Universidade Nova de Lisboa

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    A prova pericial no processo civil: em especial, as perícias médico-legais e o valor probatório da prova pericias

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    This report arises from a curricular internship carried out at the Central Civil Court of the West Lisbon District Court, as part of the Master’s in Litigation and Arbitration offered by the NOVA School of Law. The internship which lasted for four months, between November 2021 and March 2022, consisted in assisting a judicial magistrate. During this period, we consulted on civil cases, prepared and attended numerous diligences, debated procedural issues and clarified doubts. Dealing with the cases, mostly civil liability actions arising from road accidents and medical civil liability actions, contributed to the choice of the subject, namely the expert evidence, and to the illustration of the report with examples of judicial practice. That being said, our study focuses on medico-legal expertise and the probative value of expert evidence. In this regard, we will first examine the notion, object and function of the proof in the civil procedure. Secondly, we intend to analyze the legal regime of expert evidence, namely its object, the way it is requested and performed, the duties to which the expert is bound, what does the expert report consist of or what requirements the second expertise depends on. Next, it is important to deal with the medico-legal expertise, in particular its object, the Institute where it is carried out and the specifics of the expert report on bodily injury evaluation. In this chapter, two questions must also be answered: what is the nature of the report prepared by the doctor hired by the party and under what title this doctor can be called upon to give an opinion at a trial hearing. Finally, we will aim to question the probative force of the expert evidence, based on the legal doctrine, case law and civil cases that we approached during the curricular internship. Although Article 389 of the Civil Code states that the experts' answers are freely appreciated by the court, we will try to demonstrate that in judicial practice it is not always possible for the judge to depart from the content of the expert report, considering that he does not have technical knowledge in the various areas of knowledge. Keywords: internship; civil procedure; expert evidence; expert report; medico-legal expertise; medical report; free evaluation of evidence; probative value.O presente relatório é o reflexo de um estágio curricular realizado no Juízo Central Cível do Tribunal Judicial da Comarca de Lisboa Oeste, desenvolvido no âmbito do Mestrado em Direito Forense e Arbitragem da NOVA School of Law. O estágio teve a duração de quatro meses, entre novembro de 2021 e março de 2022, e consistiu em acompanhar o trabalho de um magistrado judicial. Durante este período consultámos processos, preparámos e assistimos a incontáveis diligências, debatemos questões processuais e esclarecemos dúvidas. O contacto com os processos, na sua maioria ações de responsabilidade civil extracontratual decorrentes de acidentes de viação e ações de responsabilidade civil médica, contribuiu para a escolha do tema da prova pericial e para completar o relatório com exemplos da prática judiciária. Dito isto, o nosso estudo centra-se nas perícias médico-legais e no valor probatório da prova pericial. Neste sentido, iremos, em primeiro lugar, abordar a noção, objeto e função da prova no processo civil. Num segundo momento, pretende-se analisar o regime jurídico da prova pericial, nomeadamente o seu objeto, a forma como é requisitada e realizada, os deveres a que o perito está adstrito, no que é que consiste o relatório pericial ou quais os requisitos de que a segunda perícia depende. De seguida, importa tratar das perícias médico-legais, em particular do seu objeto, do Instituto onde estas são realizadas e das especificidades do relatório pericial de avaliação de dano corporal. Neste capítulo, cumpre ainda responder a duas questões: qual é a natureza do relatório elaborado por médico contratado pela parte e a que título pode este médico ser chamado a pronunciar-se em audiência de julgamento. Por último, procuraremos questionar a força probatória da prova pericial, tendo por base a doutrina, a jurisprudência e os processos que contactámos ao longo do estágio curricular. Apesar do artigo 389.º do Código Civil determinar que as respostas dos peritos são livremente apreciadas pelo tribunal, tentaremos demonstrar que nem sempre é possível ao juiz na prática judicial afastar-se do conteúdo do relatório pericial, na medida em que não detém conhecimentos técnicos nas diversas áreas do saber

    Machine Learning for the Prediction of Ionization Potential and Electron Affinity Energies Obtained by Density Functional Theory

