5,842 research outputs found

    Variants of the human PPARG locus and the susceptibility to chronic periodontitis

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    Apart from its regulatory function in lipid and glucose metabolism, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)γ has impact on the regulation of inflammation and bone metabolism. The aim of the study was to investigate the association of five polymorphisms (rs10865710, rs2067819, rs3892175, rs1801282, rs3856806) within the PPARG gene with chronic periodontitis. The study population comprised 402 periodontitis patients and 793 healthy individuals. Genotyping of the PPARG gene polymorphisms was performed by PCR and melting curve analysis. Comparison of frequency distribution of genotypes between individuals with periodontal disease and healthy controls for the polymorphism rs3856806 showed a P-value of 0.04 but failed to reach significance after correction for multiple testing (P  0.90). A 3-site analysis (rs2067819-rs1801282-rs3856860) revealed five haplotypes with a frequency of ≥1% among cases and controls. Following adjustment for age, gender and smoking, none of the haplotypes was significantly different between periodontitis and healthy controls after Bonferroni correction. This study could not show a significant association between PPARG gene variants and chronic periodontitis

    PGDSpider: an automated data conversion tool for connecting population genetics and genomics programs

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    Summary: The analysis of genetic data often requires a combination of several approaches using different and sometimes incompatible programs. In order to facilitate data exchange and file conversions between population genetics programs, we introduce PGDSpider, a Java program that can read 27 different file formats and export data into 29, partially overlapping, other file formats. The PGDSpider package includes both an intuitive graphical user interface and a command-line version allowing its integration in complex data analysis pipelines. Availability: PGDSpider is freely available under the BSD 3-Clause license on http://cmpg.unibe.ch/software/PGDSpider/ Contact: [email protected] Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics onlin

    Inference of Evolutionary Forces Acting on Human Biological Pathways.

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    Because natural selection is likely to act on multiple genes underlying a given phenotypic trait, we study here the potential effect of ongoing and past selection on the genetic diversity of human biological pathways. We first show that genes included in gene sets are generally under stronger selective constraints than other genes and that their evolutionary response is correlated. We then introduce a new procedure to detect selection at the pathway level based on a decomposition of the classical McDonald-Kreitman test extended to multiple genes. This new test, called 2DNS, detects outlier gene sets and takes into account past demographic effects and evolutionary constraints specific to gene sets. Selective forces acting on gene sets can be easily identified by a mere visual inspection of the position of the gene sets relative to their two-dimensional null distribution. We thus find several outlier gene sets that show signals of positive, balancing, or purifying selection but also others showing an ancient relaxation of selective constraints. The principle of the 2DNS test can also be applied to other genomic contrasts. For instance, the comparison of patterns of polymorphisms private to African and non-African populations reveals that most pathways show a higher proportion of nonsynonymous mutations in non-Africans than in Africans, potentially due to different demographic histories and selective pressures

    Detection of Pathways Affected by Positive Selection in Primate Lineages Ancestral to Humans.

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    Gene set enrichment approaches have been increasingly successful in finding signals of recent polygenic selection in the human genome. In this study, we aim at detecting biological pathways affected by positive selection in more ancient human evolutionary history. Focusing on four branches of the primate tree that lead to modern humans, we tested all available protein coding gene trees of the Primates clade for signals of adaptation in these branches, using the likelihood-based branch site test of positive selection. The results of these locus-specific tests were then used as input for a gene set enrichment test, where whole pathways are globally scored for a signal of positive selection, instead of focusing only on outlier "significant" genes. We identified signals of positive selection in several pathways that are mainly involved in immune response, sensory perception, metabolism, and energy production. These pathway-level results are highly significant, even though there is no functional enrichment when only focusing on top scoring genes. Interestingly, several gene sets are found significant at multiple levels in the phylogeny, but different genes are responsible for the selection signal in the different branches. This suggests that the same function has been optimized in different ways at different times in primate evolution

    Recent colonization of the Galápagos by the tree Geoffroea spinosa Jacq. (Leguminosae)

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    This study puts together genetic data and an approximate bayesian computation (ABC) approach to infer the time at which the tree Geoffroea spinosa colonized the Galápagos Islands. The genetic diversity and differentiation between Peru and Galápagos population samples, estimated using three chloroplast spacers and six microsatellite loci, reveal significant differences between two mainland regions separated by the Andes mountains (Inter Andean vs. Pacific Coast) as well as a significant genetic differentiation of island populations. Microsatellites identify two distinct geographical clusters, the Galápagos and the mainland, and chloroplast markers show a private haplotype in the Galápagos. The nuclear distinctiveness of the Inter Andean populations suggests current restricted pollen flow, but chloroplast points to cross-Andean dispersals via seeds, indicating that the Andes might not be an effective biogeographical barrier. The ABC analyses clearly point to the colonization of the Galápagos within the last 160 000 years and possibly as recently as 4750 years ago (475 generations). Founder events associated with colonization of the two islands where the species occurs are detected, with Española having been colonized after Floreana. We discuss two nonmutually exclusive possibilities for the colonization of the Galápagos, recent natural dispersal vs. human introduction.Fil: Caetano S.. No especifíca;Fil: Currat M.. Universidad de Ginebra; SuizaFil: Pennington, R. T.. Royal Botanic Gardens; Reino UnidoFil: Prado, Darien Eros. Universidad Nacional de Rosario. Facultad de Ciencias Agrarias. Departamento de Biología. Cátedra de Botánica Morfológica y Sistemática Agronómica; Argentina. Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas. Centro Científico Tecnológico Conicet - Rosario; ArgentinaFil: Excoffier L.. University of Bern; SuizaFil: Naciri, Y.. No especifíca

