6,518 research outputs found

    Risk factors for infection with Giardia duodenalis in pre-school children in the city of Salvador, Brazil.

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    A cross-sectional study of 694 children aged 2 to 45 months selected from 30 clusters throughout the city of Salvador, Bahia (pop. 2.3 million) was carried out as part of a longitudinal study of diarrhoea in order to identify risk factors for infection with Giardia duodenalis. Variables studied included three social and demographic factors (such as mother's education and marital status), five relating to the peri-domestic environment (rubbish disposal, open sewers, paving of the street), seven relating to the home itself (house construction, susceptibility to flooding, water supply and sanitation) as well as a score for hygiene behaviour based on structured observation. After multivariate analysis using a hierarchical model, only four significant risk factors were found: (a) number of children in the household under five years (b) rubbish not collected from the house (c) presence of visible sewage nearby, and (d) absence of a toilet. All four were significant at the 1% level

    The crossroads between infection and bone loss

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    Bone homeostasis, based on a tight balance between bone formation and bone degradation, is affected by infection. On one hand, some invading pathogens are capable of directly colonizing the bone, leading to its destruction. On the other hand, immune mediators produced in response to infection may dysregulate the deposition of mineral matrix by osteoblasts and/or the resorption of bone by osteoclasts. Therefore, bone loss pathologies may develop in response to infection, and their detection and treatment are challenging. Possible biomarkers of impaired bone metabolism during chronic infection need to be identified to improve the diagnosis and management of infection-associated osteopenia. Further understanding of the impact of infections on bone metabolism is imperative for the early detection, prevention, and/or reversion of bone loss. Here, we review the mechanisms responsible for bone loss as a direct and/or indirect consequence of infection.This article is a result of the project HEALTH-UNORTE: Setting-up biobanks and regenerative medicine strategies to boost research in cardiovascular, musculoskeletal, neurological, oncological, immunologicalm, and infectious diseases (NORTE-01-0145-FEDER-000039), supported by Norte Portugal Regional Operational Programme (NORTE 2020), under the PORTUGAL 2020 Partnership Agreement, through the European Regional Development Fund (ERDF). A.C.G. is supported by a Junior Investigator Contract under the program CEEIND2017, from Fundação para a Ciência e Tecnologia (Portugal)

    Validation of a food frequency questionnaire for children and adolescents aged 4 to 11 years living in Salvador, Bahia.

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    OBJECTIVE: To assess the validity of a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) by applying it to children and adolescents living in Salvador, Bahia. METHODS: The validity of this FFQ with 98 food items was investigated among 108 children and adolescents who were selected from a sample of 1445 that had been planned for a study on the risk factors for asthma and other allergic diseases. The adults responsible for these children and adolescents gave responses for a 24-hour recall (R24h) and an FFQ. The average energy and nutrient values from the FFQ were compared with those from the R24h by means of the paired t test and Pearson correlation coefficients. The concordance was evaluated using the Bland-Altman method and kappa statistics. RESULTS: The energy and nutrient intake estimated using the FFQ was significantly higher than what was obtained using the R24h. The correlation coefficients adjusted for energy were statistically significant for protein, fat, vitamin C and zinc. The weighted kappa values ranged from 0.06 for vitamin A (p = 0.24) to 0.34 for energy (p < 0.00). The results from the Bland-Altman plots for lipid, protein and zinc showed the most significant validity parameters, and zinc was found to show the best concordance. CONCLUSION: The results suggest that the FFQ showed satisfactory validity for use in studies involving children and adolescents

    An Approach for Fast Segmentation of Lung Cancer Images

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    The lung tumor is a leading cause of death worldwide. This type of disease in which there is uncontrolled progression of abnormal cells in the lung, when untreated, can extend through the process of metastasis in nearby tissues and in different parts of the body [1]

    approach chemistry, functional and biological

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    Dithiocarbamates represent a class of compounds that were evaluated in different biomedical applications because of their chemical versatility. For this reason, several pharmacological activities have already been attributed to these compounds, such as antiparasitic, antiviral, antifungal activities, among others. Therefore, compounds that are based on dithiocarbamates have been evaluated in different in vivo and in vitro models as potential new antimicrobials. Thus, the purpose of this review is to present the possibilities of using dithiocarbamate compounds as potential new antitrypanosomatids-drugs, which could be used for the pharmacological control of Chagas disease, leishmaniasis, and African trypanosomiasis.publishersversionpublishe

    Report of the Second International Symposium on Molecular Epidemiology in Childhood Leukaemia and Embryonal Tumours, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

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    The recent International Symposium on Molecular epidemiology in Embryonal Tumours and Paediatric Leukaemia was held on 4–6 March 2008 in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. It proved a very productive meeting in which studies relating to genetics, therapeutical trials, identification of risk factors in acute leukaemia neuroblastoma and Wilms’ tumours were presented. Over 120 participants gathered for three days of fruitful discussions, including representatives of paediatrics, haematology, laboratory, epidemiology and pathology. Debates were held about strategies of applications of important biomarkers for clinical trials. Highlights of each of the scientific presentations are summarized below

