372,025 research outputs found

    Spinal release of tumour necrosis factor activates c-Jun N-terminal kinase and mediates inflammation-induced hypersensitivity.

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    BackgroundMounting evidence points to individual contributions of tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF) and the c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) pathway to the induction and maintenance of various pain states. Here we explore the role of spinal TNF and JNK in carrageenan-induced hypersensitivity. As links between TNF and JNK have been demonstrated in vitro, we investigated if TNF regulates spinal JNK activity in vivo.MethodsTNF levels in lumbar cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, spinal TNF gene expression by real-time polymerase chain reaction and TNF protein expression, JNK and c-Jun phosphorylation by western blotting. The role of spinal TNF and JNK in inflammation-induced mechanical and thermal hypersensitivity was assessed by injecting the TNF inhibitor etanercept and the JNK inhibitors SP600125 and JIP-1 intrathecally (i.t.). TNF-mediated regulation of JNK activity was examined by assessing the effect of i.t. etanercept on inflammation-induced spinal JNK activity.ResultsTNF levels were increased in CSF and spinal cord following carrageenan-induced inflammation. While JNK phosphorylation followed the same temporal pattern as TNF, c-jun was only activated at later time points. Intrathecal injection of TNF and JNK inhibitors attenuated carrageenan-induced mechanical and thermal hypersensitivity. TNF stimulation induced JNK phosphorylation in cultured spinal astrocytes and blocking the spinal actions of TNF in vivo by i.t. injection of etanercept reduced inflammation-induced spinal JNK activity.ConclusionsHere we show that spinal JNK activity is dependent on TNF and that both TNF and the JNK signalling pathways modulate pain-like behaviour induced by peripheral inflammation

    Differences in reactivation of tuberculosis induced from anti-tnf treatments are based on bioavailability in granulomatous tissue

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    The immune response to Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) infection is complex. Experimental evidence has revealed that tumor necrosis factor (TNF) plays a major role in host defense against Mtb in both active and latent phases of infection. TNF-neutralizing drugs used to treat inflammatory disorders have been reported to increase the risk of tuberculosis (TB), in accordance with animal studies. The present study takes a computational approach toward characterizing the role of TNF in protection against the tubercle bacillus in both active and latent infection. We extend our previous mathematical models to investigate the roles and production of soluble (sTNF) and transmembrane TNF (tmTNF). We analyze effects of anti-TNF therapy in virtual clinical trials (VCTs) by simulating two of the most commonly used therapies, anti-TNF antibody and TNF receptor fusion, predicting mechanisms that explain observed differences in TB reactivation rates. The major findings from this study are that bioavailability of TNF following anti-TNF therapy is the primary factor for causing reactivation of latent infection and that sTNF-even at very low levels-is essential for control of infection. Using a mathematical model, it is possible to distinguish mechanisms of action of the anti-TNF treatments and gain insights into the role of TNF in TB control and pathology. Our study suggests that a TNF-modulating agent could be developed that could balance the requirement for reduction of inflammation with the necessity to maintain resistance to infection and microbial diseases. Alternatively, the dose and timing of anti-TNF therapy could be modified. Anti-TNF therapy will likely lead to numerous incidents of primary TB if used in areas where exposure is likely. © 2007 Marino et al

    Release of TNF-α during myocardial reperfusion depends on oxidative stress and is prevented by mast cell stabilizers

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    Objectives: Our study sought to elucidate the role of oxidative stress for shedding of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and for activating TNF-α-converting enzyme (TACE). Background: TNF-α, a central inflammatory cytokine, is discussed as one of the mediators of reperfusion injury. Shedding of membrane-bound pro-TNF-α is thought to be largely due to TNF-α-converting enzyme (TACE). Methods: Release of TNF-α and TACE dependency were studied in isolated rat hearts and in the human mast cell line HMC-1. Results: In reperfused hearts, interstitial release of TNF-α occurred in two phases (2–10 and >45 min). It depended on the presence of oxygen during reperfusion and was attenuated by reduced glutathione. Infusion of the oxidants H2O2 or HOCl elicited release in non-ischemic hearts. TNF-α release was inhibited in hearts treated with degranulation inhibitors ketotifen or cromoglycate, suggesting mast cells as major source for myocardial TNF-α. This was confirmed by tissue staining. Post-ischemic release of histamine, however, did not parallel that of TNF-α. Heart tissue contained mainly mature TACE. HMC-1 expressed abundant pro-TACE and cleaved the pro-TNF-α-peptide Ac-SPLAQAVRSSSR-NH2. However, cleavage was nonspecific and only partly inhibited by TACE inhibitor TAPI-2 (10–100 μmol/l), while it was stimulated by H2O2 and HOCl and fully blocked by the nonspecific metalloprotease inhibitor o-phenanthroline. Conclusions: The mechanism underlying TNF-α release from post-ischemic myocardium is oxidation-dependent but largely independent of activation of TACE. Mast cell stabilizers may be useful in preventing TNF-α release during reperfusion

