376 research outputs found

    Recovery of fungi from seeded sputum samples: effect of culture media and digestion procedures

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    Valor predictivo de las pruebas serologicas para el diagnostico y seguimiento de la paracoccidoidomycosis

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    Con el objeto de determinar el valor predictivo de las pruebas serol√≥gicas (F¬°jaci√≥n de Complemento, FC, e Inmunodifusi√≥n en Gel de Agar, IDGA), utilizadas regularmente en nuestro laboratorio para el diagn√≥stico y el seguimiento de la paracoccidioidomicosis, se analizaron los datos provenientes de 43 pacientes con la enfermedad. Tales pacientes fueron tratados en forma identica (Ketoconazol, 200 mg/dia por 6 meses); adem√°s ambas pruebas serol√≥gicas utilizaron un mismo lote de antigeno, eliminando asi posibles variables. Fuera de los sueros provenientes de los 43 pacientes con paracoccidioidomicosis (A), se estudiaron 50 sueros de pacientes con otras micosis profundas (B) y 92 sueros de personas sanas (C). Empleamos las f√≥rmulas dadas por GALEN y GAMBINO6 y hallamos que la sensibilidad de ambas pruebas serol√≥gicas era comparable, sin diferencia estad√≠sticamente significativa entre ellas (FC = 93%, IDGA - 88.4%). Dicha sesibilidad tendia a disminuir con el tratamiento, siendo m√°s marcada su baja durante las observaciones post-terapia. Al analizar la especificidad se encontr√≥ que la IDGA era totalmente espec√≠fica, no encontrandose falsos positivos en las poblaciones controles estudiad√Ęs (B y C). La FC mostr√≥ un 96.7% de especificidad frente a la poblaci√≥n C y un 82% frente a la B, siendo estadistisarnente significativa la diferencia entre ambas. Basados en los datos ariteriores, se busc√≥ et valor predictivo, hallaridose que la IDGA da seguridad completa para el diagn√≥stiso en cualquiera de los per√≠odos evaluados no asi la FC, la que mostr√≥ disminuci√≥n de tales valores durante la terapia y la post-terapia. La curva respectiva mostr√≥ como a medida que pasaba el tiempo, disminu√≠a la posibiildad de diferenciar la paracoccidioidomicosis (A) de otras micosis (B), manteniendose, sinembargo, la diferencia con los controles normales (C).A serologic study was undertaken in a group of 43 patients with active paracoccidioidomycosis who were treated in the same form (ketoconazole), for identical periods of time (6 months), and folio wed-up for various periods posttherapy. The tests employed were agar gel immunodiffusion (AGID) and complement fixation (FC). Also studied were 50 sera from patients with proven histoplasmosis and pulmonary aspergilloma, 30 patients with culturaly proven tuberculosis as well as 92 specimens from healthy individuals, residents in the endemic area for paracoccidioidomycosis. A single lot of yeast filtrate antigen was used throughout the study. The value of each test was measured according to GALEN and GAMBINO6. Both tests were highly sensitive, 89 and 93% respectively. Regarding their specificity, the AGID was totally specific while the CF exhibited 96.6% and 97% specificity in front of tuberculosis patients and healthy individuals respectively and 82% in comparison with patients with other mycoses. The concept of predictive value, that is, the certainty one has in accepting a positive test as diagnostic of paracoccidioidomycosis, favored the AGID procedure (100%) over the CF test. The latter could sort out with 93% certainty a patient with paracoccidioidomycosis among a group of healthy individuals and with 97.5% in the case of TB patients; when the group in question was composed by individuals with other deep mycoses, such certainty was lower (81%). The above results indicate that both the AGID and the CF tests furnish results of high confidence; one should not relay, however, in the CF alone as a means to establish the specific diagnosis of paracoccidioidomycosis

    Papel do ferro no mecanismo fungicida mediado pelo óxido nítrico de macrófagos murinos ativados com IFN-gama contra conídias do Paracoccidioides brasiliensis

