4,655 research outputs found

    Near-arcsecond resolution observations of the hot corino of the solar type protostar IRAS 16293-2422

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    Complex organic molecules have previously been discovered in solar type protostars, raising the questions of where and how they form in the envelope. Possible formation mechanisms include grain mantle evaporation, interaction of the outflow with its surroundings or the impact of UV/X-rays inside the cavities. In this Letter we present the first interferometric observations of two complex molecules, CH3CN and HCOOCH3, towards the solar type protostar IRAS16293-2422. The images show that the emission originates from two compact regions centered on the two components of the binary system. We discuss how these results favor the grain mantle evaporation scenario and we investigate the implications of these observations for the chemical composition and physical and dynamical state of the two components.Comment: 5 pages (apjemulate), 2 figures; accepted by ApJ

    Molecular ions in the protostellar shock L1157-B1

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    We perform a complete census of molecular ions with an abundance larger than 1e-10 in the protostellar shock L1157-B1 by means of an unbiased high-sensitivity survey obtained with the IRAM-30m and Herschel/HIFI. By means of an LVG radiative transfer code the gas physical conditions and fractional abundances of molecular ions are derived. The latter are compared with estimates of steady-state abundances in the cloud and their evolution in the shock calculated with the chemical model Astrochem. We detect emission from HCO+, H13CO+, N2H+, HCS+, and, for the first time in a shock, from HOCO+, and SO+. The bulk of the emission peaks at blueshifted velocity, ~ 0.5-3 km/s with respect to systemic, has a width of ~ 4-8 km/s, and is associated with the outflow cavities (T_kin ~ 20-70 K, n(H2) ~ 1e5 cm-3). Observed HCO+ and N2H+ abundances are in agreement with steady-state abundances in the cloud and with their evolution in the compressed and heated gas in the shock for cosmic rays ionization rate Z = 3e-16 s-1. HOCO+, SO+, and HCS+ observed abundances, instead, are 1-2 orders of magnitude larger than predicted in the cloud; on the other hand they are strongly enhanced on timescales shorter than the shock age (~2000 years) if CO2, S or H2S, and OCS are sputtered off the dust grains in the shock. The performed analysis indicates that HCO+ and N2H+ are a fossil record of pre-shock gas in the outflow cavity, while HOCO+, SO+, and HCS+ are effective shock tracers and can be used to infer the amount of CO2 and sulphur-bearing species released from dust mantles in the shock. The observed HCS+ (and CS) abundance indicates that OCS should be one of the main sulphur carrier on grain mantles. However, the OCS abundance required to fit the observations is 1-2 orders of magnitude larger than observed. Further studies are required to fully understand the chemistry of sulphur-bearing species.Comment: 12 pages, 5 figures, accepted by A&

    Five new species of the genera Heerz Marsh, Lissopsius Marsh and Ondigus Braet, Barbalho and van Achterberg (Braconidae, Doryctinae) from the Chamela-Cuixmala biosphere reserve in Jalisco, Mexico

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    Five new species belonging to the poorly known Neotropical doryctine parasitoid wasps genera Heerz Marsh (H. ecmahla sp. n. and H. macrophthalma sp. n.), Lissopsius Marsh (L. pacificus sp. n. and L. jalisciensis sp. n.) and Ondigus Braet, Barbalho & van Achterberg (O. cuixmalensis sp. n.) are described from the Chamela-Cuixmala Biosphere reserve in Jalisco, Mexico. Keys to the described species of the above three genera are provided. The phylogenetic placement of the examined taxa is investigated based on mitochondrial (COI) and nuclear (28S, 2nd and 3rd domain regions) DNA sequence data.Fil: Zaldivar River贸n, Alejandro. Universidad Nacional Aut贸noma de M茅xico; M茅xicoFil: Martinez, Juan Jose. Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cient铆ficas y T茅cnicas. Oficina de Coordinaci贸n Administrativa Parque Centenario. Museo Argentino de Ciencias Naturales 鈥淏ernardino Rivadavia鈥; Argentina. Universidad Nacional Aut贸noma de M茅xico; M茅xicoFil: Ceccarelli, Fadia Sara. Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cient铆ficas y T茅cnicas. Oficina de Coordinaci贸n Administrativa Parque Centenario. Museo Argentino de Ciencias Naturales 鈥淏ernardino Rivadavia鈥; Argentina. Universidad Nacional Aut贸noma de M茅xico; M茅xicoFil: Shaw, Scott R.. University of Wyoming; Estados Unido

