40,752 research outputs found

    A multidimensional concept for mercury neuronal and sensory toxicity in fish - From toxicokinetics and biochemistry to morphometry and behavior

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    Neuronal and sensory toxicity of mercury (Hg) compounds has been largely investigated in humans/mammals with a focus on public health, while research in fish is less prolific and dispersed by different species. Well-established premises for mammals have been governing fish research, but some contradictory findings suggest that knowledge translation between these animal groups needs prudence [e.g. the relative higher neurotoxicity of methylmercury (MeHg) vs. inorganic Hg (iHg)]. Biochemical/physiological differences between the groups (e.g. higher brain regeneration in fish) may determine distinct patterns. This review undertakes the challenge of identifying sensitive cellular targets, Hg-driven biochemical/physiological vulnerabilities in fish, while discriminating specificities for Hg forms.Thanks are due for the financial support to CESAM (UID/AMB/50017/2019), to FCT/MEC through national funds, and the co-funding by the FEDER, within the PT2020 Partnership Agreement and Compete 2020. Patrícia Pereira acknowledges the support of FCT through the post-doctoral research grants (SFRH/BPD/69563/2010 and SFRH/BPD/107718/2015). Currently, Patrícia Pereira is funded by national funds (OE), through FCT – Fundação para a Ciência e a Tecnologia, I.P., in the scope of the framework contract foreseen in the numbers 4, 5 and 6 of the article 23, of the Decree-Law 57/2016, of August 29, changed by Law 57/2017, of July 19. The authors are also grateful to the Co-Editors Professor Cristina Carvalho and Professor Michael Aschner for the opportunity to publish this article in a special issue of BBAGEN organized under their supervision

    Morphometric Analysis of Asturian Picks Through 3D Digital Models

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    RESUMEN: El presente Trabajo Fin de Máster tiene como finalidad analizar el útil lítico conocido como pico asturiense mediante un novedoso enfoque metodológico: el análisis morfométrico geométrico a partir de modelos digitales 3D. Este utensilio lítico, perteneciente a la facies mesolítica del Asturiense, ha sido históricamente interpretada como un instrumento particularmente utilizado para el marisqueo en costa. Desde su descubrimiento, los análisis estadísticos y estudios realizados sobre este artefacto se han desarrollado a partir de métodos de medición muy simples, basados en la concepción de las dimensiones del objeto como un rectángulo (en 2D) o un cubo (en 3D). En este trabajo, proponemos el examen de una muestra representativa de picos asturienses a partir de modelos digitales 3D, y a los que después someteremos a ese análisis morfométrico. De esta forma, se aplicará una técnica de análisis más precisa al utilizar la morfometría general de un pico en todas sus dimensiones, permitiendo así un acercamiento más exhaustivo y preciso a su forma. Para completar nuestro análisis, exploraremos los procesos de abastecimiento de cantos para la elaboración de estos útiles, a partir de muestreos aleatorios de materias primas en varios puntos de probable aprovisionamiento como terrazas fluviales o playas del oriente de Asturias. De este modo, pretendemos resolver cuestiones de naturaleza tipológica y tecnológica para, así buscar resultados que puedan mostrarnos la posible variabilidad tipológica de estos útiles, la existencia de una selección de materias primas, o los casos de reavivados y reutilizaciones. Finalmente, este estudio podrá plantear futuros análisis comparativos y funcionales que continúen el trabajo analítico con esta herramienta lítica.ABSTRACT: This Final Master's Project aims to conduct a study of the lithic tool known as Asturian pick, by means of a new methodological approach: the geometric morphometric analysis using 3D digital models. This tool, belonging to the Asturian Mesolithic facies, has been interpreted as an instrument particularly employed for coastal shellfishing. Since its discovery, statistical analyses and studies conducted on this artifact have been developed using simple measurement methods, assuming that the object can be inscribed within the shape of a 2D rectangle or a 3D cube. In this work, we propose the examination of a representative sample of Asturian picks through 3D digital models, which shall analysed with to the above-mentioned morphometric approach. We will apply a more precise analytical technique by using the general morphometry of a pick in all its dimensions, thus allowing for a more exhaustive or accurate approach to its shape. To complete our analysis, we will explore the processes of collection of cobbles for the production of these tools, by random sampling of raw materials. Therefore, we intend to face typological and technological issues, in order to obtain results that can identify the possible typological variability of these tools, the existence of a selection of raw materials, or reuse cases. Finally, this study may lead to future comparative and functional analyses work regarding this lithic tool.Máster en Prehistoria y Arqueologí

