312 research outputs found

    The ACUTE (Ambulance CPAP: Use, Treatment effect and economics) feasibility study: a pilot randomised controlled trial of prehospital CPAP for acute respiratory failure

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    Background: Acute respiratory failure (ARF) is a common and life-threatening medical emergency. Standard prehospital management involves controlled oxygen therapy and disease-specific ancillary treatments. Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) is a potentially beneficial alternative treatment that could be delivered by emergency medical services. However, it is uncertain whether this treatment could work effectively in United Kingdom National Health Service (NHS) ambulance services and if it represents value for money. Methods: An individual patient randomised controlled external pilot trial will be conducted comparing prehospital CPAP to standard oxygen therapy for ARF. Adults presenting to ambulance service clinicians will be eligible if they have respiratory distress with peripheral oxygen saturation below British Thoracic Society (BTS) target levels, despite titrated supplemental oxygen. Enrolled patients will be allocated (1:1 simple randomisation) to prehospital CPAP (O_two system) or standard oxygen therapy using identical sealed boxes. Feasibility outcomes will include incidence of recruited eligible patients, number of erroneously recruited patients and proportion of cases adhering to allocation schedule and treatment, followed up at 30 days and with complete data collection. Effectiveness outcomes will comprise survival at 30 days (definitive trial primary end point), endotracheal intubation, admission to critical care, length of hospital stay, visual analogue scale (VAS) dyspnoea score, EQ-5D-5L and health care resource use at 30 days. The cost-effectiveness of CPAP, and of conducting a definitive trial, will be evaluated by updating an existing economic model. The trial aims to recruit 120 patients over 12 months from four regional ambulance hubs within the West Midlands Ambulance Service (WMAS). This sample size will allow estimation of feasibility outcomes with a precision of < 5%. Feasibility and effectiveness outcomes will be reported descriptively for the whole trial population, and each trial arm, together with their 95% confidence intervals. Discussion: This study will determine if it is feasible, acceptable and cost-effective to undertake a full-scale trial comparing CPAP and standard oxygen treatment, delivered by ambulance service clinicians for ARF. This will inform NHS practice and prevent inappropriate prehospital CPAP adoption on the basis of limited evidence and at a potentially substantial cost. Trial registration: ISRCTN12048261. Registered on 30 August 2017. http://www.isrctn.com/ISRCTN1204826

    Seatbelt use and risk of major injuries sustained by vehicle occupants during motor-vehicle crashes: A systematic review and meta-analysis of cohort studies

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    BackgroundIn 2004, a World Health Report on road safety called for enforcement of measures such as seatbelt use, effective at minimizing morbidity and mortality caused by road traffic accidents. However, injuries caused by seatbelt use have also been described. Over a decade after publication of the World Health Report on road safety, this study sought to investigate the relationship between seatbelt use and major injuries in belted compared to unbelted passengers.MethodsCohort studies published in English language from 2005 to 2018 were retrieved from seven databases. Critical appraisal of studies was carried out using the Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network (SIGN) checklist. Pooled risk of major injuries was assessed using the random effects meta-analytic model. Heterogeneity was quantified using I-squared and Tau-squared statistics. Funnel plots and Egger's test were used to investigate publication bias. This review is registered in PROSPERO (CRD42015020309).ResultsEleven studies, all carried out in developed countries were included. Overall, the risk of any major injury was significantly lower in belted passengers compared to unbelted passengers (RR 0.47; 95%CI, 0.29 to 0.80; I-2=99.7; P=0.000). When analysed by crash types, belt use significantly reduced the risk of any injury (RR 0.35; 95%CI, 0.24 to 0.52). Seatbelt use reduces the risk of facial injuries (RR=0.56, 95% CI=0.37 to 0.84), abdominal injuries (RR=0.87; 95% CI=0.78 to 0.98) and, spinal injuries (RR=0.56, 95% CI=0.37 to 0.84). However, we found no statistically significant difference in risk of head injuries (RR=0.49; 95% CI=0.22 to 1.08), neck injuries (RR=0.69: 95%CI 0.07 to 6.44), thoracic injuries (RR 0.96, 95%CI, 0.74 to 1.24), upper limb injuries (RR=1.05, 95%CI 0.83 to 1.34) and lower limb injuries (RR=0.77, 95%CI 0.58 to 1.04) between belted and non-belted passengers.ConclusionIn sum, the risk of most major road traffic injuries is lower in seatbelt users. Findings were inconclusive regarding seatbelt use and susceptibility to thoracic, head and neck injuries during road traffic accidents. Awareness should be raised about the dangers of inadequate seatbelt use. Future research should aim to assess the effects of seatbelt use on major injuries by crash type

