727,970 research outputs found

    Dairy foods and dairy protein consumption is inversely related to markers of adiposity in obese men and women

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    A number of intervention studies have reported that the prevalence of obesity may be in part inversely related to dairy food consumption while others report no association. We sought to examine relationships between energy, protein and calcium consumption from dairy foods (milk, yoghurt, cheese, dairy spreads, ice-cream) and adiposity including body mass index (BMI), waist (WC) and hip circumference (HC), and direct measures of body composition using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (% body fat and abdominal fat) in an opportunistic sample of 720 overweight/obese Australian men and women. Mean (SD) age, weight and BMI of the population were 51 ± 10 year, 94 ± 18 kg and 32.4 ± 5.7 kg/m2, respectively. Reduced fat milk was the most commonly consumed dairy product (235 ± 200 g/day), followed by whole milk (63 ± 128 g/day) and yoghurt (53 ± 66 g/day). Overall dairy food consumption (g/day) was inversely associated with BMI, % body fat and WC (all p < 0.05). Dairy protein and dairy calcium (g/day) were both inversely associated with all adiposity measures (all p < 0.05). Yoghurt consumption (g/day) was inversely associated with % body fat, abdominal fat, WC and HC (all p < 0.05), while reduced fat milk consumption was inversely associated with BMI, WC, HC and % body fat (all p < 0.05). Within a sample of obese adults, consumption of dairy products, dairy protein, and calcium was associated with more favourable body composition

    Body composition data from the rat subjects of Cosmos 1129 experiment K-316

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    The effects of 18.5 days of weightlessness on the body composition of young, growing, male laboratory rats were examined. Three groups of 5 rats each were examined. It is indicated that exposure of young, growing, male rats to 18.5 days of weightlessness produces: (1) no effect on the quantity of fat stored by the body; (2) a slight reduction in the quantity of fat free tissue laid down by the body; (3) a small reduction in the fraction of water contained by the fat free body mass; (4) a similar reduction in the fraction of water contained by the fat free skin and fat free carcass; (5) a shift in relative distribution of the total body water from skin to viscera; (6) a diminution in the fraction of extracellular water contained by the fat free body; (7) no effect on the fraction of total skeletal musculature contained by the fat free body, as indicated by body creatine content; (8) a sizeable reduction in the fraction of bone mineral contained by the fat free body, as calculated from body calcium content. The nature of the physiological changes induced by unloading from Earth gravity in the mammalian organism are illustrated

    Body image distortions and muscle dysmorphia symptoms among Asian men : do exercise status and type matter?

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    Theoretical Framework: Body image distortions and muscle dysmorphia symptoms were assessed among 78 Asian men who engaged in regular resistance training, aerobic training or did not engage in either. Method: Body fat and muscularity were measured and participants also completed the Muscle Dysmorphia Disorder Inventory. Results: Resistance trained men selected a body shape ideal that was higher in muscularity and lower in body fat. Aerobically trained men also reported higher perceived current Body Fat even though their actual levels were close to their ideal. Conclusion: The results suggest that specificity in body image distortion (e.g., perceived current-ideal versus perceived current-actual) when examining body image distortions might reduce conflicting findings in extant research

    The Correlation Between Body Fat Percentage and Peak Expiratory Flow in Children Aged 10-12 Years at SD Negeri 8 Dauh Puri

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    Background: The accumulation of fat decreases lung function. Peak expiratory flow is an indicator for assessing pulmonary function and can be used to identify the narrowing or obstruction of the airway. This study aimed to examine the correlation between body fat percentage and peak expiratory flow in children aged 10-12 years.Methods: This study was an analytical study with a cross-sectional design carried out in March 2019 at SD Negeri 8 Dauh Puri, Denpasar. Sampling was done by simple random sampling, and 84 samples were recruited who met the inclusion and exclusion criteria. Body fat percentage was measured using Bioelectric Impedance Analysis, while peak expiratory flow was measured using Peak Flow Meters. Data analysis was done using the Pearson Correlation test..Result: The Pearson Correlation Test showed a negative weak correlation between the percentage of body fat and peak expiratory flow with p=0.009 and a correlation coefficient of -0.284. It can be interpreted that the higher the body fat percentage, the higher the value of peak expiratory flow.Conclusion : There is a significant correlation between body fat percentage and peak expiratory flow in children aged 10-12 years at SD Negeri 8 Dauh Puri

    Body image perception and body composition: assessment of perception inconsistency by a new index

