331,375 research outputs found

    Oilseed Rape straw for Cultivation of Oyster Mushroom

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    Oyster mushroom [_Pleurotus ostreatus_ var. _sajor caju_ (Fr.) Singer] cultivation can play an important role in managing organic waste. It can be cultivated on a wide rang of substrates containing lignin and cellulose. Oyster mushroom was grown on five substrates: Rise straw (Oryza sativa L. var. Alikazemi), Rise straw + Oilseed Rape straw (Brassica napus var. Hyola 401) (75:25 dw /dw), Rise straw + Oilseed Rape straw (50:50 dw /dw), Rise straw + Oilseed Rape straw (25:75 dw /dw) and Oilseed Rape straw alone. Oilseed Rape straw alone and Rise straw + Oilseed Rape straw (25:75 dw /dw) were best for fruit body production of P. ostreatus. Time to fruiting for P. ostreatus was also shorter on Oilseed Rape straw. Protein content of the fruit bodies obtained from Oilseed Rape straw was higher than those from other substrates. Using Oilseed Rape straw as a substrate appears to be suitable for oyster mushroom production

    Language Change in a Post-Creole, British Contact Setting: Non-Standard Ain’t Negation

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    The word ain't is used by speakers of all dialects and sociolects of English. Nonetheless, language critics view ain't as marking speakers as "lazy" or "stupid"; and the educated assume ain't is on its deathbed, used only in cliches. Everyone has an opinion about ain't. Even the grammar-checker in Microsoft Word flags every ain't with a red underscore. But why? Over the past 100 years, only a few articles and sections of books have reviewed the history of ain't or discussed it in dialect contexts. This first book-length collection specifically dedicated to this shibboleth provides a multifaceted analysis of ain't in the history and grammar of English; in English speech, writing, television, comics and other media; and in relation to the minds, attitudes, and usage of speakers and writers of English from a range of regions, ethnicities, social classes, and dialect communities. Most articles in the collection are accessible for the average educated speaker, while others are directed primarily at specialists in linguistic study-but with helpful explanations and footnotes to make these articles more approachable for the layperson. This collection of articles on ain't thus provides a broad audience with a rich understanding and appreciation of the history and life of this taboo word

    Language Change in a Post-Creole, British Contact Setting: Non-Standard Ain’t Negation

    Get PDF
    The word ain't is used by speakers of all dialects and sociolects of English. Nonetheless, language critics view ain't as marking speakers as "lazy" or "stupid"; and the educated assume ain't is on its deathbed, used only in cliches. Everyone has an opinion about ain't. Even the grammar-checker in Microsoft Word flags every ain't with a red underscore. But why? Over the past 100 years, only a few articles and sections of books have reviewed the history of ain't or discussed it in dialect contexts. This first book-length collection specifically dedicated to this shibboleth provides a multifaceted analysis of ain't in the history and grammar of English; in English speech, writing, television, comics and other media; and in relation to the minds, attitudes, and usage of speakers and writers of English from a range of regions, ethnicities, social classes, and dialect communities. Most articles in the collection are accessible for the average educated speaker, while others are directed primarily at specialists in linguistic study-but with helpful explanations and footnotes to make these articles more approachable for the layperson. This collection of articles on ain't thus provides a broad audience with a rich understanding and appreciation of the history and life of this taboo word

    ELIMINATION OF CADMIUM AND LEAD MIXTURE IN SOLUTION BY PRETREATED RICE STRAW AND HUSK

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    An experiment on the activity of pretreated rice straw and husk in eliminating heavy metals from solution has been conducted. The rice straw and husk were soaked in 3% NaOH solution, drained and then washed with demineralised water until the washing became neutral (the results were referred to as straw and husk). The pretreated rice straw and husk (straw and husk) were mixed (stirring and without stirring) separately with Cd and Pb solution in time series. It was found that Cd was adsorbed more than Pb and straw was more active than husk. On the other hand, the stirring process and time series did not give much effect on straw, while the activity of husk increased with the increase of time period

    Straw biomass - potential raw material for ethanol production

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    Barley straw was found to be suitable raw material for ethanol production. Straw could be easily pre-treated with steam explosion, hydrolysed to monosaccharides and fermented to ethanol. The optimum harvesting times for bio-ethanol raw material are at grain maturity for barley straw. Potential raw material, barley harvested at full ear emergence, when straw is rich in soluble sugars, need further research

    A solid state fungal fermentation-based strategy for the hydrolysis of wheat straw

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    This paper reports a solid-state fungal fermentation-based pre-treatment strategy to convert wheat straw into a fermentable hydrolysate. Aspergillus niger was firstly cultured on wheat straw for production of cellulolytic enzymes and then the wheat straw was hydrolyzed by the enzyme solution into a fermentable hydrolysate. The optimum moisture content and three wheat straw modification methods were explored to improve cellulase production. At a moisture content of 89.5%, 10.2 ± 0.13 U/g cellulase activity was obtained using dilute acid modified wheat straw. The addition of yeast extract (0.5% w/v) and minerals significantly improved the cellulase production, to 24.0 ± 1.76 U/g. The hydrolysis of the fermented wheat straw using the fungal culture filtrate or commercial cellulase Ctec2 was performed, resulting in 4.34 and 3.13 g/L glucose respectively. It indicated that the fungal filtrate harvested from the fungal fermentation of wheat straw contained a more suitable enzyme mixture than the commercial cellulase

    Using of Straw Ash as Additive Material Cement

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    In this research, Portland cement type 1 made by using raw material clinker and gypsum from production unit in cement plant and also with adding straw ash from the combustion of straw rice plant, the adding of straw ash performed on a particular composition which is 0%, 5%, 8%, 12% and 15%. The purpose of the research is to know the effect of adding straw ash opposite the quality of Portland cement type 1 and to know about the best composition of adding straw ash to get Portland cement type 1 according with SNI-15-2049-2004. The benefits of the research are to reduce the level of environmental pollution and to increase the value of straw rice plant. Portland cement type 1 that has been created will be done some analysis to determine the quality of the cement, such as cement chemical composition analysis using X-Ray spectrometer, determination of free lime, determination of lost on ignition, determination of Blaine and determination of compressive strength mortar. So hoping the Portland cement type 1 that has been created is according SNI 15-2049-2009. The result of the research show that the all of adding straw ash is got cement with compressive strength, free lime disposal, loss on ignition disposal, and Blaine of cement according with SNI 15-2049-2009 with the maximum adding of the straw ash is 15 % where at this adding straw ash is got compressive strength equal 476 Kg/cm2, free lime equal 1, 01 %, loss on ignition equal 2, 78 %, and Blaine equal 6125 cm2/gr
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