1,670 research outputs found

    ERP measures of math anxiety:how math anxiety affects working memory and mental calculation tasks?

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    There have been several attempts to account for the impact of Mathematical Anxiety (MA) on brain activity with variable results. The present study examines the effects of MA on ERP amplitude during performance of simple arithmetic calculations and working memory tasks. Data were obtained from 32 university students as they solved four types of arithmetic problems (one- and two-digit addition and multiplication) and a working memory task comprised of three levels of difficulty (1, 2, and 3-back task). Compared to the Low-MA group, High-MA individuals demonstrated reduced ERP amplitude at frontocentral (between 180-320 ms) and centroparietal locations (between 380-420 ms). These effects were independent of task difficulty/complexity, individual performance, and general state/trait anxiety levels. Results support the hypothesis that higher levels of self-reported MA are associated with lower cortical activation during the early stages of the processing of numeric stimuli in the context of cognitive tasks

    Incipient rolling of coarse particles in water flows: a dynamical perspective

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    River morphodynamics and sediment transportMechanics of sediment transpor

    The Impact of Math Anxiety on Working Memory:A Cortical Activations and Cortical Functional Connectivity EEG Study

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    Mathematical anxiety (MA) is defined as a feeling of tension, apprehension, or fear that interferes with mathematical performance in various daily or academic situations. Cognitive consequences of MA have been studied a lot and revealed that MA seriously affects solving the complex problem due to the corruption of working memory (WM). The corruption of WM caused by MA is well documented in behavioral level, but the involved neurophysiological processes have not been properly addressed, despite the recent attention drawn on the neural basis of MA. This is the second part of our study that intents to investigate the neurophysiological aspects of MA and its implications to WM. In the first study, we saw how MA affects the early stages of numeric stimuli processes as the WM indirectly using event-related potentials in scalp electroencephalographic (EEG) signals. This paper goes one step further to investigate the cortical activations, obtained by the multichannel EEG recordings as well as the cortical functional networks in three WM tasks with increasing difficulty. Our results indicate that the high-math anxious (HMA) group activated more areas linked with negative emotions, pain, and fear, while the low-math anxious (LMA) group activated regions related to the encoding and retrieval processes of the WM. Functional connectivity analysis also reveals that the LMAs' brain has got more structured cortical networks with increased connectivity in areas related to WM, such as the frontal cortex, while the HMAs' brain has a more diffused and unstructured network, superimposing the evidence that the structured processes of WM are corrupted

    Math anxiety:brain cortical network changes in anticipation of doing mathematics

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    Following our previous work regarding the involvement of math anxiety (MA) in math-oriented tasks, this study tries to explore the differences in the cerebral networks' topology between self-reported low math-anxious (LMA) and high math-anxious (HMA) individuals, during the anticipation phase prior to a mathematical related experiment. For this reason, multichannel EEG recordings were adopted, while the solution of the inverse problem was applied in a generic head model, in order to obtain the cortical signals. The cortical networks have been computed for each band separately, using the magnitude square coherence metric. The main graph theoretical parameters, showed differences in segregation and integration in almost all EEG bands of the HMAs in comparison to LMAs, indicative of a great influence of the anticipatory anxiety prior to mathematical performance

    Source Detection and Functional Connectivity of the Sensorimotor Cortex during Actual and Imaginary Limb Movement:A Preliminary Study on the Implementation of eConnectome in Motor Imagery Protocols

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    Introduction . Sensorimotor cortex is activated similarly during motor execution and motor imagery. The study of functional connectivity networks (FCNs) aims at successfully modeling the dynamics of information flow between cortical areas. Materials and Methods . Seven healthy subjects performed 4 motor tasks (real foot, imaginary foot, real hand, and imaginary hand movements), while electroencephalography was recorded over the sensorimotor cortex. Event-Related Desynchronization/Synchronization (ERD/ERS) of the mu-rhythm was used to evaluate MI performance. Source detection and FCNs were studied with eConnectome. Results and Discussion . Four subjects produced similar ERD/ERS patterns between motor execution and imagery during both hand and foot tasks, 2 subjects only during hand tasks, and 1 subject only during foot tasks. All subjects showed the expected brain activation in well-performed MI tasks, facilitating cortical source estimation. Preliminary functional connectivity analysis shows formation of networks on the sensorimotor cortex during motor imagery and execution. Conclusions . Cortex activation maps depict sensorimotor cortex activation, while similar functional connectivity networks are formed in the sensorimotor cortex both during actual and imaginary movements. eConnectome is demonstrated as an effective tool for the study of cortex activation and FCN. The implementation of FCN in motor imagery could induce promising advancements in Brain Computer Interfaces

    The transcription factor GATA6 is essential for early extraembryonic development

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    The gene coding for the murine transcription factor GATA6 was inactivated by insertion of a beta-galactosidase marker gene. The analysis of heterozygote GATA6/lacZ mice shows two inductions of GATA6 expression early in development. It is first expressed at the blastocyst stage in part of the inner mass and in the trophectoderm. The second wave of expression is in parietal endoderm (Reichert's membrane) and the mesoderm and endoderm that form the heart and gut. Inactivation leads to a lethality shortly after implantation (5.5 days postcoitum). Chimeric experiments show this to be caused by an indirect effect on the epiblast due to a defect in an extraembryonic tissue

    Automatic recognition of personality profiles using EEG functional connectivity during emotional processing

