451,124 research outputs found

    Effect of an agri-environmental measure on nitrate leaching from a beef farming system in Ireland

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    peer-reviewedAgricultural nitrogen (N) management remains a key environmental challenge. Improving N management is a matter of urgency to reduce the serious ecological consequences of the reactive N. Nitrate (NO3−–N) leaching was measured under suckler beef production systems stocked at two intensities: (1) intensive, 210 kg organic N ha−1 with two cut silage harvests; and (2) rural environmental protection scheme (REPS), 170 kg organic N ha−1 with one cut silage harvest. Three replicate plots of each treatment were instrumented with ceramic cups (8 per plot), randomly placed within each plot at a depth of 1 m to collect soil solution for NO3−–N at 50 kPa suction to collecting vessels one week prior to sampling. Samples were taken on a total of 53 sampling dates over 3 winter drainage periods (2002/03, 2003/04 and 2004/05). Over the course of the experiment the mean annual soil solution NO3−–N concentration exceeded the MAC twice out of 15 means (5 treatments over 3 years). The REPS grazing and silage sub treatments had significantly lower mean annual soil solution total oxidized N (TON) concentrations than the respective intensive treatments in years 2 and 3. Annual total NO3−–N losses over the three years in intensive and REPS systems ranged from 55 to 71 and 15 to 20 kg N ha−1, respectively. Mean N surpluses in intensive and REPS systems were 210 and 95 kg ha−1, respectively with the corresponding mean N inputs of 272 and 124 kg N ha−1. The reduction in N inputs under the REPS system results in lower N leaching losses and contributed to a significant reduction in pressures on water quality

    The Arabidopsis NLP7 gene regulates nitrate signaling via NRT1.1-dependent pathway in the presence of ammonium.

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    Nitrate is not only an important nutrient but also a signaling molecule for plants. A few of key molecular components involved in primary nitrate responses have been identified mainly by forward and reverse genetics as well as systems biology, however, many underlining mechanisms of nitrate regulation remain unclear. In this study, we show that the expression of NRT1.1, which encodes a nitrate sensor and transporter (also known as CHL1 and NPF6.3), is modulated by NIN-like protein 7 (NLP7). Genetic and molecular analyses indicate that NLP7 works upstream of NRT1.1 in nitrate regulation when NH4+ is present, while in absence of NH4+, it functions in nitrate signaling independently of NRT1.1. Ectopic expression of NRT1.1 in nlp7 resulted in partial or complete restoration of nitrate signaling (expression from nitrate-regulated promoter NRP), nitrate content and nitrate reductase activity in the transgenic lines. Transcriptome analysis revealed that four nitrogen-related clusters including amino acid synthesis-related genes and members of NRT1/PTR family were modulated by both NLP7 and NRT1.1. In addition, ChIP and EMSA assays results indicated that NLP7 may bind to specific regions of the NRT1.1 promoter. Thus, NLP7 acts as an important factor in nitrate signaling via regulating NRT1.1 under NH4+ conditions

    Effect of Nitrate, Acetate and Hydrogen on Native Perchlorate-reducing Microbial Communities and Their Activity in Vadose Soil

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    The effect of nitrate, acetate, and hydrogen on native perchlorate-reducing bacteria (PRB) was examined by conducting microcosm tests using vadose soil collected from a perchlorate-contaminated site. The rate of perchlorate reduction was enhanced by hydrogen amendment and inhibited by acetate amendment, compared with unamendment. Nitrate was reduced before perchlorate in all amendments. In hydrogen-amended and unamended soils, nitrate delayed perchlorate reduction, suggesting that the PRB preferentially use nitrate as an electron acceptor. In contrast, nitrate eliminated the inhibitory effect of acetate amendment on perchlorate reduction and increased the rate and the extent, possibly because the preceding nitrate reduction/denitrification decreased the acetate concentration that was inhibitory to the native PRB. In hydrogen-amended and unamended soils, perchlorate reductase gene (pcrA) copies, representing PRB densities, increased with either perchlorate or nitrate reduction, suggesting that either perchlorate or nitrate stimulates the growth of the PRB. In contrast, in acetate-amended soil pcrA increased only when perchlorate was depleted: a large portion of the PRB may have not utilized nitrate in this amendment. Nitrate addition did not alter the distribution of the dominant pcrA clones in hydrogen-amended soil, likely because of the functional redundancy of PRB as nitrate-reducers/denitrifiers, whereas acetate selected different pcrA clones from those with hydrogen amendment

