 m area of hexagonal patches, 1x4 m pens, and a 10x10 m pen) changed from coarse scale habitat selection during emigration, to fine scale selection when settling. Spatial simulations designed to predict the effects of habitat change on the spatial distribution of juvenile wood frogs best predicted field data when specific movement behavior, and a heterogeneous landscape were included. Model results demonstrated the importance of comparing densities of frogs in different habitat types following emigration, as well as the distribution of frogs over distance when considering effects of habitat change on local populations. The study demonstrated the complex responses of amphibians to habitat change and the importance of conducting research at multiple spatial and temporal scales. Simulations highlighted the need for species-specific information when predicting the effects of habitat change on the spatial distribution of amphibians, and managing habitat accordingly

    The Case for Instrumental Music Education: The Academic, Physical, and Social Benefits for Students

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    Music is an integral part of our lives. There are countless examples of how learning music affects intelligence in students, but that is not music’s only benefit. Music is an academic discipline available in schools in which students’ simultaneously develop cognitive abilities, physical abilities, and social skills. This is particularly evident in the instrumental music classroom. Through the studying of instrumental music and playing in ensembles, students learn countless lifelong skills that help them develop into intelligent, creative leaders. The cognitive abilities of the students grow and expand the longer they study music. Furthermore, it has been proven that their test scores improve in the math and sciences. Through reading music, students learn a new language that is significantly more complex than any other written language. They also improve their physical motor skills by honing their abilities at a piano or a variety of other instruments. Students learn leadership, organization, dedication, and teamwork, and also develop an interactive awareness of what is occurring around them through ensemble playing. All objective evidence points to the importance of instrumental music education in the schools. The minimizing of music takes away an important tool in achieving students’ success as adults. The importance of instrumental music education needs to be recognized so that programs are supported and the positive effects upon students will not be lost

    Snowmobiling in Maine: Past Successes, Future Challenges

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    With one snowmobile registration for every 15 residents, Maine may well have the most snowmobiles per capita of any U.S. state. Moreover, the state’s 12,000-mile network of groomed trails and its 2,500-mile Interconnected Trail System make it a major winter tourist attraction. Still, as David Vail points out—and as the number of snowmobile-related deaths confirms—such progress has not come without costs and conflict. Although Vail argues the benefits outweigh the costs, he suggests Maine should act now to alleviate the conflicts related to congestion, over use of the state’s major trails, noise and air pollution, and free riding by non-dues-paying sledders. He argues these problems cannot be handled by local snowmobile clubs alone, but require an active partnership with state government to mitigate current conflicts and to avert future ones


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