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    BACKGROUND: A correct perception of the body image, as defined by comparison with actual anthropometric analyses, is crucial to ensure the best possible nutritional status of each individual. Bioimpedance analysis (BIA) represents a leading technique to assess body composition parameters and, in particular, the fat mass. This study examined the self-perception of body image at various levels of adiposity proposing a new index. METHODS: We investigated 487 young Italian adults (mean age of males: 21.9 ± 2.4&nbsp;years; mean age of females: 21.0 ± 2.2&nbsp;years). Each subject could choose, on the Contour Drawing Rating Scale, the silhouette that he/she considered most resembling his/her perceived body image as well as his/her ideal body image. On each subject, we performed anthropometric measurements and determined the values of Fat mass and &nbsp;út with BIA. A new index, FAIFAT (Feel fat status minus Actual fat status Inconsistency), was developed to evaluate possible fat status perception inconsistencies by BIA. RESULTS: Based on ideal and feel body image comparison, women showed higher dissatisfaction than men and preferred slimmer silhouettes. FAIFAT values indicated that the fat status perception was correct in the majority of the examined individuals and only three subjects showed a serious misperception. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that FAIFAT is an appropriate index for assessing the perceived fat status from the body image when compared with data obtained by BIA. In a population, the use of this index will allow the correct identification of groups at risk for eating disorders

    Effect of body composition methodology on heritability estimation of body fatness

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    Heritability estimates of human body fatness vary widely and the contribution of body composition methodology to this variability is unknown. The effect of body composition methodology on estimations of genetic and environmental contributions to body fatness variation was examined in 78 adult male and female monozygotic twin pairs reared apart or together. Body composition was assessed by six methods - body mass index (BMI), dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA), underwater weighing (UWW), total body water (TBW), bioelectric impedance (BIA), and skinfold thickness. Body fatness was expressed as percent body fat, fat mass, and fat mass/height2 to assess the effect of body fatness expression on heritability estimates. Model-fitting multivariate analyses were used to assess the genetic and environmental components of variance. Mean BMI was 24.5 kg/m2 (range of 17.8-43.4 kg/m2). There was a significant effect of body composition methodology (p<0.001) on heritability estimates, with UWW giving the highest estimate (69%) and BIA giving the lowest estimate (47%) for fat mass/height2. Expression of body fatness as percent body fat resulted in significantly higher heritability estimates (on average 10.3% higher) compared to expression as fat mass/height2 (p=0.015). DXA and TBW methods expressing body fatness as fat mass/height2 gave the least biased heritability assessments, based on the small contribution of specific genetic factors to their genetic variance. A model combining DXA and TBW methods resulted in a relatively low FM/ht2 heritability estimate of 60%, and significant contributions of common and unique environmental factors (22% and 18%, respectively). The body fatness heritability estimate of 60% indicates a smaller contribution of genetic variance to total variance than many previous studies using less powerful research designs have indicated. The results also highlight the importance of environmental factors and possibly genotype by environmental interactions in the etiology of weight gain and the obesity epidemic.R01 AR046124 - NIAMS NIH HHS; R01 MH065322 - NIMH NIH HHS; T32 HL069772 - NHLBI NIH HHS; R21 DK078867 - NIDDK NIH HHS; R37 DA018673 - NIDA NIH HHS; R01 DK076092 - NIDDK NIH HHS; R01 DK079003 - NIDDK NIH HHS; F32 DK009747 - NIDDK NIH HHS; R01 DA018673 - NIDA NIH HH

    The effects of an individualized diet and exercise program on body fat levels in Taiwanese females aged 40-60 : a thesis presented in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Master in Nutritional Science

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    Obesity is increasingly common throughout the world and is associated with significant health problems. Middle-aged migrant women are one of the risk groups for obesity. Their body fat levels increase because of their age and menopause experiences. Besides, the change of lifestyle and eating habits after immigration also affects their body fat levels. Recent studies show the combination of diet and exercise may decrease body fat levels. This study is to observe the effects of a short-term diet and exercise intervention on body fat levels in middle-aged Taiwanese women in New Zealand. Thirty Taiwanese women aged between 40-60, who currently live in New Zealand were enrolled in this study. Body weight, height, skinfolds and circumferences were measured before and after the study. Subjects also completed a 24-hr diet recall, three-day diet record and answered a questionnaire to provide general information and an assessment of physical activity levels. Subjects were divided into an intervention group (n=17) and a control group (n=10). In the intervention group, subjects were given a personal diet and exercise program for 9 weeks according to their diet and physical activity levels subjects in the control group stayed with their own previous diet and exercise habits without any modification. The results of this study showed no significant differences (P>0.05) in body weight between both groups. However, body fat levels in the intervention group decreased significantly (p<0.001) compared to the control group. It was also found that subjects who had higher initial body weight and BMI, lost more body weight during the intervention. Besides, subjects who were more active during the intervention lost more weight. It was concluded that a short-term diet and exercise interventions might decrease body fat levels in middle-aged Taiwanese women in New Zealand

