546 research outputs found

    Delaying dispreferred responses in English: From a Japanese perspective

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    This article employs conversation analysis to explore the interpenetration of grammar and preference organization in English conversation in comparison with a previous study for Japanese. Whereas varying the word order of major syntactic elements is a vital grammatical resource in Japanese for accomplishing the potentially universal task of delaying dispreferred responses to a range of first actions, it is found to have limited utility in English. A search for alternative operations and devices that conversationalists deploy for this objective in English points to several grammatical constructions that can be tailored to maximize the delay of dispreferred responses. These include the fronting of relatively mobile, syntactically ?non-obligatory? elements of clause structure and the employment of various copular constructions. A close interdependence is observed between the rudimentary grammatical resources available in the two languages and the types of operations that are respectively enlisted for the implementation of the organization of preference

    Clusters die hard: Time-correlated excitation in the Hamiltonian Mean Field model

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    The Hamiltonian Mean Field (HMF) model has a low-energy phase where NN particles are trapped inside a cluster. Here, we investigate some properties of the trapping/untrapping mechanism of a single particle into/outside the cluster. Since the single particle dynamics of the HMF model resembles the one of a simple pendulum, each particle can be identified as a high-energy particle (HEP) or a low-energy particle (LEP), depending on whether its energy is above or below the separatrix energy. We then define the trapping ratio as the ratio of the number of LEP to the total number of particles and the ``fully-clustered'' and ``excited'' dynamical states as having either no HEP or at least one HEP. We analytically compute the phase-space average of the trapping ratio by using the Boltzmann-Gibbs stable stationary solution of the Vlasov equation associated with the NN \to \infty limit of the HMF model. The same quantity, obtained numerically as a time average, is shown to be in very good agreement with the analytical calculation. Another important feature of the dynamical behavior of the system is that the dynamical state changes transitionally: the ``fully-clustered'' and ``excited'' states appear in turn. We find that the distribution of the lifetime of the ``fully-clustered'' state obeys a power law. This means that clusters die hard, and that the excitation of a particle from the cluster is not a Poisson process and might be controlled by some type of collective motion with long memory. Such behavior should not be specific of the HMF model and appear also in systems where {\it itinerancy} among different ``quasi-stationary'' states has been observed. It is also possible that it could mimick the behavior of transient motion in molecular clusters or some observed deterministic features of chemical reactions.Comment: 14 pages, 5 figure


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    Establishment of a monoclonal antibody for human LXRα: Detection of LXRα protein expression in human macrophages

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    Liver X activated receptor alpha (LXRα) forms a functional dimeric nuclear receptor with RXR that regulates the metabolism of several important lipids, including cholesterol and bile acids. As compared with RXR, the LXRα protein level in the cell is low and the LXRα protein itself is very hard to detect. We have previously reported that the mRNA for LXRα is highly expressed in human cultured macrophages. In order to confirm the presence of the LXRα protein in the human macrophage, we have established a monoclonal antibody against LXRα, K-8607. The binding of mAb K-8607 to the human LXRα protein was confirmed by a wide variety of different techniques, including immunoblotting, immunohistochemistry, and electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA). By immunoblotting with this antibody, the presence of native LXR protein in primary cultured human macrophage was demonstrated, as was its absence in human monocytes. This monoclonal anti-LXRα antibody should prove to be a useful tool in the analysis of the human LXRα protein