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    Koulutusinterventioiden vaikuttavuus suun terveydenhuollon ammattilaisten opiskelijaohjausosaamiseen kliinisessä harjoittelussa

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    Abstract The purpose of this study was to develop an educational interventions and evaluate their effects on dentist and dental hygienist mentors’ competence in mentoring dental health care students in clinical practice. In this study, the development of the intervention was guided by the Medical Research Council framework. The interventions’ phase of development and evaluation proceeded in three stages. In the first phase, the interventions were developed by conducting a cross-sectional study to assess dentists’, dental hygienists’ and dental assistants’ (n=933) competence of student mentoring and to identify distinct mentor profiles. The systematic literature review’s objective was to evaluate the effectiveness and advancement of mentoring education intervention on mentoring competence (n=8). The identified theory was used as a basis for the development of the educational intervention. In the second phase (feasibility), the feasibility of the education interventions was assessed based on the evaluations of the expert groups. In the third phase, the effectiveness of the educational interventions was assessed on the mentoring competence of dentists and dental hygienists in clinical practice. Intervention Group I was conducted as blended learning methods (n=32) and Intervention Group II as online methods (n=33). Participants in the Control Group (n=56) had not completed the mentoring education. The data was collected before (pre-test) and after the mentoring education (post-test), as well as three months after the completion of the mentoring education (follow-up-test), and in the Control Group according to the Intervention Group I data collection. The statistical significance of observed differences, differences between the intervention and Control Groups were assesses using the Mann-Whitney U test and pre- and post-test changes were assessed using Wilcoxon Signed Rank test. There were statistically significant improvements in mentoring competence in both Intervention groups. There was a statistically significant difference between the control group and intervention groups in the competence area of mentoring. Oral health professionals are required the competence of student mentoring. The mentoring education is needed to improve the competence of student mentoring. Both blended learning and online learning can be used to develop the mentoring competence.Tiivistelmä Tutkimuksen tarkoituksena oli kehittää ohjaajakoulutusinterventiot ja arvioida niiden vaikuttavuutta hammaslääkäreiden ja suuhygienistien opiskelijaohjausosaamiseen kliinisessä harjoittelussa. Tässä tutkimuksessa interventioiden kehittämistä ohjasivat Medical Research Councilin viitekehys. Intervention kehittämis- ja arviointivaihe eteni kolmen vaiheen mukaisesti. Tutkimuksen ensimmäisessä vaiheessa kehitettiin interventiot, jossa toteutettiin poikkileikkaustutkimus, jossa arvioitiin hammaslääkäreiden, suuhygienistien ja hammashoitajien (n=933) opiskelijaohjausosaamista sekä tunnistettiin erilaiset ohjaajaprofiilit. Systemaattisen kirjallisuuskatsauksen tavoitteena oli arvioida, kuinka ohjaajakoulutusinterventiot vaikuttivat ja edistivät ohjausosaamista (n=8). Systemaattisen kirjallisuuskatsauksen teoriaa hyödynnettiin osana interventioiden kehittämisessä. Toisessa (toteutettavuus) vaiheessa arvioitiin koulutusinterventioiden toteutettavuutta asiantuntijaryhmien arviointeihin perustuen. Kolmannessa vaiheessa arvioitiin koulutusinterventioiden vaikuttavuutta hammaslääkäreiden ja suuhygienistien opiskelijaohjausosaamiseen kliinisessä harjoittelussa. Interventioryhmä I toteutettiin blended learning koulutuksena (n=32) ja Interventioryhmä II verkkokoulutuksena (n=33). Kontrolliryhmään osallistuneet (n=56) eivät olleet suorittaneet ohjaajakoulutusta. Aineisto kerättiin Opiskelijaohjausosaamisen - mittarilla Interventioryhmässä I ja Interventioryhmässä II ennen koulutusta, heti koulutuksen jälkeen ja kolme kuukautta seurantajakson jälkeen sekä kontrolliryhmässä Interventioryhmän I aineistonkeruun mukaisesti. Interventioryhmien ja kontrolliryhmän välisiä eroja tarkasteltiin Mann-Whitney U -testillä, ja ryhmien sisäisiä muutoksia tarkasteltiin Wilcoxon Signed Rank -testillä. Opiskelijaohjausosaaminen kehittyi tilastollisesti merkitsevästi molemmissa Interventioryhmissä. Interventioryhmässä I arvioitiin rakentavan palautteen antaminen korkeammalle koulutusintervention jälkeen interventioryhmään II verrattuna. Kontrolliryhmän ja interventioryhmien välillä oli tilastollisesti merkitsevä ero opiskelijaohjausosaamiseen. Suun terveydenhuollon ammattilaisilla edellytetään opiskelijaohjausosaamista. Ohjaajakoulutusta tarvitaan opiskelijaohjausosaamisen parantamiseksi. Ohjausosaamista kehitetään sekä blended learning koulutuksella, että verkkokoulutuksella

