27,016 research outputs found

    Afghan English Major StudentsÔÇÖ Attitudes Toward Native-Like Proficiency in the English Language

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    The term native-like proficiency in English refers to possessing the ability to speak the English language like a native speaker. This study was conducted to investigate Afghan English major undergraduate studentsÔÇÖ attitudes toward native-like proficiency in the English language at two public universities in Afghanistan. The study specifically investigated the attitudes of Afghan English major undergraduate students toward the characteristics of a native speaker of the English language, native speakersÔÇÖ linguistic imperialism, and native-like proficiency in the English language. A mixed research design was used for the study. The quantitative data were descriptively analyzed in terms of frequencies using SPSS and presented in tables. The qualitative data were thematically analyzed and presented. A total of 113 fourth-year (senior students) voluntarily participated in the study. The findings revealed that perfect pronunciation, fluency, and grammatical accuracy were the defining attributes of native speakers. Similarly, students believed that only native speakers have the right to decide the rules or to standardize the English language and that only a native speaker has better English language skills. Moreover, the results revealed that Afghan English major studentsÔÇÖ attitudes toward native-like proficiency in the English language were highly positive, and they love to speak with a native-like accent. It is hoped that the findings of the current study will help educators and will be a valuable addition to the current mass of data on the subject

    One Small Step for Generative AI, One Giant Leap for AGI: A Complete Survey on ChatGPT in AIGC Era

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    OpenAI has recently released GPT-4 (a.k.a. ChatGPT plus), which is demonstrated to be one small step for generative AI (GAI), but one giant leap for artificial general intelligence (AGI). Since its official release in November 2022, ChatGPT has quickly attracted numerous users with extensive media coverage. Such unprecedented attention has also motivated numerous researchers to investigate ChatGPT from various aspects. According to Google scholar, there are more than 500 articles with ChatGPT in their titles or mentioning it in their abstracts. Considering this, a review is urgently needed, and our work fills this gap. Overall, this work is the first to survey ChatGPT with a comprehensive review of its underlying technology, applications, and challenges. Moreover, we present an outlook on how ChatGPT might evolve to realize general-purpose AIGC (a.k.a. AI-generated content), which will be a significant milestone for the development of AGI.Comment: A Survey on ChatGPT and GPT-4, 29 pages. Feedback is appreciated ([email protected]

    Audio-Visual Automatic Speech Recognition Towards Education for Disabilities

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    Education is a fundamental right that enriches everyoneÔÇÖs life. However, physically challenged people often debar from the general and advanced education system. Audio-Visual Automatic Speech Recognition (AV-ASR) based system is useful to improve the education of physically challenged people by providing hands-free computing. They can communicate to the learning system through AV-ASR. However, it is challenging to trace the lip correctly for visual modality. Thus, this paper addresses the appearance-based visual feature along with the co-occurrence statistical measure for visual speech recognition. Local Binary Pattern-Three Orthogonal Planes (LBP-TOP) and Grey-Level Co-occurrence Matrix (GLCM) is proposed for visual speech information. The experimental results show that the proposed system achieves 76.60 % accuracy for visual speech and 96.00 % accuracy for audio speech recognition

    Epistemic and Existential, E2-sustainability. On the need to un-learn for re-learning in contemporary spaces