    Real-Life Anti-Tumour Necrosis Factor Experience in > 500 Paediatric United Kingdom Inflammatory Bowel Disease Patients.

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    OBJECTIVES: To measure the effectiveness, safety and use of anti-Tumour necrosis Factor (TNF) therapy in paediatric inflammatory bowel disease (PIBD) in the United Kingdom (UK). METHODS: Prospective UK audit of patients newly starting anti-TNF therapy. Disease severity was assessed using Physician Global Assessment (PGA) +/or the Paediatric Crohn's Disease Activity Index (PCDAI). RESULTS: 37 centres participated (23 of 25 specialist PIBD sites). 524 patients were included; 429 Crohn's disease (CD), 76 ulcerative colitis (UC), 19 IBD unclassified (IBDU). 87% (488/562) anti-TNF was infliximab; commonest indication was active luminal CD 77% (330/429) or chronic refractory UC/IBDU 56% (53/95); 79% (445/562) had concomitant co-immunosuppression. In CD (267/429 male), median time from diagnosis to treatment was 1.42 years (IQR 0.63-2.97). Disease (at initiation) was moderate or severe in 91% (156/171) by PGA compared to 41% (88/217) by PCDAI; Kappa (Κ) 0.28 = only 'fair agreement' (p < 0.001).Where documented, 77% (53/69) of CD patients responded to induction; and 65% (46/71) entered remission. 2287 infusions and 301.96 years of patient follow-up (n = 385) are represented; adverse events affected 3% (49/1587) infliximab and 2% (2/98) adalimumab infusions (no deaths or malignancies). Perianal abscess drainage was less common after anti-TNF initiation (CD): 26% (27/102) before, 7% (3/42) after (p = 0.01); however pre and post anti-TNF data collection was not over equal time periods. CONCLUSION: Anti-TNFs are effective treatments, usually given with thiopurine co-immunosuppression. This study highlights deficiencies in formal documentation of effect and disparity between disease severity scoring tools which need to be addressed to improve ongoing patient care

    Building a recruitment database for asthma trials: a conceptual framework for the creation of the UK Database of Asthma Research Volunteers

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    Funded by Asthma UK as part of the Asthma UK Centre for Applied Research (AUK-AC-2012-01). In addition, BN, IS, CS and AS acknowledge the support of the Farr Institute, which is funded by the MRC and its consortium of funders

    Longitudinal Numbers-Needed-To-Treat (NNT) for Achieving Various Levels of Analgesic Response and Improvement with Etoricoxib, Naproxen, and Placebo in Ankylosing Spondylitis

