953 research outputs found

    Structural and functional analysis of natural capsid variants suggests sialic acid-independent entry of BK polyomavirus

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    BK polyomavirus (BKPyV) is an opportunistic pathogen that uses the b-series gangliosides GD1b and GT1b as entry receptors. Here, we characterize the impact of naturally occurring VP1 mutations on ganglioside binding, VP1 protein structure, and virus tropism. Infectious entry of single mutants E73Q and E73A and the triple mutant A72V-E73Q-E82Q (VQQ) remains sialic acid dependent, and all three variants acquire binding to a-series gangliosides, including GD1a. However, the E73A and VQQ variants lose the ability to infect ganglioside-complemented cells, and this correlates with a clear shift of the BC2 loop in the crystal structures of E73A and VQQ. On the other hand, the K69N mutation in the K69N-E82Q variant leads to a steric clash that precludes sialic acid binding. Nevertheless, this mutant retains significant infectivity in 293TT cells, which is not dependent on heparan sulfate proteoglycans, implying that an unknown sialic acid-independent entry receptor for BKPyV exists

    Diminishing benefits of urban living for children and adolescents’ growth and development

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    Optimal growth and development in childhood and adolescence is crucial for lifelong health and well-being1‚Äď6. Here we used data from 2,325 population-based studies, with measurements of height and weight from 71 million participants, to report the height and body-mass index (BMI) of children and adolescents aged 5‚Äď19 years on the basis of rural and urban place of residence in 200 countries and territories from 1990 to 2020. In 1990, children and adolescents residing in cities were taller than their rural counterparts in all but a few high-income countries. By 2020, the urban height advantage became smaller in most countries, and in many high-income western countries it reversed into a small urban-based disadvantage. The exception was for boys in most countries in sub-Saharan Africa and in some countries in Oceania, south Asia and the region of central Asia, Middle East and north Africa. In these countries, successive cohorts of boys from rural places either did not gain height or possibly became shorter, and hence fell further behind their urban peers. The difference between the age-standardized mean BMI of children in urban and rural areas was <1.1 kg m‚Äď2 in the vast majority of countries. Within this small range, BMI increased slightly more in cities than in rural areas, except in south Asia, sub-Saharan Africa and some countries in central and eastern Europe. Our results show that in much of the world, the growth and developmental advantages of living in cities have diminished in the twenty-first century, whereas in much of sub-Saharan Africa they have amplified

    Global variations in diabetes mellitus based on fasting glucose and haemogloblin A1c

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    Fasting plasma glucose (FPG) and haemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) are both used to diagnose diabetes, but may identify different people as having diabetes. We used data from 117 population-based studies and quantified, in different world regions, the prevalence of diagnosed diabetes, and whether those who were previously undiagnosed and detected as having diabetes in survey screening had elevated FPG, HbA1c, or both. We developed prediction equations for estimating the probability that a person without previously diagnosed diabetes, and at a specific level of FPG, had elevated HbA1c, and vice versa. The age-standardised proportion of diabetes that was previously undiagnosed, and detected in survey screening, ranged from 30% in the high-income western region to 66% in south Asia. Among those with screen-detected diabetes with either test, the agestandardised proportion who had elevated levels of both FPG and HbA1c was 29-39% across regions; the remainder had discordant elevation of FPG or HbA1c. In most low- and middle-income regions, isolated elevated HbA1c more common than isolated elevated FPG. In these regions, the use of FPG alone may delay diabetes diagnosis and underestimate diabetes prevalence. Our prediction equations help allocate finite resources for measuring HbA1c to reduce the global gap in diabetes diagnosis and surveillance.peer-reviewe

    Synthesis, biochemical characterization, and genetic encoding of a 1,2,4‚Äźtriazole amino acid as an acetyllysine mimic for bromodomains of the BET family

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    Lysine acetylation is a charge-neutralizing post-translational modification of proteins bound by bromodomains (Brds). A 1,2,4-triazole amino acid (ApmTri) was established as acetyllysine (Kac) mimic recruiting Brds of the BET family in contrast to glutamine commonly used for simulating this modification. Optimization of triazole substituents and side chain spacing allowed BET Brd recruitment to ApmTri-containing peptides with affinities similar to native substrates. Crystal structures of ApmTri-containing peptides in complex with two BET Brds revealed the binding mode which mirrored that of Kac ligands. ApmTri was genetically encoded and recombinant ApmTri-containing proteins co-enriched BRD3(2) from cellular lysates. This interaction was blocked by BET inhibitor JQ1. With genetically encoded ApmTri, biochemistry is now provided with a stable Kac mimic reflecting charge neutralization and Brd recruitment, allowing new investigations into BET proteins in vitro and in vivo

    Diminishing benefits of urban living for children and adolescents’ growth and development