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    Iron is an essential growth element of virtually all microorganisms and its restriction is one of the mechanisms used by macrophages to control microbial multiplication. Paracoccidioides brasiliensis, the agent of paracoccidioidomycosis, an important systemic mycosis in Latin America, is inhibited in its conidia-to-yeast conversion in the absence of iron. We studied the participation of iron in the nitric oxide (NO)-mediated fungicidal mechanism against conidia. Peritoneal murine macrophages activated with 50U/mL of IFN-gamma or treated with 35 ¬ĶM Deferoxamine (DEX) and infected with P. brasiliensis conidia, were co-cultured and incubated for 96 h in the presence of different concentrations of holotransferrin (HOLO) and FeS0(4). The supernatants were withdrawn in order to assess NO2 production by the Griess method. The monolayers were fixed, stained and observed microscopically. The percentage of the conidia-to-yeast transition was estimated by counting 200 intracellular propagules. IFN-gamma-activated or DEX-treated Mthetas presented marked inhibition of the conidia-to-yeast conversion (19 and 56%, respectively) in comparison with non-activated or untreated Mthetas (80%). IFN-gamma-activated macrophages produced high NO levels in comparison with the controls. Additionally, when the activated or treated-macrophages were supplemented with iron donors (HOLO or FeSO4), the inhibitory action was reversed, although NO production remained intact. These results suggest that the NO-mediated fungicidal mechanism exerted by IFN-gamma-activated macrophages against P. brasiliensis conidia, is dependent of an iron interaction.O ferro √© elemento essencial para o crescimento de microrganismos e sua limita√ß√£o √© um dos mecanismos usados por macr√≥fagos para controlar a multiplica√ß√£o microbiana. Paracoccidioides brasiliensis, o agente da paracoccidioidomicose, uma das micoses sist√™micas mais importantes na Am√©rica Latina, √© inibido em sua convers√£o de con√≠dia-√†-levedura na aus√™ncia do ferro. Estudamos a participa√ß√£o do ferro no mecanismo fungicida mediado pelo √≥xido n√≠trico (NO) na sua intera√ß√£o com as con√≠dias do fungo. Macr√≥fagos peritoneais murinos ativados com 50U/mL de IFN-gama ou tratados com 35 ¬ĶM Deferoxamina (DEX) e infectados com con√≠dias do P. brasiliensis foram co-cultivados e incubados por 96 h na presen√ßa de concentra√ß√Ķes diferentes de holotransferrina (HOLO) e FeS0(4). Os sobrenadantes foram retirados a fim de avaliar a produ√ß√£o de NO2 pelo m√©todo de Griess. Os macr√≥fagos eram fixados, corados e observados ao microsc√≥pio. A porcentagem da transi√ß√£o de con√≠dia-√†-levedura foi estimada contando 200 prop√°gulos intracelulares. Os macr√≥fagos ativados com citocina ou tratados com DEX apresentaram inibi√ß√£o marcada da convers√£o de con√≠dia-√†-levedura (19 e 56%, respectivamente) em compara√ß√£o com macr√≥fagos controle (80%). Os macr√≥fagos ativados com IFN-gama produziram eleva√ß√£o nos n√≠veis de NO em compara√ß√£o com macr√≥fagos n√£o-tratados ou n√£o-activados. Adicionalmente, quando as monocapas ativadas ou tratadas foram suplementadas com doadores do ferro (HOLO ou FeSO4), a a√ß√£o inibit√≥ria foi revertida embora a produ√ß√£o de NO permanecesse intacto. Estes resultados sugerem que o mecanismo fungicida mediado pelo NO exercido por macr√≥fagos ativados com IFN-gama contra con√≠dias do P. brasiliensis √© dependente de uma intera√ß√£o do ferro

    Dise√Īo, validaci√≥n e implementaci√≥n de un programa formativo basado en competencias curriculares dirigido a profesionales interdisciplinares que intervienen con personas con autismo