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    <p>Abstract</p> <p>Background</p> <p>Clinical analgesic trials typically report response as group mean results. However, research has shown that few patients are average and most have responses at the extremes. Moreover, group mean results do not convey response levels and thus have limited value in representing the benefit-risk at an individual level. Responder analyses and numbers-needed-to-treat (NNT) are considered more relevant for evaluating treatment response. We evaluated levels of analgesic response and Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Disease Activity Index (BASDAI) score improvement and the associated NNTs.</p> <p>Methods</p> <p>This was a post-hoc analysis of a 6-week, randomized, double-blind study (N = 387) comparing etoricoxib 90 mg, etoricoxib 120 mg, naproxen 1000 mg, and placebo in AS. Spine pain and BASDAI were measured on a 100-mm visual analog scale. The number and percentage of patients achieving ≥30% and ≥50% improvement in both BASDAI and spine pain were calculated and used to determine the corresponding NNTs. Patients who discontinued from the study for any reason were assigned zero improvement beyond 7 days of the time of discontinuation.</p> <p>Results</p> <p>For etoricoxib 90 mg, etoricoxib 120 mg and naproxen 1000 mg, the NNTs at 6 weeks compared with placebo were 2.0, 2.0, and 2.7 respectively for BASDAI ≥30% improvement, and 3.2, 2.8, and 4.1 for ≥50% improvement. For spine pain, the NNTs were 1.9, 2.0, and 3.2, respectively, for ≥30% improvement, and 2.7, 2.5, and 3.7 for ≥50% improvement. The differences between etoricoxib and naproxen exceeded the limit of ±0.5 units described as a clinically meaningful difference for pain. Response rates and NNTs were generally similar and stable over 2, 4, and 6 weeks.</p> <p>Conclusions</p> <p>For every 2 patients treated with etoricoxib, 1 achieved a clinically meaningful (≥30%) improvement in spine pain and BASDAI beyond that expected from placebo, whereas the corresponding values were approximately 1 in every 3 patients treated with naproxen. Use of NNTs and responder analyses provide additional, complementary information beyond population mean responses when assessing efficacy compared to placebo and amongst active therapies.</p

    Benefits, Barriers and Enablers of Breastfeeding: Factor Analysis of Population Perceptions in Western Australia

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    Objective: The objective of this study was to investigate knowledge and community perceptions of breastfeeding in Western Australia using a factor analysis approach. Methods: Data were pooled from five Nutrition Monitoring Survey Series which included information on breastfeeding from 4,802 Western Australian adults aged 18–64 years. Tetrachoric factor analysis was conducted for data reduction and significant associations identified using logistic, ordinal and poisson regression analyses. Results: Four factors were derived for benefits (it’s natural, good nutrition, good for the baby, and convenience), barriers (breastfeeding problems, poor community acceptability, having to go back to work, and inconvenience) and for enablers (breastfeeding education, community support, family support and not having to work).As assessed by standardized odds ratios the most important covariates across benefit factors were: importance of breastfeeding (ORs range from 1.22–1.44),female gender (ORs range from 0.80 to 1.46), being able to give a time for how long a baby should be breastfed (ORs range from 0.96 to 1.27) and education (less than high school to university completion) (ORs range from 0.95 to 1.23); the most important covariate across barrier factors was being able to give a time for how long a baby should be breastfed (ORs range from 0.89 to 1.93); and the most important covariates across all enabling factors were education (ORs range from 1.14 to1.32) and being able to give a time for how long a baby should be breastfed (ORs range from 1.17 to 1.42).Conclusions: Being female, rating breastfeeding as important, believing that babies should be breastfed for a period of time and education accounted for most of the statistically significant associations. The differences between male and female perceptions require investigation particularly in relation to returning to work

    The Role of Whole Blood Impedance Aggregometry and Its Utilisation in the Diagnosis and Prognosis of Patients with Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome and Sepsis in Acute Critical Illness