    Universality in eye movements and reading:a replication with increased power

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    Abstract Liversedge, Drieghe, Li, Yan, Bai and Hyönä (2016) reported an eye movement study that investigated reading in Chinese, Finnish and English (languages with markedly different orthographic characteristics). Analyses of the eye movement records showed robust differences in fine grained characteristics of eye movements between languages, however, overall sentence reading times did not differ. Liversedge et al. interpreted the entire set of results across languages as reflecting universal aspects of processing in reading. However, the study has been criticized as being statistically underpowered (Brysbaert, 2019) given that only 19–21 subjects were tested in each language. Also, given current best practice, the original statistical analyses can be considered to be somewhat weak (e.g., no inclusion of random slopes and no formal comparison of performance between the three languages). Finally, the original study did not include any formal statistical model to assess effects across all three languages simultaneously. To address these (and some other) concerns, we tested at least 80 new subjects in each language and conducted formal statistical modeling of our data across all three languages. To do this, we included an index that captured variability in visual complexity in each language. Unlike the original findings, the new analyses showed shorter total sentence reading times for Chinese relative to Finnish and English readers. The other main findings reported in the original study were consistent. We suggest that the faster reading times for Chinese subjects occurred due to cultural changes that have taken place in the decade or so that lapsed between when the original and current subjects were tested. We maintain our view that the results can be taken to reflect universality in aspects of reading and we evaluate the claims regarding a lack of statistical power that were levelled against the original article

    A novel edge architecture and solution for detecting concept drift in smart environments

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    Abstract The proliferation of the Internet of Things (IoT), artificial intelligence (AI), the adoption of 5G, and progress towards 6G technology have led to the accumulation of massive amounts of real-world data; however, a significant portion of the data generated by smart cities and smart buildings remains unused. A notable problem is the shift of statistical properties in real-world streaming over time caused by unexpected factors, referred to as concept drift, which results in less efficient predictive models. To address this problem, the latest research leverages the cloud–edge continuum paradigm for the deployment of AI and general smart city applications while utilising the available resources optimally. In this article, we propose a computing architecture for different smart city applications in edge micro data centre (EMDC) settings over a hybrid cloud–edge continuum to support the deployment of AI workloads. We implement a feedback-driven automated concept drift detection and adaptation methodology, combining base learner long short-term memory (LSTM) with Page–Hinkley test (PHT), adaptive windowing (ADWIN) and the Kolmogorov–Smirnov windowing (KSWIN). Real-world data streams are utilised to forecast from various environmental sensors installed at the University of Oulu Smart Campus. The feedback-based concept drift detection and adaption process is first evaluated using synthetic datasets with known concept drift points and then employed in the real-world data. Subsequently, the implementation is evaluated using the state-of-the-art MAE, RMSE, and MAPE methods. The results showed a reduction in MAPE from 8.5% to 3.88% when concept drift detection was applied. Additionally, the challenges faced and the effectiveness of the suggested solutions are explored

    Stain normalization methods for histopathology image analysis:a comprehensive review and experimental comparison

