2,563 research outputs found

    Characterization studies of Silicon Photomultipliers and crystals matrices for a novel time of flight PET detector

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    This paper describes the characterization of crystal matrices and silicon photomultiplier arrays for a novel Positron Emission Tomography (PET) detector, namely the external plate of the EndoTOFPET-US system. The EndoTOFPET-US collaboration aims to integrate Time-Of-Flight PET with ultrasound endoscopy in a novel multimodal device, capable to support the development of new biomarkers for prostate and pancreatic tumors. The detector consists in two parts: a PET head mounted on an ultrasound probe and an external PET plate. The challenging goal of 1 mm spatial resolution for the PET image requires a detector with small crystal size, and therefore high channel density: 4096 LYSO crystals individually readout by Silicon Photomultipliers (SiPM) make up the external plate. The quality and properties of these components must be assessed before the assembly. The dark count rate, gain, breakdown voltage and correlated noise of the SiPMs are measured, while the LYSO crystals are evaluated in terms of light yield and energy resolution. In order to effectively reduce the noise in the PET image, high time resolution for the gamma detection is mandatory. The Coincidence Time Resolution (CTR) of all the SiPMs assembled with crystals is measured, and results show a value close to the demanding goal of 200 ps FWHM. The light output is evaluated for every channel for a preliminary detector calibration, showing an average of about 1800 pixels fired on the SiPM for a 511 keV interaction. Finally, the average energy resolution at 511 keV is about 13 %, enough for effective Compton rejection.Comment: 12 pages, 31 figure

    Improvement of several properties of lead tungstate crystals with different doping ions

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    A very good radiation resistance of Lead Tungstate crystals is mandatory for their use in the high precision electromagnetic calorimeter of the CMS experiment at LHC. Since the beginning of 1996 we have organised systematic investigations of the parameters influencing the radiation hardness of this crystal. Two classes of parameters have been particularly studied, the first one related to the control of the stoichiometry and structure associated defects, the second one connected with the suppression and the charge compensation of existing defects with different kinds of doping ions. This paper reports about the second part of this study and complements a first paper where the role of the stoichiometry was already discussed. Results of tests are given on a significant statistical sample of full size crystals ( 23cm) which show a considerable improvement in the optical properties and the radiation resistance of appropriately doped crystals

    Development of an anthropomorphic breast phantom for combined PET, B-mode ultrasound and elastographic imaging

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    International audienceCombining the advantages of different imaging modalities leads to improved clinical results. For example, ultrasound provides good real-time structural information without any radiation and PET provides sensitive functional information. For the ongoing ClearPEM-Sonic project combining ultrasound and PET for breast imaging, we developed a dual-modality PET/Ultrasound (US) phantom. The phantom reproduces the acoustic and elastic properties of human breast tissue and allows labeling the different tissues in the phantom with different concentrations of FDG. The phantom was imaged with a whole-body PET/CT and with the Supersonic Imagine Aixplorer system. This system allows both B-mode US and shear wave elastographic imaging. US elastography is a new imaging method for displaying the tissue elasticity distribution. It was shown to be useful in breast imaging. We also tested the phantom with static elastography. A 6D magnetic positioning system allows fusing the images obtained with the two modalities. ClearPEM-Sonic is a project of the Crystal Clear Collaboration and the European Centre for Research on Medical Imaging (CERIMED)

    Sub-10 ps time tagging of electromagnetic showers with scintillating glasses and SiPMs

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    The high energy physics community has recently identified an e+e‚ąíe^+e^- Higgs factory as one of the next-generation collider experiments, following the completion of the High Luminosity LHC program at CERN.The moderate radiation levels expected at such colliders compared to hadron colliders, enable the use of less radiation tolerant but cheaper technologies for the construction of the particle detectors. This opportunity has triggered a renewed interest in the development of scintillating glasses for the instrumentation of large detector volumes such as homogeneous calorimeters. While the performance of such scintillators remains typically inferior in terms of light yield and radiation tolerance compared to that of many scintillating crystals, substantial progress has been made over the recent years. In this paper we discuss the time resolution of cerium-doped Alkali Free Fluorophosphate scintillating glasses, read-out with silicon photo-multipliers in detecting single charged tracks and at different positions along the longitudinal development of an electromagnetic shower, using respectively 150~GeV pions and 100~GeV electron beams at the CERN SPS H2 beam line. A single sensor time resolution of 14.4~ps and 5-7~ps was measured respectively in the two cases. With such a performance the present technology has the potential to address an emerging requirement of future detectors at collider experiments: measuring the time-of-flight of single charged particles as well as that of neutral particles showering inside the calorimeter and the time development of showers