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    This paper contributes to a re-thinking, un-learning, and re-learning agenda by interrogating some core ideas and assumptions related to contemporary societal and planetary concerns, including concerns within the research enterprise. Transcending the first step that calls for pausing and re-thinking, this paper troubles universalizing vocabularies that naturalize conceptual framings and ways/waves-of-being in research and educational practices. Furthermore, it illuminates the ways in which scholarship has become complicit in re-cycling and re-creating reductionistic ideas that loop back into educational practices. Its overarching argument aligns with an emergent call within research and higher education for going beyond its universalizing monolithic ethos that has become naturalized in contemporary digital-analog entangled existence. Framed as alternative theorizing that is variously termed post/decolonial/southern thinking, these emergent perspectives are part of the introspection that is critically needed in mainstream academia, in particular in the Learning Sciences. This paper argues that this is needed to contribute to both Epistemic and Existential sustainability, i.e., E2-sustainability. E2-sustainability enables transcending issues of environmental-, economic-, social-, and cultural-sustainability: E2-sustainability assumes and includes these. Marked by alternative conceptual framings and pushed by a mobile gaze, this theoretical paper argues that major and minor shifts in thinking are needed for attending to contemporary societal and planetary challenges. E2-sustainability in the scholarly realm has relevance for transcending ethnocentrically framed biases and siloed framings of contemporary education and higher education, including teacher education. Troubling key, taken-for-granted universalizing truths and using the areas of language and educational scholarship as illustrative points of departure, this paper raises concerns regarding the outsourcing of important educational agendas to technologies, including digitalization on the one hand and concepts that build on contentious assumptions on the other hand. It is such default outsourcing that is troubled through a curiosity-driven multiversal and global-centric mobile gaze wherein both northern and southern knowledge-regimes need to be privileged. The theorizing presented in this paper builds on a Second Wave of Southern Perspectives (SWaSP) framing that has relevance for both north-centric and south-centric scholarship, including writing research. Explicitly multi/inter/cross/trans-disciplinary, this work is relevant to Epistemic and Existential sustainability given its non-allegiance to the imaginaries of mono-disciplinarity, nation-state essences, or universalisms

    Factors that affect English proficiency in students of advanced English courses of the undergraduate program in English at Universidad Nacional Abierta y a Distancia (UNAD)

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    Se anexan tablas de an├ílisis de datos, graficas de encuestas y cuestionarios, consentimiento informado, cuestionario sociodemogr├ífica y encuesta de caracterizaci├│n.El prop├│sito de este estudio de investigaci├│n se centr├│ en establecer y analizar la relaci├│n entre diferentes variables en cuanto a la adquisici├│n del ingl├ęs como lengua extranjera para los estudiantes de pregrado en lenguas extranjeras de los cursos avanzados de ingl├ęs de la UNAD. Este estudio de investigaci├│n reuni├│ como participantes a estudiantes activos de los cursos de ingl├ęs del ├║ltimo periodo acad├ęmico que voluntariamente formaron parte del mismo, el an├ílisis de datos de este estudio se bas├│ en informaci├│n cuantitativa y cualitativa obtenida a trav├ęs de dos instrumentos creados espec├şficamente para la poblaci├│n objeto, e implementados durante el desarrollo de este estudio de investigaci├│n, los datos cuantitativos fueron recolectados mediante el instrumento "Cuestionario Socioecon├│mico" y se utiliz├│ el Cambridge English Placement test (CEPTO) para analizar el nivel de ingl├ęs de los estudiantes, mientras que los datos cualitativos se obtuvieron a trav├ęs de una encuesta de caracterizaci├│n, como resultado del an├ílisis de datos mencionado anteriormente se identificaron tres (3) categor├şas, estratificaci├│n socioecon├│mica, estudios de Pregrado en l├şnea y antecedentes econ├│micos del hogar, las observaciones y conclusiones logradas durante este proceso abren un espacio de reflexi├│n frente a la posibilidad de implementar estrategias de cara a las necesidades de la poblaci├│n especifica de la UNAD concerniente al aprendizaje del ingl├ęs como lengua extranjera.This paper establishes and analyzes the relationship between different variables related to English as a foreign language learning for undergraduate students of the Bachelor in English program from the advanced English courses at UNAD. It has been observed that for some students of the undergraduate program the low language performance is related to their socioeconomic context, as well as engagement. This research study invited students enrolled in the advanced English courses at UNAD to participate, the data analysis of this study is based on quantitative and qualitative information obtained through means of two instruments specifically created for the target population, and implemented during the development of this research study, quantitative data was gathered by the instrument ÔÇťSocioeconomic QuestionnaireÔÇŁ and the Cambridge English Placement test (CEPTO) was used to analyze the English level of the students, while qualitative data was obtained through a characterization survey, after thorough analysis it was found that the learners┬┤ socioeconomic status is a fundamental factor that contributes to English acquisition in the target population and has correlation with their language performance, it was also found that although their level of engagement was high the majority did not obtain the B2 English level expected to graduate in the program. The angles explored were: studentsÔÇÖ financial status, parentsÔÇÖ background, English language performance, and engagement towards the language. It is expected that the findings of this study can pave the way for other researchers to undertake further investigations and find solutions on the basis of the discerned results