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    Abstract The advent of whole slide imaging has brought advanced computer-aided diagnosis via medical imaging and artificial intelligence technologies in digital pathology. The examination of tissue samples through whole slide imaging is commonly used to diagnose cancerous diseases, but the analysis of histopathology images through a decision support system is not always accurate due to variations in color caused by different scanning equipment, staining methods, and tissue reactivity. These variabilities decrease the accuracy of computer-aided diagnosis and affect the diagnosis of pathologists. In this context, an effective stain normalization method has proved as a powerful tool to standardize different color appearances and minimize color variations in histopathology images. This study reviews different stain normalization methods highlighting the main methodologies, contributions, advantages, and limitations of correlated works. The state-of-the-art methods are grouped into four distinct categories. Next, we select ten representative methods from the groups and conduct an experimental comparison to investigate the strengths and weaknesses of different methods and rank them according to selected performance accuracy measures. The quality performances of selected methods are compared in terms of quaternion structure similarity index metric, structural similarity index metric, and Pearson correlation coefficient conducting experiments on three histopathological image datasets. Our findings conclude that the structure-preserving unified transformation-based methods consistently outperform the state-of-the-art methods by improving robustness against variability and reproducibility. The comparative analysis we conducted in this paper will serve as the basis for future research, which will help to refine existing techniques and develop new approaches to address the complexities of stain normalization in complex histopathology images

    Combination of separation and degradation methods after PFAS soil washing

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    Abstract The current study evaluated a three-stage treatment to remediate PFAS-contaminated soil. The treatment consisted of soil washing, foam fractionation (FF), and electrochemical oxidation (EO). The possibility of replacing the third stage, i.e., EO, with an adsorption process was also assessed. The contamination in the studied soils was dominated by perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), with a concentration of 760 and 19 μg kg−1 in soil I and in soil II, accounting for 97 % and 70 % of all detected per-and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS). Before applying a pilot treatment of soil, soil washing was performed on a laboratory scale, to evaluate the effect of soil particle size, initial pH and a liquid-to-soil ratio (L/S) on the leachability of PFAS. A pilot washing system generated soil leachate that was subsequently treated using FF and EO (or adsorption) and then reused for soil washing. The results indicated that the leaching of PFAS occurred easier in 0.063–1 mm particles than in the soil particles having a size below 0.063 mm. Both alkaline conditions and a continual replacement of the leaching solution increased the leachability of PFAS. The analysis using one-way ANOVA showed no statistical difference in means of PFOS washed out in laboratory and pilot scales. This allowed estimating twenty washing cycles using 120 L water to reach 95 % PFOS removal in 60 kg soil. The aeration process removed 95–99 % PFOS in every washing cycle. The EO and adsorption processes achieved similar results removing up to 97 % PFOS in concentrated soil leachate. The current study demonstrated a multi-stage treatment as an effective and cost-efficient method to permanently clean up PFAS-contaminated soil

    Influence of nanoparticles addition on the fatigue failure behavior of metal matrix composites:comprehensive review

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    Abstract Light-weight, high-strength metal matrix composites (MMCs) have been gaining prominence in various industrial applications in which the materials are exposed to static and dynamic loading conditions. Unfortunately, micron-sized MMCs frequently encounter challenges such as particle breakage and debonding at the reinforcement-matrix interface, resulting in premature failure due to the decline in their mechanical properties, making them impractical to be utilized in some crucial applications. On the other hand, metal matrix nanocomposites (MMNCs) have been proven to improve strength, ductility, and fracture toughness characteristics, which are greatly beneficial in various industrial applications such as automotive, aerospace structures, and biomaterials. This review provides a comprehensive insight into the effect of nanoparticle addition on the fatigue performance of metals and alloys. Firstly, special attention has been given to the factors influencing the fatigue life of MMNCs. Secondly, the effect of nanoparticle incorporation on the fatigue performance of common metal matrixes, including aluminum, magnesium, titanium, and steel alloys, is reviewed in detail. Finally, a summary of this review and the future aspects related to the behavior of metals with nanoparticles at cyclic loading is provided

    Cohort description:measures of early-life behaviour and later psychopathology in the LifeCycle Project — EU Child Cohort Network