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    FP gratefully acknowledges FCT for an Assistant Research Position (CEECIND/01649/2021). We thank Chemaxon Ltd. for access to JChem and Marvin. The author thanks João Aires‐de‐Sousa (NOVA School of Science and Technology, NOVA University of Lisbon) for many interesting discussions and suggestions about different aspects of this work Publisher Copyright: © 2023 Wiley-VCH GmbH.Quantum chemical (QC) calculations based on density functional theory (DFT) provide increasingly accurate estimates of various properties, but with a relatively high computational cost. Machine learning (ML) techniques can be envisaged to extract new knowledge from these large volumes of data, creating empirical models to fast predict QC calculations in new situations. Here, ML algorithms were explored for the fast estimation of ionization potential (IP) and electron affinity (EA) energies calculated by DFT using the B3LYP and PBE0 with 6–31G** basic set on molecular descriptors generated from DFT-optimized geometries. A database of 9,410 and 9,627 small organic structures for IP and EA energies modelling were used, respectively. Several ML algorithms such as random forest, support vector machines, deep learning multilayer perceptron networks, and light gradient-boosting machine were screened. The best performance was achieved with a consensus regression model predicted an external test set of 972 and 963 small organic molecules achieving a mean absolute error up to 0.23 eV and 0.32 eV for modelling IP and EA energies, respectively.authorsversionpublishe

    A water treatment strategy using Moringa oleifera (Lam) to prevent waterborne diseases in Guinea-Bissau

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    Waterborne infections remain a public health concern mainly in developing countries. Despite control initiatives undertaken by local and international authorities, namely the introduction of water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) policies and practices, in 2019, 702.974 cases of diarrhoea were reported in Biombo, an administrative region in northern (Guinea-Bissau). Therefore, promoting the adherence of the community to preventive practices has become an even major priority in order to reduce the rate of diarrhoeal diseases in the country. Due to the absence of a piped water distribution system, in most of the territory, and the community’s resistance to the most promoted household water treatment strategies such as chlorine and boiling, moringa has emerged as a promising strategy. This naturalized plant, easily found in all country have been showing water purifying effects in the recent literature. The present work started in 2018, by understanding what is known in general regarding moringa concerning its antimicrobial activity and its potential for water purification. For this purpose, an extensive literature review was conducted to clearly identify which parts of the plant are used, as well as the most effective extraction methods and concentrations for a greater number of pathogens. This review allowed us to clearly identify the part of the plant used, as well as the methods and the most effective concentration for a higher number of pathogens for antibacterial activity. The second step was to try to understand which are the hotspot areas for certain kinds of diseases such as (diarrhoeal diseases) in Guinea-Bissau, and which are the most contaminated water sources and which pathogens are present in these waters. For this purpose, we collected water samples in both dry and wet seasons and analyzed the physical-chemical and microbiological parameters of the three types of drinking water sources (Piped water, tubewell water2, and shallow well water3) in Bissau (urban) and its surroundings (peri-urban) and Quinhamel (rural). Simultaneously we collected samples of the moringa plant in four localities in Guinea-Bissau, made extracts in distilled water and ethanol, and tested their efficiency in Petri dishes in contaminated water in the laboratory, selecting the two pathogens responsible for gastrointestinal diseases most commonly found in water. Finally, we carried out social studies aimed at understanding the local community's perception of moringa before and after they tried it as a viable alternative for domestic water treatment, as well as its private and public management implications. In this context, qualitative focus group discussion and quantitative survey studies were carried out in a selected community. The results of the systematic review showed that there is no single effective method for all pathogens and that the concentrations used vary. Regarding the extract for antibacterial activity, the leaf is the part used, while the seed powder is used as a coagulant in the water treatment process. However, extraction with ethanol and distilled water showed to be the most effective for the highest number of pathogens at the concentration of 30 mg mL-1. Regarding the analysis of the three types of drinking water sources in Guinea-Bissau, the results show that all water sources present strong faecal contamination with greater emphasis on shallow wells, followed by tubewells and finally water supply system. In water supply systems, contamination tends to increase from the hole to the final consumer. In general, contamination tends to increase during the wet season for all three types of water sources. Moringa extracts are shown to have antibacterial activity and inhibit microbial growth. Of the two methods of extraction used (ethanol and distilled water), ethanol shown to be more effective than distilled water. These results are in agreement with those found in the literature, thus reinforcing that ethanol extracts are the most effective. For the social studies, results from both qualitative and quantitative analyses were consistent in identifying community perceptions that hinder adherence to household water treatment practices. The community, in general, showed great openness to the use of moringa and even buying it, and in general consider moringa much better than other methods. Overall, the main community perceptions observed as hindering the adherence to water treatment practices at the household level are: chlorine’s smell, change in taste of the water after the use of chlorine, difficulties in reaching chlorine or firewood to boil the water, time and financial issues among others. On the other hand, moringa is seen as a natural and odourless product, easily accessible and with nutritional and medicinal capacities. However, its availability throughout the year, conservation, and the moringa seed powder/water ratio are some of the difficulties presented. This work probably constitutes the most comprehensive study to date on the use of moringa as an alternative for domestic water treatment. It is thus hoped that the findings of this study can enhance the effectiveness of prevention and reduction of waterborne infectious diseases in endemic and epidemic regions at national and sub-regional levels