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    Los hallazgos actuales a nivel mundial sobre la prevalencia del Trastorno del Espectro Autista (TEA) muestran un aumento del n√ļmero de diagn√≥sticos en la √ļltima d√©cada, como resultado de las mejoras en el desarrollo de instrumentos en la detecci√≥n temprana y evoluci√≥n en el consenso de los criterios diagn√≥sticos. Sin embargo, la literatura ha evidenciado una gran falta tanto de conocimiento como de preparaci√≥n en los profesionales que trabajan con personas TEA y con sus familias. El objetivo general del presente trabajo ha sido doble, ya que, por una parte, se han estudiado y abordado las necesidades formativas de profesionales multidisciplinares que intervienen a lo largo del ciclo vital de una persona con autismo. Y, por otra parte, con esta tesis se ha pretendido conocer el papel de los trabajadores sociales en la intervenci√≥n con personas con TEA, as√≠ como lo recursos que disponen para ello. Para alcanzar ambos objetivos, en primer lugar, se realiz√≥ una revisi√≥n de literatura en la que se analizaron 29 art√≠culos cient√≠ficos y se organizaron entrevistas y grupos focales con 48 profesionales multidisciplinares para identificar contenidos curriculares necesarios para la preparaci√≥n de profesionales en el √°mbito de los TEA. Seguidamente, se elabor√≥ y se valid√≥ el curr√≠culo formativo dise√Īado con tal prop√≥sito a trav√©s de un estudio Delphi en el que participaron 28 panelistas. Posteriormente, dicho curr√≠culo se implement√≥ a lo largo de 3 meses por medio de un curso piloto en el que participaron 127 profesionales. Finalmente, se realizaron entrevistas semi-estructuradas a 9 profesionales del trabajo social con el prop√≥sito de analizar diferencias entre sus necesidades formativas en comparaci√≥n con los hallazgos previos. Los resultados obtenidos a trav√©s de las diversas metodolog√≠as llevadas a cabo han demostrado y reiterado la falta de conocimiento y la necesidad de los profesionales de disponer de habilidades y formaci√≥n espec√≠fica para poder intervenir correctamente con personas con TEA y sus familiares, sin importar el √°mbito de actuaci√≥n profesional. En conclusi√≥n, los hallazgos sugieren la necesidad de mejorar las competencias y conocimientos actualizados y basados en la evidencia a trav√©s de una formaci√≥n de calidad y espec√≠fica sobre el TEA entre profesionales interdisciplinares, m√°s all√°, √ļnicamente, de la etapa infantil y el √°mbito educativo.Current global findings on the prevalence of Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) indicate an increase in the number of diagnoses in the last decade, as a result of improvements in the development of instruments to early detection and evolution in the consensus of the diagnostic criteria. However, the literature has shown a great lack of both knowledge and skills among professionals working with ASD people and their families. The general objective of this work has been twofold, since, on the one hand, the training needs of multidisciplinary professionals who intervene throughout the life cycle of a person with autism have been studied and addressed. And, on the other hand, this thesis has sought to know the role of social workers in the intervention with people with ASD, as well as the resources available for it. To achieve both objectives, first of all, a literature review was carried out in which 29 scientific articles were analysed in addition to interviews and focus groups organized with 48 multidisciplinary professionals to identify curricular content necessary for the preparation of professionals in the field of ASD. Afterwards, the training curriculum designed for this purpose was developed and validated through a Delphi study in which 28 panellists participated. Subsequently, this curriculum was implemented over 3 months through a pilot course in which 127 professionals participated. Finally, semi-structured interviews were conducted with 9 social workers in order to analyse differences between their training needs compared to previous findings. The results obtained through the various methodologies carried out have demonstrated and reiterated the lack of knowledge and the need for professionals to have specific skills and training to be able to intervene correctly with people with ASD and their relatives, regardless of the field of professional performance. In conclusion, the findings suggest the need to improve up-to-date and evidence-based skills and knowledge through quality and specific training on ASD among interdisciplinary professionals, beyond children and the educational environment