    The Effectiveness of Using Code Switching in Teaching English on Higher Education

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    The occurence of using code switching in classroom appears for lecturer to explain topic, it also uses English-Indonesia, the students are difficult to understand when lecturer speaks English. The problem appears for students because of the difficulties to say something. This study aims to determine the factors that influence the use of code switching and the types of code switching used in learning English. The research method is descriptive qualitative. Collecting data by means of interviews, observations and video recordings. Data analysis is used to analyze information related to the use of code switching Indonesian English conversation. The participants of this study were two teachers who had experience of code switching while teaching. This study found five reasons teachers use code switching in teaching and learning English: discussing specific topics, making teaching and learning more practical, managing classes, building social relationships, and encouraging active student participation. From observations found three types of code switching used by teachers. The results showed that the use of code switching in learning English found 3 types of code switching, namely; (1) inter-sentential code switching occurred in 580 data (58%), (2) intra-sentential code switching occurred in 300 data (30%), and (3) Tag-code switching occurred in 127 data (12%). The factors behind the use of code switching in learning English are structural linguistic factors, internal psycholinguistic factors, and external social factors. The most dominant factor behind the occurrence of code switching is the structural linguistic factor, namely students do not master English. The teacher applies code switching to facilitate students to more easily understand the material being presented

    On the Robustness of ChatGPT: An Adversarial and Out-of-distribution Perspective

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    ChatGPT is a recent chatbot service released by OpenAI and is receiving increasing attention over the past few months. While evaluations of various aspects of ChatGPT have been done, its robustness, i.e., the performance to unexpected inputs, is still unclear to the public. Robustness is of particular concern in responsible AI, especially for safety-critical applications. In this paper, we conduct a thorough evaluation of the robustness of ChatGPT from the adversarial and out-of-distribution (OOD) perspective. To do so, we employ the AdvGLUE and ANLI benchmarks to assess adversarial robustness and the Flipkart review and DDXPlus medical diagnosis datasets for OOD evaluation. We select several popular foundation models as baselines. Results show that ChatGPT shows consistent advantages on most adversarial and OOD classification and translation tasks. However, the absolute performance is far from perfection, which suggests that adversarial and OOD robustness remains a significant threat to foundation models. Moreover, ChatGPT shows astounding performance in understanding dialogue-related texts and we find that it tends to provide informal suggestions for medical tasks instead of definitive answers. Finally, we present in-depth discussions of possible research directions.Comment: Technical report; code is at: https://github.com/microsoft/robustlear