    Nitrates in surface waters, inputs and seasonality: Phase 2

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    Changes in management practices and agricultural productivity over the past twenty years have lead to nitrate pollution and eutrophication of lakes and rivers. Information on nitrate concentrations and discharge has been collected on the River Frome at East Stoke since 1965, using the same analytical nitrate method so that the results are comparable. These records of weekly spot values of nitrate concentration and daily mean discharges have been analysed for trends and seasonal patterns in both concentration and nitrate loadings. In this extension of our nitrate contract, a new automated method of intensive sampling has been used to monitor short-term variability and to assess how well similar routine (weekly) sampling schemes can represent the true nitrate record

    Resolving the contributions of the membrane-bound and periplasmic nitrate reductase systems to nitric oxide and nitrous oxide production in Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium

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    The production of cytotoxic nitric oxide (NO) and conversion into the neuropharmacological agent and potent greenhouse gas nitrous oxide (N2O) is linked with anoxic nitrate catabolism by Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium. Salmonella can synthesize two types of nitrate reductase: a membrane-bound form (Nar) and a periplasmic form (Nap). Nitrate catabolism was studied under nitrate-rich and nitrate-limited conditions in chemostat cultures following transition from oxic to anoxic conditions. Intracellular NO production was reported qualitatively by assessing transcription of the NO-regulated genes encoding flavohaemoglobin (Hmp), flavorubredoxin (NorV) and hybrid cluster protein (Hcp). A more quantitative analysis of the extent of NO formation was gained by measuring production of N2O, the end-product of anoxic NO-detoxification. Under nitrate-rich conditions, the nar, nap, hmp, norV and hcp genes were all induced following transition from the oxic to anoxic state, and 20% of nitrate consumed in steady-state was released as N2O when nitrite had accumulated to millimolar levels. The kinetics of nitrate consumption, nitrite accumulation and N2O production were similar to those of wild-type in nitrate-sufficient cultures of a nap mutant. In contrast, in a narG mutant, the steady-state rate of N2O production was ~30-fold lower than that of the wild-type. Under nitrate-limited conditions, nap, but not nar, was up-regulated following transition from oxic to anoxic metabolism and very little N2O production was observed. Thus a combination of nitrate-sufficiency, nitrite accumulation and an active Nar-type nitrate reductase leads to NO and thence N2O production, and this can account for up to 20% of the nitrate catabolized

    Dynamic modeling of nitrogen losses in river networks unravels the coupled effects of hydrological and biogeochemical processes

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    The importance of lotic systems as sinks for nitrogen inputs is well recognized. A fraction of nitrogen in streamflow is removed to the atmosphere via denitrification with the remainder exported in streamflow as nitrogen loads. At the watershed scale, there is a keen interest in understanding the factors that control the fate of nitrogen throughout the stream channel network, with particular attention to the processes that deliver large nitrogen loads to sensitive coastal ecosystems. We use a dynamic stream transport model to assess biogeochemical (nitrate loadings, concentration, temperature) and hydrological (discharge, depth, velocity) effects on reach-scale denitrification and nitrate removal in the river networks of two watersheds having widely differing levels of nitrate enrichment but nearly identical discharges. Stream denitrification is estimated by regression as a nonlinear function of nitrate concentration, streamflow, and temperature, using more than 300 published measurements from a variety of US streams. These relations are used in the stream transport model to characterize nitrate dynamics related to denitrification at a monthly time scale in the stream reaches of the two watersheds. Results indicate that the nitrate removal efficiency of streams, as measured by the percentage of the stream nitrate flux removed via denitrification per unit length of channel, is appreciably reduced during months with high discharge and nitrate flux and increases during months of low-discharge and flux. Biogeochemical factors, including land use, nitrate inputs, and stream concentrations, are a major control on reach-scale denitrification, evidenced by the disproportionately lower nitrate removal efficiency in streams of the highly nitrate-enriched watershed as compared with that in similarly sized streams in the less nitrate-enriched watershed. Sensitivity analyses reveal that these important biogeochemical factors and physical hydrological factors contribute nearly equally to seasonal and stream-size related variations in the percentage of the stream nitrate flux removed in each watershed

    Nitrate Protocol

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    The purpose of this resource is to measure the nitrate-nitrogen of water. Students will use a nitrate kit to measure the nitrate-nitrogen in the water at their hydrology site. The exact procedure depends on the instructions in the nitrate kit used. Educational levels: Middle school, High school
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