    Bacteroides uniformis CECT 7771 ameliorates metabolic and immunological dysfunction in mice with high-fat-diet induced obesity

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    Background: Associations have been made between obesity and reduced intestinal numbers of members of the phylum Bacteroidetes, but there is no direct evidence of the role these bacteria play in obesity. Herein, the effects of Bacteroides uniformis CECT 7771 on obesity-related metabolic and immune alterations have been evaluated. Methods and Findings: Adult (6‚Äď8 week) male wild-type C57BL-6 mice were fed a standard diet or a high-fat-diet HFD to induce obesity, supplemented or not with B. uniformis CECT 7771 for seven weeks. Animal weight was monitored and histologic, biochemical, immunocompetent cell functions, and features of the faecal microbiota were analysed after intervention. The oral administration of B. uniformis CECT 7771 reduced body weight gain, liver steatosis and liver cholesterol and triglyceride concentrations and increased small adipocyte numbers in HFD-fed mice. The strain also reduced serum cholesterol, triglyceride, glucose, insulin and leptin levels, and improved oral tolerance to glucose in HFD fed mice. The bacterial strain also reduced dietary fat absorption, as indicated by the reduced number of fat micelles detected in enterocytes. Moreover, B. uniformis CECT 7771 improved immune defence mechanisms, impaired in obesity. HFD-induced obesity led to a decrease in TNF-a production by peritoneal macrophages stimulated with LPS, conversely, the administration of B. uniformis CECT 7771 increased TNF-a production and phagocytosis. Administering this strain also increased TNF-a production by dendritic cells (DCs) in response to LPS stimulation, which was significantly reduced by HFD. B. uniformis CECT 7771 also restored the capacity of DCs to induce a T-cell proliferation response, which was impaired in obese mice. HFD induced marked changes in gut microbiota composition, which were partially restored by the intervention. Conclusions: Altogether, the findings indicate that administration of B. uniformis CECT 7771 ameliorates HFD-induced metabolic and immune dysfunction associated with intestinal dysbiosis in obese mice.Fil: Gauffin Cano, Mar√≠a Paola. Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cient√≠ficas. Instituto de Agroqu√≠mica y Tecnolog√≠a de Alimentos; Espa√Īa. Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cient√≠ficas y T√©cnicas; ArgentinaFil: Santacruz, Arlette. Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cient√≠ficas. Instituto de Agroqu√≠mica y Tecnolog√≠a de Alimentos; Espa√ĪaFil: Moya, Angela. Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cient√≠ficas. Instituto de Agroqu√≠mica y Tecnolog√≠a de Alimentos; Espa√ĪaFil: Sanz, Yolanda. Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cient√≠ficas. Instituto de Agroqu√≠mica y Tecnolog√≠a de Alimentos; Espa√Ī

    Una clase de aritmética modular, matrices y cifrado para ingeniería

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    El √°lgebra lineal tiene una gran cantidad de aplicaciones sin embargo se suele abordar casi siempre de una forma bastante abstracta a nivel universitario. As√≠ que para motivar a nuestro alumnado planificamos realizar actividades acad√©micas que hicieran uso de conceptos te√≥ricos del √Ālgebra Lineal de una forma pr√°ctica, √ļtil e interesante. Las im√°genes digitales son matrices donde cada elemento de la matriz coincide con el nivel de gris dentro de una escala de grises. Por este motivo, muchas herramientas del √°lgebra lineal son frecuentemente utilizadas en el procesamiento de im√°genes. Por otro lado, hemos comprobado c√≥mo nuestros alumnos encuentran la criptograf√≠a muy atractiva, as√≠ que nos planteamos realizar algunas actividades relacionadas con el cifrado de una imagen digital que mostraremos en este art√≠culo

