3,394,280 research outputs found

    Where does selective laser trabeculoplasty stand now? A review

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    Background: Chronic treatment of glaucoma can present a challenge in patients who lack the means and/or the discipline to use daily glaucoma medication. We wondered if selective laser trabeculoplasty (SLT) could be a useful alternative. Methods: Inclusion criteria: controlled trials comparing efficacy of SLT in adult patients with any form of open angle glaucoma or ocular hypertension and case reports on side effects of SLT. Two recent meta-analyses identified eight randomized clinical trials (RCTs) comparing the effect of SLT with medication (prostaglandin analogs) and with argon laser trabeculoplasty (ALT). We took these eight RCTs as reference base and calculated their success rates where they were not given. Other articles were added to elaborate on technique and side effects. Results: Mean intraocular pressure (IOP) reduction after SLT was 3.8-8.0 mmHg after 6 months to 1 year. Mean success rate of SLT at 6 months to 1 year is 55-82 %. Higher IOP before laser predicts a higher IOP-lowering effect. In terms of mean IOP reduction, reduction in number of medications and treatment success, the effect of SLT was found to show no clinically relevant difference from that of contemporary medication (prostaglandin analogs) and from ALT. Conclusions: The evidence indicates that SLT is an efficacious primary or adjunctive therapy for treating glaucoma

    Field Theory reformulated without Self-energy Parts. The dressing Operator

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    The reformulation of field theory for avoiding self-energy parts in the dynamical evolution has been applied successfully in the framework of the Lee model, [M. de Haan. Ann. Phys., 311, 314-349 (2004)] enabling a kinetic extension of the description. The basic ingredient is the recognition of these self-energy parts. [M. de Haan and C. George. Trends in Statistical Physics 3 (2000), 115] The original reversible description is embedded in the new one and appears now as a restricted class of initial conditions. [M. de Haan and C. George. Prog. Theor. Phys.,109, 881-909 (2003)] This program is realized here in the reduced formalism for a scalar field, interacting with a two-level atom, beyond the usual rotating wave approximation. The kinetic evolution operator, previously surmised, [M. de Haan. Physica, A171 (1991), 159] is here derived from first principles, justifying the usual practice in optics where the common use of the so-called pole approximation should no longer be viewed as an approximation but as an alternative description in the appropriate formalism. That model illustrates how some dressing of the atomic levels (and vertices), through an appropriate operator, finds its place naturally into the new formalism since the bare and dressed ground states do no longer coincide. Moreover, finite velocity for field propagation is now possible in all cases, without the presence of precursors for multiple detections.Comment: 55 pages. Revised version for Annals of Physics. Typos and English corrections, references and precisions adde

    Heisenberg model in a random field: phase diagram and tricritical behavior

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    By using the differential operator technique and the effective field theory scheme we study the tricritical behavior of Heisenberg classical model of spin-1/2 in a random field. The phase diagram in the T-h plane on a square and simple cubic lattice for a cluster with two spins is obtained when the random field is bimodal distributed.Comment: 10 pages, 1 figur

    Review and classification of fretting fatigue test rigs

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    There is no standard or generally accepted test rig for fretting fatigue experiments. Therefore, researchers adopt an existing concept, or build a new test rig that meets their specific requirements. However, too many different test rigs may be disadvantageous because the results of two different test rigs are hard to compare. The increasing amount of diversity is mainly caused by the lack of a recent literature survey on fretting fatigue test rigs. In 1994, Hills and Nowell described a few test rigs in Mechanics Of Fretting Fatigue. In this study, the authors made a classification of test rigs based on the contact geometry, which is determined by the test specimens, not by the test rig itself. The authors of this article present a review of the available literature, and present a classification based on the properties of test rigs. Fretting fatigue test rigs are first divided in two categories based on the geometry of the test specimen: full scale and coupon scale test rigs. The latter are mostly used to perform research and are subdivided in categories based on increasing functionalities. This is the ability to apply a fatigue load, a constant normal force, and an alternating slip in the range of some micrometers. In time, from the fifties until now, progress has been seen in the design of fretting fatigue test rigs. More parameters can be controlled during experiments and more measuring techniques are incorporated. State of the art test rigs are classified in the last category with mostffunctionalities, but still have imperfections. Future designers can use this article to classify their needs, or help to design a better test rig knowing the imperfections of the state of the art test rigs

    A combinatorial characterisation of embedded polar spaces

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    Some classical polar spaces admit polar spaces of the same rank as embedded polar spaces (often arisen as the intersection of the polar space with a non-tangent hyperplane). In this article we look at sets of generators that behave combinatorially as the set of generators of such an embedded polar space, and we prove that they are the set of generators of an embedded polar space

    Quaternionic differential operators

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    Motivated by a quaternionic formulation of quantum mechanics, we discuss quaternionic and complex linear differential equations. We touch only a few aspects of the mathematical theory, namely the resolution of the second order differential equations with constant coefficients. We overcome the problems coming out from the loss of the fundamental theorem of the algebra for quaternions and propose a practical method to solve quaternionic and complex linear second order differential equations with constant coefficients. The resolution of the complex linear Schrodinger equation, in presence of quaternionic potentials, represents an interesting application of the mathematical material discussed in this paper.Comment: 25 pages, AMS-Te
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