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    Personality is the characteristic set of an individual’s behavioral and emotional patterns that evolve from biological and environmental factors. The recognition of personality profiles is crucial in making human−computer interaction (HCI) applications realistic, more focused, and user friendly. The ability to recognize personality using neuroscientific data underpins the neurobiological basis of personality. This paper aims to automatically recognize personality, combining scalp electroencephalogram (EEG) and machine learning techniques. As the resting state EEG has not so far been proven efficient for predicting personality, we used EEG recordings elicited during emotion processing. This study was based on data from the AMIGOS dataset reflecting the response of 37 healthy participants. Brain networks and graph theoretical parameters were extracted from cleaned EEG signals, while each trait score was dichotomized into low- and high-level using the k-means algorithm. A feature selection algorithm was used afterwards to reduce the feature-set size to the best 10 features to describe each trait separately. Support vector machines (SVM) were finally employed to classify each instance. Our method achieved a classification accuracy of 83.8% for extraversion, 86.5% for agreeableness, 83.8% for conscientiousness, 83.8% for neuroticism, and 73% for openness

    Functional disorganization of small-world brain networks in mild Alzheimer's disease and amnestic Mild cognitive impairment:An EEG study using Relative Wavelet Entropy (RWE)

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    Previous neuroscientific findings have linked Alzheimer's disease (AD) with less efficient information processing and brain network disorganization. However, pathological alterations of the brain networks during the preclinical phase of amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment (aMCI) remain largely unknown. The present study aimed at comparing patterns of the detection of functional disorganization in MCI relative to Mild Dementia (MD). Participants consisted of 23 cognitively healthy adults, 17 aMCI and 24 mild AD patients who underwent electroencephalographic (EEG) data acquisition during a resting-state condition. Synchronization analysis through the Orthogonal Discrete Wavelet Transform (ODWT), and directional brain network analysis were applied on the EEG data. This computational model was performed for networks that have the same number of edges (N=500, 600, 700, 800 edges) across all participants and groups (fixed density values). All groups exhibited a small-world (SW) brain architecture. However, we found a significant reduction in the SW brain architecture in both aMCI and MD patients relative to the group of Healthy controls. This functional disorganization was also correlated with the participant's generic cognitive status. The deterioration of the network's organization was caused mainly by deficient local information processing as quantified by the mean cluster coefficient value. Functional hubs were identified through the normalized betweenness centrality metric. Analysis of the local characteristics showed relative hub preservation even with statistically significant reduced strength. Compensatory phenomena were also evident through the formation of additional hubs on left frontal and parietal regions. Our results indicate a declined functional network organization even during the prodromal phase. Degeneration is evident even in the preclinical phase and coexists with transient network reorganization due to compensation

    Interactive effects of dopamine transporter genotype and aging on resting-state functional networks

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    Aging and dopamine modulation have both been independently shown to influence the functional connectivity of brain networks during rest. Dopamine modulation is known to decline during the course of aging. Previous evidence also shows that the dopamine transporter gene (DAT1) influences the re-uptake of dopamine and the anyA9 genotype of this gene is associated with higher striatal dopamine signaling. Expanding these two lines of prior research, we investigated potential interactive effects between aging and individual variations in the DAT1 gene on the modular organization of brain acvitiy during rest. The graph-theoretic metrics of modularity, betweenness centrality and participation coefficient were assessed in 41 younger (age 20-30 years) and 37 older (age 60-75 years) adults. Age differences were only observed in the participation coefficient in carriers of the anyA9 genotype of the DAT1 gene and this effect was most prominently observed in the default mode network. Furthermore, we found that individual differences in the values of the participation coefficient correlated with individual differences in fluid intelligence and a measure of executive control in the anyA9 carriers. The correlation between participation coefficient and fluid intelligence was mainly shared with age-related differences, whereas the correlation with executive control was independent of age. These findings suggest that DAT1 genotype moderates age differences in the functional integration of brain networks as well as the relation between network characteristics and cognitive abilities

    A Graph theoretical approach to study the organization of the cortical networks during different mathematical tasks.

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    The two core systems of mathematical processing (subitizing and retrieval) as well as their functionality are already known and published. In this study we have used graph theory to compare the brain network organization of these two core systems in the cortical layer during difficult calculations. We have examined separately all the EEG frequency bands in healthy young individuals and we found that the network organization at rest, as well as during mathematical tasks has the characteristics of Small World Networks for all the bands, which is the optimum organization required for efficient information processing. The different mathematical stimuli provoked changes in the graph parameters of different frequency bands, especially the low frequency bands. More specific, in Delta band the induced network increases it's local and global efficiency during the transition from subitizing to retrieval system, while results suggest that difficult mathematics provoke networks with higher cliquish organization due to more specific demands. The network of the Theta band follows the same pattern as before, having high nodal and remote organization during difficult mathematics. Also the spatial distribution of the network's weights revealed more prominent connections in frontoparietal regions, revealing the working memory load due to the engagement of the retrieval system. The cortical networks of the alpha brainwaves were also more efficient, both locally and globally, during difficult mathematics, while the fact that alpha's network was more dense on the frontparietal regions as well, reveals the engagement of the retrieval system again. Concluding, this study gives more evidences regarding the interaction of the two core systems, exploiting the produced functional networks of the cerebral cortex, especially for the difficult mathematics