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    Objective: To assess the prognostic and diagnostic value of whole blood impedance aggregometry in patients with sepsis and SIRS and to compare with whole blood parameters (platelet count, haemoglobin, haematocrit and white cell count). Methods: We performed an observational, prospective study in the acute setting. Platelet function was determined using whole blood impedance aggregometry (multiplate) on admission to the Emergency Department or Intensive Care Unit and at 6 and 24 hours post admission. Platelet count, haemoglobin, haematocrit and white cell count were also determined. Results: 106 adult patients that met SIRS and sepsis criteria were included. Platelet aggregation was significantly reduced in patients with severe sepsis/septic shock when compared to SIRS/uncomplicated sepsis (ADP: 90.7±37.6 vs 61.4±40.6; p<0.001, Arachadonic Acid 99.9±48.3 vs 66.3±50.2; p = 0.001, Collagen 102.6±33.0 vs 79.1±38.8; p = 0.001; SD ± mean)). Furthermore platelet aggregation was significantly reduced in the 28 day mortality group when compared with the survival group (Arachadonic Acid 58.8±47.7 vs 91.1±50.9; p<0.05, Collagen 36.6±36.6 vs 98.0±35.1; p = 0.001; SD ± mean)). However haemoglobin, haematocrit and platelet count were more effective at distinguishing between subgroups and were equally effective indicators of prognosis. Significant positive correlations were observed between whole blood impedance aggregometry and platelet count (ADP 0.588 p<0.0001, Arachadonic Acid 0.611 p<0.0001, Collagen 0.599 p<0.0001 (Pearson correlation)). Conclusions: Reduced platelet aggregometry responses were not only significantly associated with morbidity and mortality in sepsis and SIRS patients, but also correlated with the different pathological groups. Whole blood aggregometry significantly correlated with platelet count, however, when we adjust for the different groups we investigated, the effect of platelet count appears to be non-significant

    Clinical practice: Coeliac disease

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    Coeliac disease (CD) is an immune-mediated systemic condition elicited by gluten and related prolamines in genetically predisposed individuals and characterised by gluten-induced symptoms and signs, specific antibodies, a specific human leukocyte antigen (HLA) type and enteropathy. The risk of coeliac disease is increased in first-degree relatives, certain syndromes including Down syndrome and autoimmune disorders. It is thought to occur in 1 in 100–200 individuals, but still only one in four cases is diagnosed. Small-bowel biopsy is no longer deemed necessary in a subgroup of patients, i.e. when all of the following are present: typical symptoms or signs, high titres of and transglutaminase antibodies, endomysial antibodies, and HLA-type DQ2 or DQ8. In all other cases, small-bowel biopsy remains mandatory for a correct diagnosis. Therapy consists of a strictly gluten-free diet. This should result in complete disappearance of symptoms and of serological markers. Adequate follow-up is considered essential. Conclusion: Although small-bowel biopsy may be omitted in a minority of patients, small-bowel biopsy is essential for a correct diagnosis of CD in all other cases. Diagnostic work-up should be completed before treatment with gluten-free diet instituted

    Comparison of CATs, CURB-65 and PMEWS as Triage Tools in Pandemic Influenza Admissions to UK Hospitals: Case Control Analysis Using Retrospective Data

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    Triage tools have an important role in pandemics to identify those most likely to benefit from higher levels of care. We compared Community Assessment Tools (CATs), the CURB-65 score, and the Pandemic Medical Early Warning Score (PMEWS); to predict higher levels of care (high dependency - Level 2 or intensive care - Level 3) and/or death in patients at or shortly after admission to hospital with A/H1N1 2009 pandemic influenza. This was a case-control analysis using retrospectively collected data from the FLU-CIN cohort (1040 adults, 480 children) with PCR-confirmed A/H1N1 2009 influenza. Area under receiver operator curves (AUROC), sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive values and negative predictive values were calculated. CATs best predicted Level 2/3 admissions in both adults [AUROC (95% CI): CATs 0.77 (0.73, 0.80); CURB-65 0.68 (0.64, 0.72); PMEWS 0.68 (0.64, 0.73), p<0.001] and children [AUROC: CATs 0.74 (0.68, 0.80); CURB-65 0.52 (0.46, 0.59); PMEWS 0.69 (0.62, 0.75), p<0.001]. CURB-65 and CATs were similar in predicting death in adults with both performing better than PMEWS; and CATs best predicted death in children. CATs were the best predictor of Level 2/3 care and/or death for both adults and children. CATs are potentially useful triage tools for predicting need for higher levels of care and/or mortality in patients of all ages
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