    Characteristics of selected endemic plants

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    Endemi su vrste koje obitavaju na geografski ograničenom području koje nema jasno definiranu veličinu, te je važna odrednica neke vrste kao endema njezina rasprostranjenost. Hrvatska predstavlja važno središte europskog endemizma i vrlo je bogata endemičnom florom. Među brojnim do sad opisanim endemima u hrvatskoj flori su i endemične vrste koje pripadaju porodici Campanulaceae (zvončike): Campanula cespitosa koju karakterizira busenasti habitus; C. fenestrellata ssp. fenestrellata i C. fenestrellata ssp. istriaca čiji se areali djelomice preklapaju; C. justiniana - planinska vrsta sjeverozapadnog dijela Hrvatske; C. portenschlagiana i C. poscharskyana kod kojih, iako geografski izolirane, zbog nedostatka reproduktivne barijere često dolazi do križanja; C. teutana koja raste na jednom jedinom lokalitetu na Visu; te C. tommasiniana koja se često miješa sa vrstom C. waldsteiniana, iako postoji očita razlika u izgledu vjenčića i tobolca.Endems are species that inhabit a geographically limited area that doesnt have clearly defined size, which is why distribution is a very important determinant of some species as endem. Croatia is an important center of European endemism and is very rich in endemic flora. Among many endemics in Croatian flora there are several endemic species belonging to the Campanulaceae family (Bellflowers): Campanula cespitosa characterized by its turfed habitus; C. fenestrellata ssp. fenestrellata and C. fenestrellata ssp. istriaca which ranges partially overlap; C. justiniana - the mountain species of the northwestern part of Croatia; C. portenschlagiana and C. poscharskyana which are geographically isolated, but due to lack of reproductive barriers they frequently hybridize; C. teutana growing only on Vis; and C. tommasiniana, which is often confused for C. waldsteiniana, although there is an obvious difference in the corolla and capsula

    Characteristics of selected endemic plants

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    Endemi su vrste koje obitavaju na geografski ograničenom području koje nema jasno definiranu veličinu, te je važna odrednica neke vrste kao endema njezina rasprostranjenost. Hrvatska predstavlja važno središte europskog endemizma i vrlo je bogata endemičnom florom. Među brojnim do sad opisanim endemima u hrvatskoj flori su i endemične vrste koje pripadaju porodici Campanulaceae (zvončike): Campanula cespitosa koju karakterizira busenasti habitus; C. fenestrellata ssp. fenestrellata i C. fenestrellata ssp. istriaca čiji se areali djelomice preklapaju; C. justiniana - planinska vrsta sjeverozapadnog dijela Hrvatske; C. portenschlagiana i C. poscharskyana kod kojih, iako geografski izolirane, zbog nedostatka reproduktivne barijere često dolazi do križanja; C. teutana koja raste na jednom jedinom lokalitetu na Visu; te C. tommasiniana koja se često miješa sa vrstom C. waldsteiniana, iako postoji očita razlika u izgledu vjenčića i tobolca.Endems are species that inhabit a geographically limited area that doesnt have clearly defined size, which is why distribution is a very important determinant of some species as endem. Croatia is an important center of European endemism and is very rich in endemic flora. Among many endemics in Croatian flora there are several endemic species belonging to the Campanulaceae family (Bellflowers): Campanula cespitosa characterized by its turfed habitus; C. fenestrellata ssp. fenestrellata and C. fenestrellata ssp. istriaca which ranges partially overlap; C. justiniana - the mountain species of the northwestern part of Croatia; C. portenschlagiana and C. poscharskyana which are geographically isolated, but due to lack of reproductive barriers they frequently hybridize; C. teutana growing only on Vis; and C. tommasiniana, which is often confused for C. waldsteiniana, although there is an obvious difference in the corolla and capsula

    The air temperature change effect on water quality in the Kvarken Archipelago area