    Needs, trends, and advances in scintillators for radiographic imaging and tomography

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    Scintillators are important materials for radiographic imaging and tomography (RadIT), when ionizing radiations are used to reveal internal structures of materials. Since its invention by R\"ontgen, RadIT now come in many modalities such as absorption-based X-ray radiography, phase contrast X-ray imaging, coherent X-ray diffractive imaging, high-energy X- and ő≥‚ąí\gamma-ray radiography at above 1 MeV, X-ray computed tomography (CT), proton imaging and tomography (IT), neutron IT, positron emission tomography (PET), high-energy electron radiography, muon tomography, etc. Spatial, temporal resolution, sensitivity, and radiation hardness, among others, are common metrics for RadIT performance, which are enabled by, in addition to scintillators, advances in high-luminosity accelerators and high-power lasers, photodetectors especially CMOS pixelated sensor arrays, and lately data science. Medical imaging, nondestructive testing, nuclear safety and safeguards are traditional RadIT applications. Examples of growing or emerging applications include space, additive manufacturing, machine vision, and virtual reality or `metaverse'. Scintillator metrics such as light yield and decay time are correlated to RadIT metrics. More than 160 kinds of scintillators and applications are presented during the SCINT22 conference. New trends include inorganic and organic scintillator heterostructures, liquid phase synthesis of perovskites and őľ\mum-thick films, use of multiphysics models and data science to guide scintillator development, structural innovations such as photonic crystals, nanoscintillators enhanced by the Purcell effect, novel scintillator fibers, and multilayer configurations. Opportunities exist through optimization of RadIT with reduced radiation dose, data-driven measurements, photon/particle counting and tracking methods supplementing time-integrated measurements, and multimodal RadIT.Comment: 45 pages, 43 Figures, SCINT22 conference overvie

    Measurement of W Polarisation at LEP

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    The three different helicity states of W bosons produced in the reaction e+ e- -> W+ W- -> l nu q q~ at LEP are studied using leptonic and hadronic W decays. Data at centre-of-mass energies \sqrt s = 183-209 GeV are used to measure the polarisation of W bosons, and its dependence on the W boson production angle. The fraction of longitudinally polarised W bosons is measured to be 0.218 \pm 0.027 \pm 0.016 where the first uncertainty is statistical and the second systematic, in agreement with the Standard Model expectation

    Search for Branons at LEP

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    We search, in the context of extra-dimension scenarios, for the possible existence of brane fluctuations, called branons. Events with a single photon or a single Z-boson and missing energy and momentum collected with the L3 detector in e^+ e^- collisions at centre-of-mass energies sqrt{s}=189-209$ GeV are analysed. No excess over the Standard Model expectations is found and a lower limit at 95% confidence level of 103 GeV is derived for the mass of branons, for a scenario with small brane tensions. Alternatively, under the assumption of a light branon, brane tensions below 180 GeV are excluded

    Z Boson Pair-Production at LEP

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    Events stemming from the pair-production of Z bosons in e^+e^- collisions are studied using 217.4 pb^-1 of data collected with the L3 detector at centre-of-mass energies from 200 GeV up to 209 GeV. The special case of events with b quarks is also investigated. Combining these events with those collected at lower centre-of-mass energies, the Standard Model predictions for the production mechanism are verified. In addition, limits are set on anomalous couplings of neutral gauge bosons and on effects of extra space dimensions

    Bose-Einstein Correlations of Neutral and Charged Pions in Hadronic Z Decays

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    Bose-Einstein correlations of both neutral and like-sign charged pion pairs are measured in a sample of 2 million hadronic Z decays collected with the L3 detector at LEP. The analysis is performed in the four-momentum difference range 300 MeV < Q < 2 GeV. The radius of the neutral pion source is found to be smaller than that of charged pions. This result is in qualitative agreement with the string fragmentation model
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