    Galaxy Peculiar Velocities and Infall onto Groups

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    We perform statistical analyses to study the infall of galaxies onto groups and clusters in the nearby Universe. The study is based on the UZC and SSRS2 group catalogs and peculiar velocity samples. We find a clear signature of infall of galaxies onto groups over a wide range of scales 5 h^{-1} Mpc<r<30 h^{-1} Mpc, with an infall amplitude on the order of a few hundred kilometers per second. We obtain a significant increase in the infall amplitude with group virial mass (M_{V}) and luminosity of group member galaxies (L_{g}). Groups with M_{V}<10^{13} M_{\odot} show infall velocities V_{infall} \simeq 150 km s^{-1} whereas for M_{V}>10^{13} M_{\odot} a larger infall is observed, V_{infall} \simeq 200 km s^{-1}. Similarly, we find that galaxies surrounding groups with L_{g}<10^{15} L_{\odot} have V_{infall} \simeq 100 km s^{-1}, whereas for L_{g}>10^{15} L_{\odot} groups, the amplitude of the galaxy infall can be as large as V_{infall} \simeq 250 km s^{-1}. The observational results are compared with the results obtained from mock group and galaxy samples constructed from numerical simulations, which include galaxy formation through semianalytical models. We obtain a general agreement between the results from the mock catalogs and the observations. The infall of galaxies onto groups is suitably reproduced in the simulations and, as in the observations, larger virial mass and luminosity groups exhibit the largest galaxy infall amplitudes. We derive estimates of the integrated mass overdensities associated with groups by applying linear theory to the infall velocities after correcting for the effects of distance uncertainties obtained using the mock catalogs. The resulting overdensities are consistent with a power law with \delta \sim 1 at r \sim 10 h^{-1}Mpc.Comment: 25 pages, 10 figure

    Ionization toward the high-mass star-forming region NGC 6334 I

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    Context. Ionization plays a central role in the gas-phase chemistry of molecular clouds. Since ions are coupled with magnetic fields, which can in turn counteract gravitational collapse, it is of paramount importance to measure their abundance in star-forming regions. Aims. We use spectral line observations of the high-mass star-forming region NGC 6334 I to derive the abundance of two of the most abundant molecular ions, HCO+ and N2H+, and consequently, the cosmic ray ionization rate. In addition, the line profiles provide information about the kinematics of this region. Methods. We present high-resolution spectral line observations conducted with the HIFI instrument on board the Herschel Space Observatory of the rotational transitions with Jup > 5 of the molecular species C17O, C18O, HCO+, H13CO+, and N2H+. Results. The HCO+ and N2H+ line profiles display a redshifted asymmetry consistent with a region of expanding gas. We identify two emission components in the spectra, each with a different excitation, associated with the envelope of NGC 6334 I. The physical parameters obtained for the envelope are in agreement with previous models of the radial structure of NGC 6334 I based on submillimeter continuum observations. Based on our new Herschel/HIFI observations, combined with the predictions from a chemical model, we derive a cosmic ray ionization rate that is an order of magnitude higher than the canonical value of 10^(-17) s-1. Conclusions. We find evidence of an expansion of the envelope surrounding the hot core of NGC 6334 I, which is mainly driven by thermal pressure from the hot ionized gas in the region. The ionization rate seems to be dominated by cosmic rays originating from outside the source, although X-ray emission from the NGC 6334 I core could contribute to the ionization in the inner part of the envelope.Comment: This paper contains a total of 10 figures and 3 table

    SiO Emission in the Multi-Lobe Outflow associated with IRAS 16293-2422

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    We have mapped the thermal emission line of SiO (v = 0; J = 2-1) associated with the quadrupolar molecular outflow driven by the very cold far-infrared source IRAS 16293-2422. The SiO emission is significantly enhanced in the northeastern red lobe and at the position ~50" east of the IRAS source. Strong SiO emission observed at ~50" east of the IRAS source presents evidence for a dynamical interaction between a part of the eastern blue lobe and the dense ambient gas condensation, however, such an interaction is unlikely to be responsible for producing the quadrupolar morphology. The SiO emission in the northeastern red lobe shows the spatial and velocity structure similar to those of the CO outflow, suggesting that the SiO emission comes from the molecular outflow in the northeastern red lobe itself. The observed velocity structure is reproduced by a simple spatio-kinematic model of bow shock with a shock velocity of 19-24 km/s inclined by 30-45 deg from the plane of the sky. This implies that the northeastern red lobe is independent of the eastern blue lobe and that the quadrupolar structure is due to two separate bipolar outflows. The SiO emission observed in the western red lobe has a broad pedestal shape with low intensity. Unlike the SiO emission in the northeastern red lobe, the spatial extent of the SiO emission in the western red lobe is restricted to its central region. The spatial and velocity structures and the line profiles suggest that three different types of the SiO emission are observed in this outflow; the SiO emission arises from the interface between the outflowing gas and the dense ambient gas clump, the SiO emission coming from the outflow lobe itself, and the broad SiO emission with low intensity observed at the central region of the outflow lobe.Comment: 14 pages, 6 figures (figures 1 and 4 are color), gzipped tar file, To appear in the Ap