    Antimicrobial peptides as potential anti-tubercular leads: A concise review

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    Despite being considered a public health emergency for the last 25 years, tuberculosis (TB) is still one of the deadliest infectious diseases, responsible for over a million deaths every year. The length and toxicity of available treatments and the increasing emergence of multidrugresistant strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis renders standard regimens increasingly inefficient and emphasizes the urgency to develop new approaches that are not only cost-and time-effective but also less toxic. Antimicrobial peptides (AMP) are small cationic and amphipathic molecules that play a vital role in the host immune system by acting as a first barrier against invading pathogens. The broad spectrum of properties that peptides possess make them one of the best possible alternatives for a new “post-antibiotic” era. In this context, research into AMP as potential anti-tubercular agents has been driven by the increasing danger revolving around the emergence of extremely-resistant strains, the innate resistance that mycobacteria possess and the low compliance of patients towards the toxic anti-TB treatments. In this review, we will focus on AMP from various sources, such as animal, non-animal and synthetic, with reported inhibitory activity towards Mycobacterium tuberculosis.This research was funded by Fundação para a Ciência e Tecnologia (FCT), Portugal, through projects UIDB/50006/2020, and PTDC/BTM-SAL/29786/2017

    Eficácia dos exercícios para ombro nas complicações loco-regionais em mulheres submetidas a radioterapia para câncer de mama: ensaio clínico

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    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of shoulder exercises during radiotherapy in relation to prevention of locoregional physical complications: limitation of range of motion (ROM) and functional capacity, arm circumference and scar tissue adhesion. METHODS: Sixty-six women without shoulder ROM impairment following breast cancer surgery that included complete axillary dissection were allocated to one of two groups: 32 in the physical therapy group (PG) (52.7±10.2 years), who underwent an exercise program; and 34 in the control group (CG) (48±10.1 years). Shoulder ROM, upper-limb circumference and functional capacity and scar tissue adhesion were evaluated at the beginning and end of radiotherapy and six months after completing radiotherapy. RESULTS: The PG showed improvements in flexion and abduction ROM between the first and third evaluations (flexion from 164.77°±8.9° to 167.98°±9.5° and abduction from 168.56°±10.0° to 175.62°±10.2°), which was not observed in the CG (flexion from 167.06±06° to 165.16°±9.2° and abduction from 169.71°±10.1° to 169.53°±12.8°). There was a statistically significant increase in ROM in the PG in relation to the CG (flexion, p=0.02; and abduction, p=0.004). The circumference and functional capacity were similar between the groups and the frequency of scar tissue adhesion in the CG was twice that observed in the PG (48% versus 24%, p=0.04). CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that shoulder exercises favor maintenance of flexion and abduction ROM of the shoulder and minimize the incidence of scar tissue adhesion in women undergoing radiotherapy for breast cancer treatment.OBJETIVO: Verificar o efeito da realização de exercícios para o ombro durante a radioterapia na prevenção de complicações físicas loco-regionais: limitação da amplitude de movimento (ADM) e da capacidade funcional, circunferência do braço e aderência cicatricial. MÉTODOS: Sessenta e seis mulheres sem comprometimento de ADM de ombro no pós-operatório de cirurgia para câncer de mama com dissecção axilar completa foram alocadas em dois grupos, sendo 32 no grupo de fisioterapia (GF) (52,7±10,2 anos), o qual foi submetido a um programa de exercícios, e 34 no grupo controle (GC) (48±10,1 anos). A ADM do ombro, a circunferência e capacidade funcional dos membros superiores e a aderência cicatricial foram avaliados no início e no final da radioterapia e seis meses após seu término. RESULTADOS: O GF apresentou melhora da ADM de flexão e abdução entre a primeira e terceira avaliação (Flexão: de 164,77°±8,9° para 167,98°±9,5° e Abdução: 168,56°±10° para 175,62°±10,2°), o que não se observou no GC (Flexão: 167,06°±6° para 165,16°±9,2° e Abdução: 169,71°±10,1° para 169,53°±12,8°), demonstrando uma melhora significativa do GF em relação do GC (Flexão: p=0,02 e Abdução: p=0,004). A circunferência e a capacidade funcional foram similares entre os grupos e a frequência de aderência cicatricial no GC foi o dobro daquela observada no GF (48% e 24%, p=0,04). CONCLUSÕES: Esses resultados sugerem que exercícios para o ombro favorecem a manutenção da ADM de flexão e abdução de ombro e minimizam a incidência de aderência cicatricial em mulheres submetidas à radioterapia para tratamento por câncer de mama.13614