128,098 research outputs found

    Economic Analysis of an Integrated Wind-Hydrogen Energy System for a Small Alaska Community

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    Wind-hydrogen systems provide one way to store intermittent wind energy as hydrogen. We explored the hypothesis that an integrated wind-hydrogen system supplying electricity, heat, and transportation fuel could serve the needs of an isolated (off-grid) Alaska community at a lower cost than a collection of separate systems. Analysis indicates that: 1) Combustible Hydrogen could be produced with current technologies for direct use as a transportation fuel for about $15/gallon-equivalent; 2) The capital cost of the wind energy rather than the capital cost of electrolyzers dominates this high cost; and 3) There do not appear to be diseconomies of small scale for current electrolyzers serving a a village of 400 people.United States Department of Energy. DOE Award Number: DE-FC26-01NT41248Introduction / Executive Summary / Experimental Methods / Results and Discussion / Conclusion / Bibliography / Appendix: Associated Excel Workbook

    Fuel cell technology for lunar surface operations

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    Hydrogen-oxygen fuel cells have been shown, in several NASA and contractor studies, to be an enabling technology for providing electrical power for lunar bases, outposts, and vehicles. The fuel cell, in conjunction with similar electrolysis cells, comprises a closed regenerative energy storage system, commonly referred to as a regenerative fuel cell (RFC). For stationary applications, energy densities of 1,000 watt-hours per kilograms an order of magnitude over the best rechargeable batteries, have been projected. In this RFC, the coupled fuel cell and electrolyzer act as an ultra-light battery. Electrical energy from solar arrays 'charges' the system by electrolyzing water into hydrogen and oxygen. When an electrical load is applied, the fuel cell reacts the hydrogen and oxygen to 'discharge' usable power. Several concepts for utilizing RFC's, with varying degrees of integration, have been proposed, including both primary and backup roles. For mobile power needs, such as rovers, an effective configuration may be to have only the fuel cell located on the vehicle, and to use a central electrolysis 'gas station'. Two fuel cell technologies are prime candidates for lunar power system concepts: alkaline electrolyte and proton exchange membrane. Alkaline fuel cells have been developed to a mature production power unit in NASA's Space Shuttle Orbiter. Recent advances in materials offer to significantly improve durability to the level needed for extended lunar operations. Proton exchange membrane fuel cells are receiving considerable support for hydrospace and terrestrial transportation applications. This technology promises durability, simplicity, and flexibility


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    Atomic hydrogen, for use as a fuel or as an explosive, is stored in the presence of a strong magnetic field in exfoliated layered compounds such as molybdenum disulfide or an elemental layer material such as graphite. The compound is maintained at liquid helium temperatures and the atomic hydrogen is collected on the surfaces of the layered compound which are exposed during delamination (exfoliation). The strong magnetic field and the low temperature combine to prevent the atoms of hydrogen from recombining to form molecules

    An overview of hydrogen as a vehicle fuel

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    As hydrogen fuel cell vehicles move from manifestation to commercialization, the users expec t safe, convenient and customer-friendly fuelling. Hydrogen quality affects fuel cell stack performance and life time, as well as other factors such as valve operation. In this paper, previous researcher’s development on hydrogen as a possible major fuel of the future has been studied thoroughly .Hydrogen is one of the energy carriers which can replace fossil fuel and can be used as fuel in an internal combustion engines and as a fuel cell in vehicles. To use hydrogen as a fuel of internal combustion engine, engine design should be considered for avoiding abnormal combustion. As a result it can improve engine efficiency, power output and reduce NOx emissions. The emission of fuel cell is low as compared to conventional vehicles but as penalty, fuel cell vehicles need additional space and weight to install the battery and storage tank, thus increases it production cost. The production of hydrogen can be ‘carbon-free’ only if it is generated by employing genuinely carbon-free renewable energy sources. The acceptability of hydrogen technology depends on the knowledge and awareness of the hydrogen benefits towards environment and human life. Recent study shows that people still do not have the sufficient information of hydrogen
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