    Uso del Classroom y aprendizaje en el área de comunicación en estudiantes del 4to grado de la I.E. Internacional Elim 2021

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    La investigaci√≥n fue titulada Uso del Classroom y Aprendizaje en el √°rea de Comunicaci√≥n en estudiantes del 4to grado de la I.E. Internacional Elim Lima 2021 y el objetivo fue determinar de qu√© manera el uso del Classroom se relaciona con el aprendizaje en el √Ārea de comunicaci√≥n en estudiantes del 4to grado de la I.E. Internacional Elim, Lima 2021. El enfoque fue cuantitativo, el tipo fue b√°sica, el dise√Īo fue no experimental correlacional. Para esta investigaci√≥n la poblaci√≥n est√° conformada por los 60 alumnos de las 2 aulas del 4to grado de primaria. La t√©cnica que se realiz√≥ para este estudio fue una encuesta y el instrumento que se utiliz√≥ un cuestionario. La confiabilidad realizada fue de Alpha de Cronbach y los resultados de la variable uso del classroom tuvo un resultado de 0.943 y de la variable aprendizaje de comunicaci√≥n tuvo un resultado de 0.929; interpret√°ndose como alta fiabilidad de las variables. La investigaci√≥n concluy√≥ que Existe relaci√≥n significativa entre el uso del Classroom con el aprendizaje en el √Ārea de comunicaci√≥n en estudiantes del 4to grado de la I.E. Internacional Elim, Lima 2021, debido al valor de Rho de Spearman 0.653 y as√≠ mismo el p< 0.05

    DIVERSIDAD Y COMPOSICI√ďN FLOR√ćSTICA DE TRES TIPOS DE BOSQUE EN LA ESTACI√ďN BIOL√ďGICA CAPAR√ö, VAUP√ČS

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    The Amazon forests are among the most diverse ecosystems in the planet. Although some countries of the Amazon Basin have a fairly complete record of their plants, in Colombia much effort is still needed to have a good idea of the plant diversity patterns and floristic composition. Three one hectare vegetation-land plots (dbh 10 cm) were established in Vaupés, Colombia, regarding three types of forest: Colina, Terraza (Terra Firme forests) and Igapó (periodically flooded). Plant diversity was estimated and floristic composition was described classifying the most important families and species. The highest diversity was found in Colina (Fisher's = 160.3), followed by Terraza ( = 78.4) and Igapó ( = 44.7). Fabaceae s.l. was the most important family of all plots, but in Terraza forest the importance of Arecaceae was similar to that of Fabaceae. Floristic composition was also remarkably different amongst the three forest types, especially Igapó, which was the most dissimilar. However, both Terra Firme forests showed strong floristic differences, which may be caused by differences in abiotic factors (i.e. soils). High plant diversity reported in this study agrees with the hypothesis that central and western Amazon forests are the most diverse of the Amazon Basin.Los bosques amazónicos han sido incluidos entre los más diversos del planeta. Aunque en algunos países de la Amazonía existe un amplio registro de sus plantas, en Colombia hace falta un mayor esfuerzo para tener una buena idea de su diversidad y composición florística. Se levantaron tres parcelas permanentes de vegetación (dap 10 cm) de una ha en el Vaupés colombiano, en tres tipos de bosque: Colina, Terraza e Igapó (los dos primeros de Terra Firme y el tercero inundable). El objetivo fue cuantificar la diversidad y describir la composición florística en términos de índices de importancia para familias y especies. La parcela más diversa fue la de Colina ( de Fisher = 160.3), seguida por la de Terraza ( = 78.4) y por la de Igapó ( =44.7). La familia Fabaceae s.l. fue la más importante en las tres ha, pero en el bosque de terraza la importancia de Arecaceae fue similar a la de Fabaceae. También en composición florística los tres tipos de bosque resultaron considerablemente distintos, siendo el inundable el más disímil de los tres. Sin embargo, también encontramos diferencias importantes entre los dos bosques de tierra firme, que pueden deberse a características abióticas (i.e. suelos diferentes). La alta diversidad reportada en este estudio coincide con la hipótesis que indica que las zonas más diversas de la Amazonía son la occidental y la central