    A visual essay on photography, loss and the poetics of time as return

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    UIDB/00417/2020 UIDP/00417/2020This photographic essay was motivated by a reflection on a set of photographs, taken and found from 10 years ago, and the concomitant rediscovery of some of my wife’s youthful writings. By combining creative writing with philosophical debate and photographic imagery, the essay aims at constructing an alternative experience of time, loss and inter-subjectivity. Grounded in a poetical dialogue with theorists and artists such as Barthes, Chris Marker, Blanchot, Levinas, Godard, Derrida, Benjamin, Freud, Susan Sontag and Allan Poe, among others, the work entwines analytical thinking, personal memories, vernacular records and fictional readings. It thus tries to offer a space for imaginal reflexion about the precariousness of memory and the redemptive potentiality of the photographic image, here probed in its simultaneously reciprocal and asynchronous relationship with self-reflexivity and poetico-philosophical writing.authorsversionpublishe

    Doenças reumáticas mais prevalentes em mulheres: metodologias de espectrometria de massa para a identificação de novos biomarcadores de diagnóstico / prognóstico

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    O Lúpus Eritematoso Sistémico (LES) e Artrite Reumatoide (AR), são doenças reumáticas inflamatórias com uma maior prevalência em mulheres. Sendo consideradas uma das 10 principais causas de morte em mulheres com menos de 75 anos, têm um elevado impacto no sistema de saúde. Embora o diagnóstico precoce destas doenças seja considerado fundamental para o seu controlo através de terapêuticas adequadas, este constitui ainda um grande desafio. Este trabalho teve como objetivo principal a utilização de métodos de espectrometria de massa de alta resolução acoplada à cromatografia líquida (LC-HRMS) para a identificação de potenciais novos biomarcadores para o diagnóstico/prognóstico de LES. Para tal, foram analisaram-se amostras de sangue recolhidas de quatro grupos de estudo: 1) doentes de LES (n=19); 2) doentes de AR (n=22); 3) doentes de espondilite anquilosante (n=23); e 4) de um grupo de controlos saudáveis (n=26). Para a identificação dos potenciais biomarcadores foram utilizadas duas metodologias: uma não direcionada e uma direcionada. Na estratégia não direcionada, inspirada nos processos de tratamento de resultados utilizados em estudos de metabolómica, os resultados foram pré-processados com o software MZmine e foram depois utilizados métodos de Análise Multivariada, com o objetivo de se observar diferenças nos vários grupos em estudo. A metodologia direcionada, visou a identificação específica de biomarcadores alvo. Para isso, num primeiro passo, foram preparados padrões destes biomarcadores, que foram caracterizados por espectrometria de massa de alta resolução de tandem (HRMS/MS). Posteriormente, construiu-se uma base dados, que foi utilizada para a procura destes biomarcadores nas amostras clínicas, utilizando o software TASQ (Bruker). Muito embora não tenha sido possível identificar qualquer biomarcador com valor diagnóstico, por qualquer das estratégias desenvolvidas, neste trabalho foram preparados e caracterizados vários padrões, que poderão ser importantes biomarcadores de doença. Adicionalmente, foi possível a otimização de metodologias de tratamento de resultados que poderão ser importantes para trabalhos posteriores. Efetivamente, a dificuldade na identificação destes biomarcadores não deverá estar ligada à desadequação dos procedimentos pós-análise utilizados, mas sim da necessidade de enriquecimento dos biomarcadores em estudo, antes da análise por LC-HRMS.Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE) and Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA) are inflammatory rheumatic diseases with a higher prevalence in women. Being considered one of the 10 main causes of death in women under 75 years of age, they have a high impact on health system. Whereas the early diagnosis of these diseases is considered key for their control through appropriate therapies, this constitutes a major challenge. This work was aimed at exploring mass spectrometry methodologies for the identification of potential new biomarkers for the diagnosis/prognosis of SLE. Towards this end, liquid chromatography coupled to high resolution mass spectrometry (LC-HRMS) was used for the analysis of samples collected from four study groups: 1) SLE patients (n = 19); 2) RA patients (n = 22); 3) patients with ankylosing spondylitis (n = 23); and 4) from a group of healthy controls (n = 26). For the identification of potential biomarkers, two distinct methodologies were used: an untargeted and a targeted methodology. The untargeted strategy was inspired by data processing protocols used in metabolomics studies and consisted on: data pre-processed with the MZmine software followed by Multivariate Analysis for the identification of differences between groups under study. The targeted methodology was aimed at the specific identification of selected biomarkers. For this, standards were first prepared and characterized by tandem high resolution mass spectrometry (HMRS/MS) and, subsequently, a database was built, which was used to search for these potential biomarkers in clinical samples, using the TASQ software (Bruker). Although it was not possible to identify a biomarker with potential diagnostic value by any of the developed strategies, in this work standards were prepared and characterized, that might be important biomarkers of multiple diseases. Additionally, it was possible to optimize data analysis methodologies that are expected to be helpful for the subsequent work. Indeed, the difficulty in identifying the biomarkers in study is not expected to be linked to the inadequacy of the post-analysis procedures used, but rather to the need of enrichment procedures before LC-HRMS analysis