    High Plasma Tnf-? Levels And Mononuclear Cells Inos And Tnf-? Expression AS Risk Factors For Painful Diabetic Neuropathy

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    Painful Diabetic Neuropathy (PDN) is one of the most common and annoyingcomplications of diabetes mellitus. The pathogenesis of PDN is complex and still unclear.Recently it has become clear that nitric oxide (NO) and proinflammatory cytokines playan important role in the pathogenesis and maintenance of pain in PDN. Based on thisphenomenon, this study was conducted to investigate whether the cytokine tumornecrosis factor-alpha (TNF-?) and NO, in this case inducible Nitric Oxide Synthase(iNOS), play a role in PDN pathogenesis.The study was carried in two steps. The first step was a cross sectional and thesecond step was a case-control study. The study was performed in 110 type-2 diabeticpatients. The plasma TNF-? levels were determined by ELISA while the expression ofTNF-? and iNOS in mononuclear cells were analyzed immunohistochemically.Of 110 subjects, 59 patients suffered from Painful DN (case) and the remaining51 patients were Painless DN (control). Cross sectionally, plasma TNF-? levels andimmunoreactivity for iNOS and TNF-? were higher in patients with more severe pain inthe Visual Analog Scale (VAS). There were statistically significant differences (p <0.05) between mild and severe pain in regard to TNF-? level (15.24 pg/ml ± 5.42 vs.20.44 pg/ml ± 10.34 ); to iNOS immunoreactivity (9.72 % ± 8.61 vs. 15.6% ± 11.84); andto TNF-? immunoreactivity (13.0 % ± 9. 48 vs. 20.44% ± 11.75).The case control study showed that TNF-? had an odd ratio of 5.053 [CI 95%(2.241-11.392); p < 0.001]. TNF-? immunoreactivity of 4.125 [CI 95% (1.805-9.425); p< 0.001]; and iNOS immunoreactivity of 3.546 [CI 95% (1.613-7.795); p = 0.002]. There were correlations between TNF-? level, TNF-? and iNOS immunoreactivity andVAS with coefficient correlation: 0.330; 0.285 and 0.275 (p < 0.05) respectively.It is concluded that Diabetic Neuropathy patients with high TNF-? levels, iNOSand TNF-? immunoreactivity of mononuclear cells have higher risk for painful DN thanpainless DN. The higher TNF-? level, iNOS and TNF-? immunoreactivity the moresevere was the pain. This supports the hypothesis that TNF-? and iNOS have role inPDN pathogenesis. The results of this research could be applied as a basic for furtherresearch in pursuit of better management of PDN

    The effect of cigarette smoke exposure on the development of inflammation in lungs, gut and joints of TNFΔARE mice

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    The inflammatory cytokine TNF-alpha is a central mediator in many immune-mediated diseases, such as Crohn's disease (CD), spondyloarthritis (SpA) and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Epidemiologic studies have shown that cigarette smoking (CS) is a prominent common risk factor in these TNF-dependent diseases. We exposed TNF Delta ARE mice; in which a systemic TNF-alpha overexpression leads to the development of inflammation; to 2 or 4 weeks of air or CS. We investigated the effect of deregulated TNF expression on CS-induced pulmonary inflammation and the effect of CS exposure on the initiation and progression of gut and joint inflammation. Upon 2 weeks of CS exposure, inflammation in lungs of TNF Delta ARE mice was significantly aggravated. However, upon 4 weeks of CS-exposure, this aggravation was no longer observed. TNF Delta ARE mice have no increases in CD4+ and CD8+ T cells and a diminished neutrophil response in the lungs after 4 weeks of CS exposure. In the gut and joints of TNF Delta ARE mice, 2 or 4 weeks of CS exposure did not modulate the development of inflammation. In conclusion, CS exposure does not modulate gut and joint inflammation in TNF Delta ARE mice. The lung responses towards CS in TNF Delta ARE mice however depend on the duration of CS exposure

    ERK-1 MAP kinase prevents TNF-induced apoptosis through bad phosphorylation and inhibition of bax translocation in HeLa cells