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    The Kvarken Archipelago is Finland's World Heritage site designated by UNESCO. How climate change has affected the Kvaken Archipelago remains unclear. This study was conducted to investigate this issue by analyzing air temperature and water quality in this area. Here we use long-term historical data sets of 61 years from several monitoring stations. Water quality parameters included chlorophyll-a; total phosphorus; total nitrogen; coliform bacteria thermos tolerant; temperature; nitrate as nitrogen; nitrite-nitrate as nitrogen, and Secchi depth and correlations analysis was conducted to identify the most relevant parameters. Based on the correlation analysis of weather data and water quality parameters, air temperature showed a significant correlation with water temperature (Pearson's correlations = 0.89691, P < 0.0001). The air temperature increased in April (R2 (goodness-of-fit) = 0.2109 & P = 0.0009) and July (R2 = 0.1207 & P = 0.0155) which has indirectly increased the chlorophyll-a level (e.g. in June increasing slope = 0.39101, R2 = 0.4685, P < 0.0001) an indicator of phytoplankton growth and abundance in the water systems. The study concludes that there might be indirect effects of the likely increase in air temperature on water quality in the Kvarken Archipelago, in particular causing water temperature and chlorophyll-a concentration to increase at least in some months.© 2023 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. This is an open access article under the CC BY license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).fi=vertaisarvioitu|en=peerReviewed

    Aged lipid-laden microglia display impaired responses to stroke

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    Microglial cells of the aged brain manifest signs of dysfunction that could contribute to the worse neurological outcome of stroke in the elderly. Treatment with colony-stimulating factor 1 receptor antagonists enables transient microglia depletion that is followed by microglia repopulation after treatment interruption, causing no known harm to mice. We tested whether this strategy restored microglia function and ameliorated stroke outcome in old mice. Cerebral ischemia/reperfusion induced innate immune responses in microglia highlighted by type I interferon and metabolic changes involving lipid droplet biogenesis. Old microglia accumulated lipids under steady state and displayed exacerbated innate immune responses to stroke. Microglia repopulation in old mice reduced lipid-laden microglia, and the cells exhibited reduced inflammatory responses to ischemia. Moreover, old mice with renewed microglia showed improved motor function 2 weeks after stroke. We conclude that lipid deposits in aged microglia impair the cellular responses to ischemia and worsen functional recovery in old mice.© 2022 The Authors. Published under the terms of the CC BY 4.0 license

    Morphological analysis and clinical significance of the opening of the third coronary artery

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    Introduction: The human heart is in most cases vascularized by two coronary arteries, the right coronary artery (RCA) and the left coronary artery. The supernumerary coronary artery, which arises independently from the right aortic sinus and passes through sub-epicardial adipose tissue of the pulmonary conus and anterior side of the right ventricle is called the third coronary artery (TCA). Methods: This study consisted of 28 formalin-fixed adult human cadaveric hearts. The presence of the TCA was determined. The position of the orifice of the right and excess arteries in relation to the sinotubular junction was determined, and then also the position of the orifice of the excess arteries “on the o’clock level” in relation to the orifice of the RCA. The radius of these orifices and their distance from the orifice of the RCA were measured. The angle between the aorta and TCA, as well as RCA and conus branch, was measured. Results: A total 11 of specimens had supernumerary arteries. A supernumerary artery was found in two hearts. The angle formed by the aorta with the TCA was 60.09 ± 17.57, while the angle between the aorta and the conus branch had an average value of 89.88 ± 15.92. The orifices of all supernumerary arteries were located below the level of the sinotubular junction. The average diameter of the TCA was 1.49 mm ± 0.41. The average distance between the TCA orifice and the RCA orifice was 2.21 mm ± 1.03. In 45.45% cases, the orifice of TCA was located at the 10 o’clock level. Conclusion: The present study highlights the presence of the TCA. It may constitute a significant collateral circulation contributing to apical and septal perfusion. Interpretation of signs and symptoms of coronary occlusion should therefore include possible contribution of this vascular channel

    A review of combined neuromodulation and physical therapy interventions for enhanced neurorehabilitation