    Associations between anthropometric characteristics and physical performance in male law enforcement officers: A retrospective cohort study

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    BACKGROUND: Police officers are often required to undertake physically demanding tasks, like lifting, dragging and pursuing a suspect. Therefore, physical performance is a key requirement. METHODS: Retrospective data for 76 male police officers (mean age = 39.42 ± 8.41 years; mean weight = 84.21 ± 12.91 kg) was obtained. Data included anthropometric (skinfolds, estimated percentage body fat, lean body mass and fat mass) and physical performance (1 Repetition Maximum Bench Press, 1–min sit-ups, 1-min push-ups, vertical jump, 300 m run, 1.5 mile run) measures and correlations between anthropometric measurement and fitness score were obtained. RESULTS: Estimated percentage body fat was significantly (p ≤ .001) and negatively correlated with all performance measures, except sit-ups and 300 m and 1.5 mile run performance. Estimated lean body mass was significantly and positively (p ≤ .001) correlated with push-ups, bench press and vertical jump measures, while increasing estimated fat mass was significantly (p ≤ .001) associated with reduced performance on sit-up, vertical jump, 1.5 mile run and estimated maximal voluntary oxygen uptake. CONCLUSIONS: A targeted approach, going beyond just decreasing percentage body fat to also selectively increasing lean mass, should be applied for optimal improvement in physical fitness performance

    Investigating eating behaviours as predictors of body composition and dietary intake in New Zealand European, Māori and Pacific women - the women's EXPLORE study : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree Master of Science in Nutrition and Dietetics, Massey University, Albany, New Zealand

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    Background/Aim: Internationally, eating behaviour has been linked with an optimal and adverse body composition in women. However no study to date has examined eating behaviour in female New Zealand ethnic groups. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate eating behaviours as predictors of different body composition factors and dietary intake in New Zealand European (NZE), Māori and Pacific women, aged 16-45 years, participating in the women’s EXPLORE study. Methods: Women (N=368) were assessed for basic anthropometry, total adiposity, regional adipose distribution and lean mass using height, weight, circumferences, dual x-ray absorptiometry and air-displacement plethysmography. Body composition profiles (normal-fat, hidden-fat and apparent-fat) were established using parameters of body mass indices and body fat percentages. The validated Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire (TFEQ) and New Zealand Women’s Food Frequency Questionnaire were both used to examine eating behaviour and dietary intake, respectively. The TFEQ examined Restraint (Flexible and Rigid), Disinhibition (Habitual, Emotional and Situational) and Hunger (Internal and External). Combinations of behaviour (sub-groups) were established from the main categories and also examined. Results: Restraint was significantly higher in NZE than Pacific women (p = 0.015). Disinhibition was significantly higher in the apparent-fat profile than normal-fat profile (p < 0.001). Likewise, Hunger was significantly higher in Pacific (p < 0.001) and the apparent-fat profile (p = 0.034) than NZE women and women with normal-fat profile, respectively. Adverse tendencies of Habitual Disinhibition, and External Hunger were more prominent in Pacific and the apparent-fat profile than NZE women and normal-fat profile, respectively (all p < 0.05). External Hunger was more prominent in the hidden-fat profile than normal-fat profile (p = 0.001). When accounting for age and ethnicity the most significant predictors of BMI and BF % were Restraint (p = 0.007 and p = 0.005 respectively), Disinhibition (both p < 0.001), Habitual Disinhibition (both p < 0.001) and Emotional Disinhibition (both p < 0.001). Non-ideal behaviour combinations (Low Restraint High Disinhibition and High Hunger High Disinhibition) generally corresponded to significantly higher body composition markers and dietary intake (p < 0.05). Pacific women were three times more likely to have High Hunger High Disinhibition than NZE women (p = 0.004). Low Restraint High Disinhibition and High Hunger High Disinhibition increased by 12% and 11%, respectively from the normal-fat profile to hidden-fat profile (both p < 0.001). Conclusions: The TFEQ eating behaviour categories, sub-categories and sub-groups can significantly vary between ethnicities and body composition groups. Tailored interventions to promote Restraint (particularly Flexible Restraint) and counteract Disinhibition (particularly Habitual Disinhibition and Emotional Disinhibition), Hunger (particularly External Hunger), Low Restraint High Disinhibition and High Hunger High Disinhibition could enhance eating behaviour and dietary intake and help optimise weight management in young New Zealand women
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