    Lysozyme plays a dual role against the dimorphic fungus Paracoccidioides brasiliensis

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    In order to determine the role of lysozyme, an antimicrobial peptide belonging to the innate immune system, against the dimorphic fungus Paracoccidioides brasiliensis, co-cultures of the MH-S murine alveolar macrophages cell line with P. brasiliensis conidia were done; assays to evaluate the effect of physiological and inflammatory concentrations of lysozyme directly on the fungus life cycle were also undertaken. We observed that TNF-&#945;-activated macrophages significantly inhibited the conidia to yeast transition (p = 0.0043) and exerted an important fungicidal effect (p = 0.0044), killing 27% more fungal propagules in comparison with controls. Nonetheless, after adding a selective inhibitor of lysozyme, the fungicidal effect was reverted. When P. brasiliensis propagules were exposed directly to different concentrations of lysozyme, a dual effect was observed. Physiologic concentrations of the enzyme facilitated the conidia-to-yeast transition process (p < 0.05). On the contrary, inflammatory concentrations impaired the normal temperature-dependant fungal transition (p < 0.0001). When yeast cells were exposed to lysozyme, irrespective of concentration, the multiple-budding ability was badly impaired (p < 0.0001). In addition, ultra-structural changes such as subcellular degradation, fusion of lipid vacuoles, lamellar structures and interruption of the fibrilar layer were observed in lysozyme exposed conidia. These results suggest that lysozyme appears to exert a dual role as part of the anti-P. brasiliensis defense mechanisms.Com a finalidade de determinar o papel da lisozima, um pept√≠deo antimicrobiano que pertence ao sistema imune inato, contra o fungo dim√≥rfico Paracoccidioides brasiliensis, foram feitas co-culturas de uma linha de macr√≥fagos alveolares murinos (MH-S) com as con√≠dias do fungo na presen√ßa ou n√£o do TNF-&#945; e/ou um inibidor da lisozima; tamb√©m foram feitos ensaios que avaliaram o efeito das concentra√ß√Ķes fisiol√≥gicas e inflamat√≥rias de lisozima diretamente sobre o ciclo de vida do fungo. Observamos que os macr√≥fagos ativados com a citoquina tiveram um efeito significativo na inibi√ß√£o da transi√ß√£o con√≠dia/levedura (p = 0,0043) e exerceram um efeito fungicida importante (p = 0,0044), matando mais de 27% das prop√°gulas do fungo em compara√ß√£o com os macr√≥fagos n√£o ativados. No entanto, ap√≥s ser o inibidor seletivo da lisozima adicionado, o efeito fungicida foi revertido. Quando os prop√°gulos do fungo foram expostos diretamente a diferentes concentra√ß√Ķes da lisozima, um duplo efeito foi observado. Assim, as concentra√ß√Ķes fisiol√≥gicas da enzima facilitaram o processo de transi√ß√£o con√≠dia-levedura (p < 0,05). Contrariamente, as concentra√ß√Ķes inflamat√≥rias prejudicaram a transi√ß√£o f√ļngica (p < 0,0001). Quando as leveduras foram expostas a qualquer concentra√ß√£o de lisozima, sua capacidade de multi-brota√ß√£o foi gravemente prejudicada (p < 0,0001). Al√©m disso, mudan√ßas ultra-estruturais, como a sub degrada√ß√£o, a fus√£o dos vac√ļolos dos l√≠pidos, estruturas lamelares e interrup√ß√£o da camada fibrilar foram observadas em con√≠dios expostos √† lisozima. Estes resultados sugerem que a lisozima poderia exercer um duplo papel no mecanismo antif√ļngico contra P. brasiliensis
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