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    Rehabilitation approaches for individuals with neurologic conditions have increasingly shifted toward promoting neuroplasticity for enhanced recovery and restoration of function. This review focuses on exercise strategies and non-invasive neuromodulation techniques that target neuroplasticity, including transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS), vagus nerve stimulation (VNS), and peripheral nerve stimulation (PNS). We have chosen to focus on non-invasive neuromodulation techniques due to their greater potential for integration into routine clinical practice. We explore and discuss the application of these interventional strategies in four neurological conditions that are frequently encountered in rehabilitation settings: Parkinson’s Disease (PD), Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI), stroke, and Spinal Cord Injury (SCI). Additionally, we discuss the potential benefits of combining non-invasive neuromodulation with rehabilitation, which has shown promise in accelerating recovery. Our review identifies studies that demonstrate enhanced recovery through combined exercise and non-invasive neuromodulation in the selected patient populations. We primarily focus on the motor aspects of rehabilitation, but also briefly address non-motor impacts of these conditions. Additionally, we identify the gaps in current literature and barriers to implementation of combined approaches into clinical practice. We highlight areas needing further research and suggest avenues for future investigation, aiming to enhance the personalization of the unique neuroplastic responses associated with each condition. This review serves as a resource for rehabilitation professionals and researchers seeking a comprehensive understanding of neuroplastic exercise interventions and non-invasive neuromodulation techniques tailored for specific diseases and diagnoses

    TBSS++: A novel computational method for Tract-Based Spatial Statistics

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    Diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (dMRI) is widely used to assess the brain white matter. One of the most common computations in dMRI involves cross-subject tract-specific analysis, whereby dMRI-derived biomarkers are compared between cohorts of subjects. The accuracy and reliability of these studies hinges on the ability to compare precisely the same white matter tracts across subjects. This is an intricate and error-prone computation. Existing computational methods such as Tract-Based Spatial Statistics (TBSS) suffer from a host of shortcomings and limitations that can seriously undermine the validity of the results. We present a new computational framework that overcomes the limitations of existing methods via (i) accurate segmentation of the tracts, and (ii) precise registration of data from different subjects/scans. The registration is based on fiber orientation distributions. To further improve the alignment of cross-subject data, we create detailed atlases of white matter tracts. These atlases serve as an unbiased reference space where the data from all subjects is registered for comparison. Extensive evaluations show that, compared with TBSS, our proposed framework offers significantly higher reproducibility and robustness to data perturbations. Our method promises a drastic improvement in accuracy and reproducibility of cross-subject dMRI studies that are routinely used in neuroscience and medical research

    Anatomical study, surgical approach and variations of the suprascapular nerve in the shoulder joint