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    Abstract Background: The EU LifeCycle Project was launched in 2017 to combine, harmonise, and analyse data from more than 250,000 participants across Europe and Australia, involving cohorts participating in the EU-funded LifeCycle Project. The purpose of this cohort description is to provide a detailed overview over the major measures within mental health domains that are available in 17 European and Australian cohorts participating in the LifeCycle Project. Methods: Data on cognitive, behavioural and psychological development has been collected on participants from birth until adulthood through questionnaire and medical data. We developed an inventory of the available data by mapping individual instruments, domain types, and age groups, providing the basis for statistical harmonization across mental health measures. Results: The mental health data in LifeCycle contain longitudinal and cross-sectional data for ages 0–18+ years, covering domains across a wide range of behavioural and psychopathology indicators and outcomes (including executive function, depression, ADHD and cognition). These data span a unique combination of qualitative data collected through behavioural/cognitive/mental health questionnaires and examination, as well as data from biological samples and indices in the form of brain imaging (MRI, foetal ultrasound) and DNA methylation data. Harmonized variables on a subset of mental health domains have been developed, providing statistical equivalence of measures required for longitudinal meta-analyses across instruments and cohorts. Conclusions: Mental health data harmonized through the LifeCycle project can be used to study life course trajectories and exposure-outcome models that examine early life risk factors for mental illness and develop predictive markers for later-life disease

    ”Työn merkityksellisyyden vois kiteyttää silleen, että tätä työtä mun on tarkoituskin tehdä.”:kasvatustieteilijöiden kokemuksia työn merkityksellisyydestä

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    Tiivistelmä. Tämän pro gradu -tutkielman tarkoituksena on tarkastella kasvatustieteilijöiden kokemuksia työn merkityksellisyydestä. Merkityksellisen työn tutkimus on lisääntynyt huomattavasti ja sen merkitys on nousemassa yhä suurempaan rooliin työelämän muutoksen keskellä. Tutkimukset ovat osoittaneet työn merkityksellisyyden olevan keskeisessä asemassa työhön liittyvässä motivaatiossa, sitoutumisessa ja hyvinvoinnissa sekä lisäävän elämäntyytyväisyyttä. Näin ollen työelämän kehittäminen yhä merkityksellisemmäksi voi edistää ihmisten yleistä hyvinvointia ja elämänlaatua, ja siksi tämä on myös merkittävä tutkimuskohde. Tutkielman teoreettisena viitekehyksenä toimii Martelan ja Pessin näkemys työn merkityksellisyydestä sekä Stegerin ja kollegoiden WAMI-malli. Tutkimuksen keskeinen käsite on merkityksellinen työ, joka tarkoittaa itsessään arvokasta ja tekemisen arvoista työtä. Merkityksellinen työ toteuttaa yksilön etujen ohella yhteisiä etuja ja jotain suurempaa tarkoitusta, ja työn kautta yksilö voi aidosti toteuttaa ja ilmaista itseään sekä löytää merkitystä elämäänsä. Työn merkityksellisyyden kokemus viittaa yksilön kokonaisarvioon näiden tekijöiden toteutumisesta. Tutkimuksen empiirinen vaihe on toteutettu kvalitatiivisesti, ja tutkimusaineisto koostuu kuudesta kasvatustieteilijälle tehdystä teemahaastattelusta. Tutkimuksen