    Examples of works to practice staccato technique in clarinet instrument

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    Klarnetin staccato tekni─čini g├╝├žlendirme a┼čamalar─▒ eser ├žal─▒┼čmalar─▒yla uygulanm─▒┼čt─▒r. Staccato ge├ži┼člerini h─▒zland─▒racak ritim ve n├╝ans ├žal─▒┼čmalar─▒na yer verilmi┼čtir. ├çal─▒┼čman─▒n en ├Ânemli amac─▒ sadece staccato ├žal─▒┼čmas─▒ de─čil parmak-dilin e┼č zamanl─▒ uyumunun hassasiyeti ├╝zerinde de durulmas─▒d─▒r. Staccato ├žal─▒┼čmalar─▒n─▒ daha verimli hale getirmek i├žin eser ├žal─▒┼čmas─▒n─▒n i├žinde et├╝t ├žal─▒┼čmas─▒na da yer verilmi┼čtir. ├çal─▒┼čmalar─▒n ├╝zerinde titizlikle durulmas─▒ staccato ├žal─▒┼čmas─▒n─▒n ilham verici etkisi ile m├╝zikal kimli─če yeni bir boyut kazand─▒rm─▒┼čt─▒r. Sekiz ├Âzg├╝n eser ├žal─▒┼čmas─▒n─▒n her a┼čamas─▒ anlat─▒lm─▒┼čt─▒r. Her a┼čaman─▒n bir sonraki performans ve tekni─či g├╝├žlendirmesi esas al─▒nm─▒┼čt─▒r. Bu ├žal─▒┼čmada staccato tekni─činin hangi alanlarda kullan─▒ld─▒─č─▒, nas─▒l sonu├žlar elde edildi─či bilgisine yer verilmi┼čtir. Notalar─▒n parmak ve dil uyumu ile nas─▒l ┼čekillenece─či ve nas─▒l bir ├žal─▒┼čma disiplini i├žinde ger├žekle┼čece─či planlanm─▒┼čt─▒r. Kam─▒┼č-nota-diyafram-parmak-dil-n├╝ans ve disiplin kavramlar─▒n─▒n staccato tekni─činde ayr─▒lmaz bir b├╝t├╝n oldu─ču saptanm─▒┼čt─▒r. Ara┼čt─▒rmada literat├╝r taramas─▒ yap─▒larak staccato ile ilgili ├žal─▒┼čmalar taranm─▒┼čt─▒r. Tarama sonucunda klarnet tekni─čin de kullan─▒lan staccato eser ├žal─▒┼čmas─▒n─▒n az oldu─ču tespit edilmi┼čtir. Metot taramas─▒nda da et├╝t ├žal─▒┼čmas─▒n─▒n daha ├žok oldu─ču saptanm─▒┼čt─▒r. B├Âylelikle klarnetin staccato tekni─čini h─▒zland─▒rma ve g├╝├žlendirme ├žal─▒┼čmalar─▒ sunulmu┼čtur. Staccato et├╝t ├žal─▒┼čmalar─▒ yap─▒l─▒rken, araya eser ├žal─▒┼čmas─▒n─▒n girmesi beyni rahatlatt─▒─č─▒ ve isteklili─či daha artt─▒rd─▒─č─▒ g├Âzlemlenmi┼čtir. Staccato ├žal─▒┼čmas─▒n─▒ yaparken do─čru bir kam─▒┼č se├žimi ├╝zerinde de durulmu┼čtur. Staccato tekni─čini do─čru ├žal─▒┼čmak i├žin do─čru bir kam─▒┼č─▒n dil h─▒z─▒n─▒ artt─▒rd─▒─č─▒ saptanm─▒┼čt─▒r. Do─čru bir kam─▒┼č se├žimi kam─▒┼čtan rahat ses ├ž─▒kmas─▒na ba─čl─▒d─▒r. Kam─▒┼č, dil atma g├╝c├╝n├╝ vermiyorsa daha do─čru bir kam─▒┼č se├žiminin yap─▒lmas─▒ gereklili─či vurgulanm─▒┼čt─▒r. Staccato ├žal─▒┼čmalar─▒nda ba┼čtan sona bir eseri yorumlamak zor olabilir. Bu a├ž─▒dan ├žal─▒┼čma, verilen m├╝zikal n├╝anslara uyman─▒n, dil at─▒┼č performans─▒n─▒ rahatlatt─▒─č─▒n─▒ ortaya koymu┼čtur. Gelecek nesillere edinilen bilgi ve birikimlerin aktar─▒lmas─▒ ve geli┼čtirici olmas─▒ te┼čvik edilmi┼čtir. ├ç─▒kacak eserlerin nas─▒l ├ž├Âz├╝lece─či, staccato tekni─činin nas─▒l ├╝stesinden gelinebilece─či anlat─▒lm─▒┼čt─▒r. Staccato tekni─činin daha k─▒sa s├╝rede ├ž├Âz├╝me kavu┼čturulmas─▒ ama├ž edinilmi┼čtir. Parmaklar─▒n yerlerini ├Â─čretti─čimiz kadar belle─čimize de ├žal─▒┼čmalar─▒n kaydedilmesi ├Ânemlidir. G├Âsterilen azmin ve sabr─▒n sonucu olarak ortaya ├ž─▒kan yap─▒t ba┼čar─▒y─▒ daha da yukar─▒ seviyelere ├ž─▒karacakt─▒r
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