    Heavy water around the L1448-mm protostar

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    Context: L1448-mm is the prototype of a low-mass Class 0 protostar driving a high-velocity jet. Given its bright H2O spectra observed with ISO, L1448-mm is an ideal laboratory to observe heavy water (HDO) emission. Aims: Our aim is to image the HDO emission in the protostar surroundings, the possible occurrence of HDO emission also investigating off L1448-mm, towards the molecular outflow. Methods: We carried out observations of L1448-mm in the HDO(1_10-1_11) line at 80.6 GHz, an excellent tracer of HDO column density, with the IRAM Plateau de Bure Interferometer. Results: We image for the first time HDO emission around L1448-mm. The HDO structure reveals a main clump at velocities close to the ambient one towards the the continuum peak that is caused by the dust heated by the protostar. In addition, the HDO map shows tentative weaker emission at about 2000 AU from the protostar towards the south, which is possibly associated with the walls of the outflow cavity opened by the protostellar wind. Conclusions: Using an LVG code, modelling the density and temperature profile of the hot-corino, and adopting a gas temperature of 100 K and a density of 1.5 10^8 cm^-3, we derive a beam diluted HDO column density of about 7 10^13 cm^-2, corresponding to a HDO abundance of about 4 10^-7. In addition, the present map supports the scenario where HDO can be efficiently produced in shocked regions and not uniquely in hot corinos heated by the newly born star.Comment: Accepted by A&A as Letter; 5 pages, 3 figure

    Molecules with a peptide link in protostellar shocks: a comprehensive study of L1157

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    Interstellar molecules with a peptide link -NH-C(=O)-, like formamide (NH2_2CHO), acetamide (NH2_2COCH3_3) and isocyanic acid (HNCO) are particularly interesting for their potential role in pre-biotic chemistry. We have studied their emission in the protostellar shock regions L1157-B1 and L1157-B2, with the IRAM 30m telescope, as part of the ASAI Large Program. Analysis of the line profiles shows that the emission arises from the outflow cavities associated with B1 and B2. Molecular abundance of (0.41.1)108\approx~(0.4-1.1)\times 10^{-8} and (3.38.8)108(3.3-8.8)\times 10^{-8} are derived for formamide and isocyanic acid, respectively, from a simple rotational diagram analysis. Conversely, NH2_2COCH3_3 was not detected down to a relative abundance of a few 1010\leq 10^{-10}. B1 and B2 appear to be among the richest Galactic sources of HNCO and NH2_2CHO molecules. A tight linear correlation between their abundances is observed, suggesting that the two species are chemically related. Comparison with astrochemical models favours molecule formation on ice grain mantles, with NH2_2CHO generated from hydrogenation of HNCO.Comment: 11 pages, 9 figures. Accepted for publication in MNRAS Main Journal. Accepted 2014 August 19, in original form 2014 July

    Hot and dense water in the inner 25 AU of SVS13-A

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    In the context of the ASAI (Astrochemical Surveys At IRAM) project, we carried out an unbiased spectral survey in the millimeter window towards the well known low-mass Class I source SVS13-A. The high sensitivity reached (3-12 mK) allowed us to detect at least 6 HDO broad (FWHM ~ 4-5 km/s) emission lines with upper level energies up to Eu = 837 K. A non-LTE LVG analysis implies the presence of very hot (150-260 K) and dense (> 3 10^7 cm-3) gas inside a small radius (\sim 25 AU) around the star, supporting, for the first time, the occurrence of a hot corino around a Class I protostar. The temperature is higher than expected for water molecules are sublimated from the icy dust mantles (~ 100 K). Although we cannot exclude we are observig the effects of shocks and/or winds at such small scales, this could imply that the observed HDO emission is tracing the water abundance jump expected at temperatures ~ 220-250 K, when the activation barrier of the gas phase reactions leading to the formation of water can be overcome. We derive X(HDO) ~ 3 10-6, and a H2O deuteration > 1.5 10-2, suggesting that water deuteration does not decrease as the protostar evolves from the Class 0 to the Class I stage.Comment: MNRAS Letter

    Low and High Surface Brightness Galaxies at Void Walls

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    We study the relative fraction of low and high surface brightness galaxies (LSBGs and HSBGs) at void walls in the SDSS DR7. We focus on galaxies in equal local density environments. We assume that the host dark-matter halo mass (for which we use SDSS group masses) is a good indicator of local density. This analysis allows to examine the behavior of the abundance of LSBG and HSBG galaxies at a fixed local density and distinguish the large-scale environment defined by the void geometry. We compare galaxies in the field, and in the void walls; the latter are defined as the volume of void shells of radius equal to that of the void. We find a significant decrement, a factor 4\sim 4, of the relative fraction of blue, active star-forming LSBGs in equal mass groups at the void walls and the field. This decrement is consistent with an increase of the fraction of blue, active star-forming HSBGs. By contrast, red LSBGs and HSBGs show negligible changes. We argue that these results are consistent with a scenario where LSBGs with blue colors and strong star formation activity at the void walls are fueled by gas from the expanding void regions. This process could lead to LSBG to HSBG transformations.Comment: 5 pages, 4 figures, accepted for publication in MNRAS Letter
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