tavoitteena on syventää ymmärrystä työn merkityksellisyydestä kokonaisvaltaisesti ja verrata tuloksia aikaisempaan tutkimukseen ja lähdekirjallisuuteen tutkittavien yksilöllisyys huomioiden. Täten aineiston analyysimenetelmänä käytettiin teoriasidonnaista sisällönanalyysia. Kasvatustieteilijöiden kokemukset työn merkityksellisyydestä rakentuivat itsensä toteuttamisesta, työn laajemmasta päämäärästä, yhteenkuuluvuudesta ja työn tuottamista positiivista merkityksistä laajemmin yksilön elämään. Tutkimuksen tulokset tukevat aikaisempaa tutkimusta osoittaen työn merkityksellisyyden kokemuksen rakentuvan yksilö-, työ- ja työyhteisötason tekijöiden dynaamisesta kokonaisuudesta. Tutkimus tarjoaa tietoa avaintekijöistä, joiden kautta kasvatustieteilijöiden työn merkityksellisyyden kokemusta voidaan edistää ja ylläpitää. Tuloksia voi hyödyntää esimerkiksi työpaikoilla työntekijöiden merkityksellisyyden kokemuksen tukemiseen sekä uraohjauksen tukena ja sen käytäntöjen edistämisessä.“The meaningfulness of work can be summed up by the fact that this work is what I am meant to do.” : educational scientists’ experiences of the meaningfulness of work. Abstract. The purpose of this master’s thesis is to examine the experiences of educational scientists regarding the meaningfulness of work. Research on meaningful work has increased considerably, and its importance is rising to play a greater role during changes in working life. Studies have shown that the meaningfulness of work plays a central role in work-related motivation, commitment and well-being as well as increasing life satisfaction. Making working life more meaningful can promote people’s general well-being and quality of life, therefore this is a significant topic to research. Martela and Pessi’s view of the meaningfulness of work and the background theory of Steger and colleagues’ WAMI model serve as the theoretical framework of the thesis. The central concept of the study is meaningful work, which refers to work that is valuable in itself and worth doing. Meaningful work realizes common interests and a greater purpose, and through work, the individual can truly realize and express themselves and find meaning in their life. The experience of job meaningfulness refers to an individual’s overall assessment of the realization of these factors. This study is qualitative, and the data consists of six thematic interviews conducted with educational scientists. The goal of the study is to deepen the understanding of the meaningfulness of work and to compare the results with earlier research and source literature while considering the individuality of the subjects. The data were analyzed using abductive content analysis. The educational scientists’ experiences of the meaningfulness of work were built on self-realization, the broader goal of work, cohesion, and the positive meanings that work brings to the broader individual’s life. The results of the study support previous research, showing that the experience of the meaningfulness of work is formed by the dynamic whole of individual, work, and work community level factors. The study provides information on the key factors through which the experience of the meaningfulness of work of educational scientists can be promoted and maintained. The results can be used, for example, in workplaces to support employees’ experience of meaningfulness, as well as to support career guidance and promote its practices