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    The suprascapular nerve is a mixed nerve that is of great significance for the shoulder gridle. It originates normally from the superior trunk of the brachial plexus and gives off motor neural branches to the supraspinatus and infraspinatus muscles, and sensory branches mainly to the glenohumeral joint. The suprascapular notch and the spinoglenoid notch, both bridged by their transverse ligaments, represent the two bony formations of the scapula, along the nerve’s course, where the nerve is more vulnerable to injury and entrapment. These conditions will result to suprascapular neuropathy. In cases of suprascapular neuropathy that the conservative management has failed or is not indicated, the management is the surgical (either open or arthroscopic) release of the suprascapular nerve in these notches. For this study, 41 embalmed cadaveric shoulders were dissected. These cadavers derived from the body donation program of the Anatomy Department of the Medical School, NKUA. These shoulders were studied for the anatomical features of the suprascapular nerve (origin, course and distribution), its length as well as the morphometry of the suprascapular and spinoglenoid notches. Also, histological examination of the superior and inferior scapular ligaments was conducted in order to investigate their consistence. In all the dissected shoulders, the suprascapular nerve originated from the superior trunk of the brachial plexus, in accordance to the patterns described in the literature. Then the nerve was passing beneath the superior transverse scapular ligament (STSL) and giving off 2-3 motor branches to the supraspinatus muscle, and after that the nerve was passing through the spinoglenoid notch and giving off 4-5 branches to innervate the infraspinatus muscle. The 6/41 (14.63%) STSLs were fully ossified, 12/41 (29.27%) were partially ossified, and the rest 23/41 (56.1%) not ossified at all. The majority of the STSLs were fan-shaped. In 3 out of the 41 dissected shoulders (7.32%), a coracoscapular ligament was also identified. Five out of the 9 spinoglenoid ligaments were membranous, three were linear and one was fan shaped. In addition, a quite rare anatomical variation was identified, as the suprascapular nerve was giving off a thin branch before its passing through the suprascapular notch. Deep knowledge of normal origin, course and distribution of the suprascapular nerve as well as its anatomical variations are of paramount importance for safe approaches (either anterior or posterior) of the shoulder gridle and for avoiding iatrogenic injuries of the surrounding neurovascular structures.Το υπερπλάτιο νεύρο είναι ένα μεικτό νεύρο σημαντικότατο για την ωμική ζώνη. Εκφύεται φυσιολογικά από το άνω πρωτεύον στέλεχος του βραχιονίου πλέγματος και δίνει μυικούς κλάδους για τη νεύρωση του υπερακανθίου και του υπακανθίου μυός και αισθητικούς κλάδους κυρίως για την άρθρωση του ώμου. Η ωμοπλατιαία εντομή και η ακανθογληνική εντομή που γεφυρώνονται από τους αντίστοιχους συνδέσμους είναι οι χαρακτηριστικές θέσεις στο οστούν της ωμοπλάτης στις οποίες το υπερπλάτιο νεύρο είναι πιο επιρρεπές σε συμπίεση και τραυματισμό. Το αποτέλεσμα είναι η άλλοτε άλλου βαθμού υπερπλάτια νευροπάθεια. Σε περιπτώσεις υπερπλάτιας νευροπάθειας όπου έχει πλέον αποτύχει η συντηρητική αντιμετώπιση ή δεν ενδείκνυται, η θεραπεία γίνεται με χειρουργική (κλασσική ανοικτή ή αρθροσκοπική) αποσυμπίεση του υπερπλατίου νεύρου στις θέσεις αυτές. Στην παρούσα μελέτη παρασκευάστηκαν 41 μονιμοποιημένοι πτωματικοί ώμοι, προερχόμενοι από τους εθελοντές δωρητές σώματος στο Εργαστήριο Ανατομίας – «Ανατομείο» της Ιατρικής Σχολής ΕΚΠΑ. Μελετήθηκαν τα ανατομικά χαρακτηριστικά του υπερπλατίου νεύρου (έκφυση, πορεία και διανομή των κλάδων) έγιναν μετρήσεις σχετικά με το μήκος του υπερπλατίου νεύρου αλλά και την μορφομετρία της ωμοπλατιαίας και της ακανθογληνικής εντομής και έγινε ιστολογική μελέτη των εγκαρσίων συνδέσμων της ωμοπλάτης και των ακανθογληνικών συνδέσμων με σκοπό την διερεύνηση της σύστασής τους και του βαθμού οστεοποίησής τους. Στους ώμους που παρασκευάστηκαν, όλα τα υπερπλάτια νεύρα εκφύονταν από το άνω πρωτεύον στέλεχος του βραχιονίου πλέγματος σύμφωνα δηλαδή με τα πρότυπα της κείμενης βιβλιογραφίας. Κατόπιν το νεύρο διερχόταν υπό τον εγκάρσιο σύνδεσμο της ωμοπλάτης έδινε 2-3 μυικούς κλάδους στον υπερακάνθιο και μετά διέλαυνε της ακανθογληνικής εντομής προς τον υπακάνθιο βόθρο δίνοντας 4-5 κλάδους για τον ομώνυμο μυ. Οι εγκάρσιοι σύνδεσμοι της ωμοπλάτης ήταν 6/41 (14.63%) πλήρως οστεοποιημένοι, 12/41 (29.27%) μερικώς και 23/41 (56.1%) μη οστεοποιημένοι. Το σχήμα των εγκαρσίων συνδέσμων ήταν ως επί το πλείστον τριγωνικό. Σε 3/41 ώμους που παρασκευάστηκαν (7.32%) βρέθηκε επιπλέον και ένας πρόσθιος κορακο-ωμοπλατιαίος σύνδεσμος. Από τους 9 ακανθογληνικούς συνδέσμους που ταυτοποιήθηκαν οι 5 ήταν μεμβρανώδεις, 3 γραμμικοί και ένας τριγωνικού σχήματος. Επιπροσθέτως βρέθηκε μια αρκετά σπάνια ανατομική παραλλαγή κατά την οποία το υπερπλάτιο νεύρο χορηγούσε ισχνό νευρικό κλάδο πριν την διέλευσή του από την ωμοπλατιαία εντομή. Η βαθιά γνώση της φυσιολογικής έκφυσης, πορείας και διανομής των κλάδων του υπερπλατίου νεύρου όσο και των διαφόρων ανατομικών παραλλαγών αυτού από μεριάς του ορθοπαιδικού χειρουργού είναι υψίστης σημασίας για ασφαλείς και επιτυχημένες προσπελάσεις (είτε πρόσθιες είτε οπίσθιες) του υπερπλατίου νεύρου και για την αποφυγή πρόκλησης ιατρογενούς βλάβης σε κάποιο από τα ευγενή στοιχεία της περιοχής
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