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    Extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) 1/2 signaling is involved in tumor cell survival through the regulation of Bcl-2 family members. To explore this further and to demonstrate the central role of the mitochondria in the ERK1/2 pathway we used the HeLa cellular model where apoptosis was induced by tumor necrosis factor (TNF) and cycloheximide (CHX). We show that HeLa cells overexpressing ERK-1 displayed resistance to TNF and CHX. HeLa cells overexpressing a kinase-deficient form of ERK-1 (K71R) were more sensitive to TNF and CHX. In the ERK-1 cells, Bad was phosphorylated during TNF + CHX treatment. In the HeLa wt cells and in the K71R clones TNF and CHX decreased Bad phosphorylation. ERK-1 cells treated with TNF and CHX did not release cytochrome c from the mitochondria. By contrast, HeLa wt and K71R clones released cytochrome c. Bax did not translocate to the mitochondria in ERK-1 cells treated with TNF + CHX. Conversely, HeLa wt and K71R clones accumulated Bax in the mitochondria. In the HeLa wt cells and in both ERK-1 transfectants Bid was cleaved and accumulated in the mitochondria. The caspase-8 inhibitor IETD-FMK and the mitochondrial membrane permeabilization inhibitor bongkrekic acid (BK), partially prevented cell death by TNF + CHX. Anisomycin, a c-Jun N-terminal kinases activator, increased TNF-killing. The ERK-1 cells were resistant to TNF and anisomycin, whereas K71R clones resulted more sensitive. Our study demonstrates that in HeLa cells the ERK-1 kinase prevents TNF + CHX apoptosis by regulating the intrinsic mitochondrial pathway through different mechanisms. Inhibition of the intrinsic pathway is sufficient to almost completely prevent cell death. © 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc

    Pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines in threatened miscarriages

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    OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate circulating and intracellular levels of Th1 and Th2 cytokines in women with threatenedmiscarriage (TM) and subsequent outcome. STUDY DESIGN: Plasma levels of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-receptors 1 and 2, TNF , interferon gamma (IFN ), and interleukins (IL) -6 and -10 were measured by flow cytometric bead assays in 80 women with TM: 53 women with normal outcome and 27 women who miscarried. Fluorescent antibody labeling was also performed on whole blood in a subgroup of 27 women of TM: 16 women with normal outcome and 11 women who miscarried. RESULTS: Monocyte expression of TNF and circulating levels of TNF , IFN , IL-10, IL-6, and TNF-R1 were significantly lower, whereas circulating levels of TNF /IL-10, IFN /IL-10, and TNF /IL-6 ratios were significantly higher, in women with TM who subsequently miscarried, compared with the women with normal outcome. CONCLUSION: An increased Th1 type of immune response, which was similar to that observed in preterm delivery, was found in TM cases that were complicated by a subsequent miscarriage.peer-reviewe

    Anti-tumor necrosis factor-alpha therapy during murine Klebsiella pneumoniae bacteremia: increased mortality in the absence of liver injury.

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    Klebsiella pneumoniae is a leading cause of gram-negative bacterial pneumonia, often resulting in bacteremia concurrent with the localized pulmonary infection. The beneficial role of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha during pulmonary infection has been well documented; however, consequences of TNF-alpha production during systemic bacterial infection are controversial. A murine model of K. pneumoniae was developed to address this important issue. Liver-associated TNF-alpha mRNA was induced within 30 min after intravenous bacterial inoculation and remained elevated through 6 h before returning to near-baseline at 24 h postinfection. Intravenous K. pneumoniae infection induced liver cellular injury that was completely ablated when mice were pretreated with a neutralizing anti-TNF-alpha antibody. Interestingly, this reduction in liver injury failed to translate into improved survival. Mice receiving anti-TNF-alpha continued to succumb to the infection even out to day 10 postinfection. Bacterial clearance after TNF-alpha neutralization was significantly impaired at later time points during infection. Correlating with impaired bacterial clearance was diminished production of liver-associated MIP-2, MIP-1alpha, MCP-1, and interferon-gamma. Further evidence of diminished antibacterial immune responses was noted when the activational status of splenic natural killer cells in anti-TNF-alpha-treated mice was examined 24 h postinfection. Natural killer cells displayed decreased CD69 expression. Combined, these data indicate that the beneficial effects of TNF-alpha during systemic K. pneumoniae infection outweigh the detrimental effects of TNF-alpha-mediated hepatocyte cellular injury. Anti-TNF-alpha therapy, although preventing liver injury during blood-borne bacterial infection, results in a dampened anti-bacterial host response, resulting in decreased bacterial clearance and overall survival
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