    Monimuotoisuus on palapeli, jonka inklusiivisuus rakentaa:työyhteisön jäsenten kokemuksia ja näkemyksiä monimuotoisuudesta ja inklusiivisuudesta organisaatiossa

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    Tiivistelmä. Monimuotoisuuden ja inklusiivisuuden (diversity and inclusion, D&I) merkitys työpaikoilla on kasvanut maailmanlaajuisesti, mutta sen käytännön toteutus on edelleen haastavaa. Tutkimalla monimuotoisuutta ja inklusiivisuutta voidaan edistää kaikkien yksilöiden tasa-arvoisia mahdollisuuksia osallistua työelämään sekä parantaa organisaation kilpailukykyä. Tämän vuoksi on tärkeää ymmärtää, miten organisaation jäsenet kokevat monimuotoisuuden ja inklusiivisuuden toteutuvan työyhteisössä, onko se heille merkityksellistä, ja miten organisaatio voi edistää D&I tavoitteidensa täyttymistä. Tässä tutkimuksessa tutkitaan erään kansainvälisen teknologia-alan yrityksen työyhteisön jäsenten näkemyksiä ja kokemuksia edellä mainituista tekijöistä. Tutkimuksessa käytetään sekä kvantitatiivisia että kvalitatiivisia menetelmiä, joiden yhdistäminen tuo mahdollisuuden laajempaan ja monipuolisempaan analyysiin organisaation jäsenten näkemyksistä ja kokemuksista. Tutkimuksen viitekehyksessä tarkastellaan monimuotoisuuden hyötyjen ja haasteiden lisäksi inklusiivisuuden kehittämistä paitsi yksilön, niin myös tiimien, henkilöstötoimintojen sekä johtamisen näkökulmista. Organisaatiotason ja etätyön vaikutusta inklusiivisuuden kokemukseen sekä inklusiivisen ja monimuotoisen organisaatiokulttuurin merkitystä organisaation jäsenille ei ole aiemmassa kirjallisuudessa tutkittu siinä määrin, kuin monia muita D&I osa-alueita. Selittävinä muuttujina tässä tutkimuksessa on vastaajien pääasiallinen etä-/lähityö, organisaatiotaso sekä subjektiivinen kuuluminen organisaation vähemmistö/enemmistöryhmään. Tulosten perusteella organisaation jäsenet kokevat inklusiivisuutta työssään verrattain paljon ja arvioivat kokemuksiaan inklusiivisuuteen vaikuttavista tekijöistä ja sen mukanaan tuomista hyödyistä varsin myönteisesti. Organisaation monimuotoisuudella ja inklusiivisuudella on myös tärkeä merkitys organisaation jäsenille. Etätyötä tekevät vastaajat antoivat joissain mittareissa myönteisempiä arvioita kuin lähityötä tekevät vastaajat. Tutkimuksen tulosten ja aiemman kirjallisuuden perusteella tehdään suosituksia monimuotoisen ja inklusiivisen organisaation kehittämiseksi tulevaisuudessa. Kohdeorganisaation esimerkki tarjoaa vertailukohdan muille organisaatioille ja tätä tutkimusta voidaan lisäksi hyödyntää D&I tavoitteiden asettamiseen sekä erilaisten D&I strategioiden ja mittareiden luomiseen organisaatioissa.Diversity is a puzzle that inclusion builds : experiences and views of members of the work community on diversity and inclusion in the organization. Abstract. The importance of diversity and inclusion (D&I) in workplaces has grown globally, but its practical implementation is still challenging. By studying diversity and inclusion, we can promote equal opportunities for all individuals to participate in the workforce and enhance an organization’s competitiveness. For this reason, it is important to understand how the members of an organization feel that diversity and inclusion are realized in the work community, whether it is meaningful to them, and how the organization can promote the fulfillment of its D&I goals. This study explores the views and experiences of employees within an international technology company regarding the aforementioned factors. The study uses both quantitative and qualitative methods, the combination of which allows for a broader and more versatile analysis of the views and experiences of the members of the organization. In addition to the benefits and challenges of diversity, the research framework examines the development of inclusion not only from the perspective of the individual, but also from the perspectives of teams, personnel operations, and leadership. The impact of organizational hierarchy and remote work on individuals’ sense of inclusivity, as well as the significance of fostering an inclusive and diverse organizational culture, have not received as much attention in prior literature compared to other areas within the domain of diversity and inclusion. In this study, the explanatory variables are the respondents’ main remote/local work, organizational level and belonging to the minority/majority group of the organization. Based on the results, the members of the organization experience inclusion in their work relatively high and evaluate their experiences of the factors affecting inclusion and the benefits it brings quite positively. D&I also has an important meaning for the members of the organization. Those who mainly work remotely gave more positive ratings in certain variables than respondents working mainly onsite. Based on the findings of this study and previous literature, recommendations are made for developing a diverse and inclusive organizations in the future. The example provided by the target organization serves as a benchmark for other organizations, and in addition, this study can be utilized in setting D&I goals and creating various D&I strategies and metrics in organizations

    Is epileptiform activity related to developmental language disorder?:findings from the HelSLI study

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    Abstract Objectives: To study if interictal epileptiform discharges (IEDs) are associated with language performance or pre-/perinatal factors in children with developmental language disorder (DLD). Methods: We recorded routine EEG in wake and sleep in 205 children aged 2.9–7.1 years with DLD, without neurologic diseases or intellectual disability. We examined the language performance of the children and collected data on pre-/perinatal factors. Results: Interictal epileptiform discharges were not associated with lower language performance. Children with so-called “rolandic”, i.e. centrotemporoparietal, IEDs had better language skills, but age explained this association. Most pre-/perinatal factors evaluated did not increase the risk of rolandic IEDs, except for maternal smoking (OR 4.4, 95% CI 1.4–14). We did not find electrical status epilepticus during slow-wave sleep (ESES)/spike-and-wave activation in sleep (SWAS) in any children. Conclusions: Interictal epileptiform discharges are not associated with lower language performance, and ESES/SWAS is not common in children with DLD. Significance: Routine EEGs do not bring additional information about language performance in children with DLD who do not have any neurologic diseases, seizures, intellectual disability, or regression of language development


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