245,035 research outputs found

    Emergence of inflationary perturbations in the CSL model

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    The inflationary paradigm is the most successful model that explains the observed spectrum of primordial perturbations. However, the precise emergence of such inhomogeneities and the quantum-to-classical transition of the perturbations has not yet reached a consensus among the community. The Continuous Spontaneous Localization model (CSL), in the cosmological context, might be used to provide a solution to the mentioned issues by considering a dynamical reduction of the wave function. The CSL model has been applied to the inflationary universe before and different conclusions have been obtained. In this letter, we use a different approach to implement the CSL model during inflation. In particular, in addition to accounting for the quantum-to-classical transition, we use the CSL model to generate the primordial perturbations, that is, the dynamical evolution provided by the CSL model is responsible for the transition from a homogeneous and isotropic initial state to a final one lacking such symmetries. Our approach leads to results that can be clearly distinguished from preceding works. Specifically, the scalar and tensor power spectra are not time-dependent, and retains the amplification mechanism of the CSL model. Moreover, our framework depends only on one parameter (the CSL parameter) and its value is consistent with cosmological and laboratory observations.Comment: 14 pages. Final version. To be published in EPJ

    A Perl Package and an Alignment Tool for Phylogenetic Networks

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    Phylogenetic networks are a generalization of phylogenetic trees that allow for the representation of evolutionary events acting at the population level, like recombination between genes, hybridization between lineages, and lateral gene transfer. While most phylogenetics tools implement a wide range of algorithms on phylogenetic trees, there exist only a few applications to work with phylogenetic networks, and there are no open-source libraries either. In order to improve this situation, we have developed a Perl package that relies on the BioPerl bundle and implements many algorithms on phylogenetic networks. We have also developed a Java applet that makes use of the aforementioned Perl package and allows the user to make simple experiments with phylogenetic networks without having to develop a program or Perl script by herself. The Perl package has been accepted as part of the BioPerl bundle. It can be downloaded from http://dmi.uib.es/~gcardona/BioInfo/Bio-PhyloNetwork.tgz. The web-based application is available at http://dmi.uib.es/~gcardona/BioInfo/. The Perl package includes full documentation of all its features.Comment: 5 page

    Fundamental Radar Properties: Hidden Variables in Spacetime

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    A derivation of the properties of pulsed radiative imaging systems is presented with examples drawn from conventional, synthetic aperture, and interferometric radar. A geometric construction of the space and time components of a radar observation yields a simple underlying structural equivalence between many of the properties of radar, including resolution, range ambiguity, azimuth aliasing, signal strength, speckle, layover, Doppler shifts, obliquity and slant range resolution, finite antenna size, atmospheric delays, and beam and pulse limited configurations. The same simple structure is shown to account for many interferometric properties of radar - height resolution, image decorrelation, surface velocity detection, and surface deformation measurement. What emerges is a simple, unified description of the complex phenomena of radar observations. The formulation comes from fundamental physical concepts in relativistic field theory, of which the essential elements are presented. In the terminology of physics, radar properties are projections of hidden variables - curved worldlines from a broken symmetry in Minkowski spacetime - onto a time-serial receiver.Comment: 24 pages, 18 figures Accepted JOSA-
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