    Confirmation of low genetic diversity and multiple breeding females in a social group of Eurasian badgers from microsatellite and field data

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    The Eurasian badger ( Meles meles ) is a facultatively social carnivore that shows only rudimentary co-operative behaviour and a poorly defined social hierarchy. Behavioural evidence and limited genetic data have suggested that more than one female may breed in a social group. We combine pregnancy detection by ultrasound and microsatellite locus scores from a well-studied badger population from Wytham Woods, Oxfordshire, UK, to demonstrate that multiple females reproduce within a social group. We found that at least three of seven potential mothers reproduced in a group that contained 11 reproductive age females and nine offspring. Twelve primers showed variability across the species range and only five of these were variable in Wytham. The microsatellites showed a reduced repeat number, a significantly higher number of nonperfect repeats, and moderate heterozygosity levels in Wytham. The high frequency of imperfect repeats and demographic phenomena might be responsible for the reduced levels of variability observed in the badger

    The scaling of genetic diversity in a changing and fragmented world

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    Most species do not live in a constant environment over space or time. Their environment is often heterogeneous with a huge variability in resource availability and exposure to pathogens or predators, which may affect the local densities of the species. Moreover, the habitat might be fragmented, preventing free and isotropic migrations between local sub-populations (demes) of a species, making some demes more isolated than others. For example, during the last ice age populations of many species migrated towards refuge areas from which re-colonization originated when conditions improved. However, populations that could not move fast enough or could not adapt to the new environmental conditions faced extinctions. Populations living in these types of dynamic environments are often referred to as metapopulations and modeled as an array of subdivisions (or demes) that exchange migrants with their neighbors. Several studies have focused on the description of their demography, probability of extinction and expected patterns of diversity at different scales. Importantly, all these evolutionary processes may affect genetic diversity, which can affect the chance of populations to persist. In this chapter we provide an overview on the consequences of fragmentation, long-distance dispersal, range contractions and range shifts on genetic diversity. In addition, we describe new methods to detect and quantify underlying evolutionary processes from sampled genetic data.Laboratoire d’Excellence (LABEX) entitled TULIP: (ANR-10-LABX-41)

    The colonization history of British water vole (Arvicola amphibius (Linnaeus, 1758)): origins and development of the Celtic fringe.

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    The terminal Pleistocene and Early Holocene, a period from 15 000 to 18 000 Before Present (BP), was critical in establishing the current Holarctic fauna, with temperate-climate species largely replacing cold-adapted ones at mid-latitudes. However, the timing and nature of this process remain unclear for many taxa, a point that impacts on current and future management strategies. Here, we use an ancient DNA dataset to test more directly postglacial histories of the water vole (Arvicola amphibius, formerly A terrestris), a species that is both a conservation priority and a pest in different parts of its range. We specifically examine colonization of Britain, where a complex genetic structure can be observed today. Although we focus on population history at the limits of the species' range, the inclusion of additional European samples allows insights into European postglacial colonization events and provides a molecular perspective on water vole taxonomy

    Postglacial colonization history reflects in the genetic structure of natural populations of Festuca rubra in Europe

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    We conducted a large-scale population genetic survey of genetic diversity of the host grass Festuca rubra s.l., which fitness can be highly dependent on its symbiotic fungus Epichloe festucae, to evaluate genetic variation and population structure across the European range. The 27 studied populations have previously been found to differ in frequencies of occurrence of the symbiotic fungus E. festucae and ploidy levels. As predicted, we found decreased genetic diversity in previously glaciated areas in comparison with nonglaciated regions and discovered three major maternal genetic groups: southern, northeastern, and northwestern Europe. Interestingly, host populations from Greenland were genetically similar to those from the Faroe Islands and Iceland, suggesting gene flow also between those areas. The level of variation among populations within regions is evidently highly dependent on the postglacial colonization history, in particular on the number of independent long-distance seed colonization events. Yet, also anthropogenic effects may have affected the population structure in F. rubra. We did not observe higher fungal infection rates in grass populations with lower levels of genetic variability. In fact, the fungal infection rates of E. festucae in relation to genetic variability of the host populations varied widely among geographical areas, which indicate differences in population histories due to colonization events and possible costs of systemic fungi in harsh environmental conditions. We found that the plants of different ploidy levels are genetically closely related within geographic areas indicating independent formation of polyploids in different maternal lineages.Peer reviewe

    How Many Subpopulations is Too Many? Exponential Lower Bounds for Inferring Population Histories

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    Reconstruction of population histories is a central problem in population genetics. Existing coalescent-based methods, like the seminal work of Li and Durbin (Nature, 2011), attempt to solve this problem using sequence data but have no rigorous guarantees. Determining the amount of data needed to correctly reconstruct population histories is a major challenge. Using a variety of tools from information theory, the theory of extremal polynomials, and approximation theory, we prove new sharp information-theoretic lower bounds on the problem of reconstructing population structure -- the history of multiple subpopulations that merge, split and change sizes over time. Our lower bounds are exponential in the number of subpopulations, even when reconstructing recent histories. We demonstrate the sharpness of our lower bounds by providing algorithms for distinguishing and learning population histories with matching dependence on the number of subpopulations. Along the way and of independent interest, we essentially determine the optimal number of samples needed to learn an exponential mixture distribution information-theoretically, proving the upper bound by analyzing natural (and efficient) algorithms for this problem.Comment: 38 pages, Appeared in RECOMB 201
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