    A Systematic Synthesis of Critical Success Factors for Cybersecurity

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    Yeoh, W., Wang, S., Popovič, A., & Chowdhury, N. H. (2022). A Systematic Synthesis of Critical Success Factors for Cybersecurity. Computers and Security, 118(July), 1-17. [102724]. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cose.2022.102724 ----The authors acknowledge the financial support from the Slovenian Research Agency (research core funding no. P5-0410).Extant studies suggest that cybersecurity is critical and among the IT spending priorities of organizations. In response, the literature draws attention to the cybersecurity critical success factors (CSFs) that enable organizations to focus their scarce resources accordingly. Following a systematic literature review method, we analyze and synthesize extant CSF studies on cybersecurity implementation and management for organizations. Then, drawing on the synthesized CSFs and blending them with IT capability theory, we present an overarching cybersecurity CSF framework building upon 79 cybersecurity elements grouped into 11 CSFs under five dimensions of cybersecurity capability: organizational, infrastructural, strategic, process, and external. In addition, the descriptive analysis of the search results reveals the importance of the various factors and capabilities, the trend of the cybersecurity capability dimensions, the frequency and types of research methods, and the contextual impact of the factors. This research makes an important contribution to the literature on cybersecurity management. The CSF framework serves as the foundation for future researchers interested in measuring organizational cybersecurity success. In addition, practitioners can employ the synthesized CSFs and associated elements to guide their cybersecurity management.authorsversionpublishe

    Estudo comparativo dos valores do NDVI em imagens de um VANT sobre superfícies agrícolas

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    O trabalho aqui apresentado diz respeito ao estudo comparativo dos valores do NDVI, em imagens obtidas por um VANT, referentes à cultura do tomate e da vinha. As imagens originais irão ser manipuladas, de modo a simular quatro resoluções espaciais. Com estas simulações pretende-se por um lado analisar como os valores do NDVI se comportam com o aumento da resolução espacial e, por outro lado, comparar (aos resultados originais provenientes do processamento das imagens do VANT) os valores que os pixéis passaram a registar com o aumento da resolução espacial, bem como os valores estatísticos por talhão e tipo de casta, resultantes do aumento da resolução espacial. A escolha destas duas culturas está relacionada com as diferenças que ambas apresentam no que diz respeito aos métodos de cultivo, às práticas de manejo e às suas distribuições no solo. Com este estudo pretende-se perceber qual a melhor resolução espacial para a criação de produtos de suporte à decisão, para uso na agricultura de precisão, nos dois tipos de culturas em estudo

    Extraction of rare earth elements via electric field assisted mining applying deep eutectic solvents

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    This study was partly financed by the Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior - Brasil ( CAPES ) - Finance Code 001 Publisher Copyright: © 2022 Elsevier B.V.Rare earth elements play an important role in our society, as they are used in green energy technologies. However, they are considered critical raw materials. For this reason, there is a concern for obtaining alternative and complementary sources for conventional mining. In light of this view, electric field assisted mining arises as a technique to extract species from soils using green electrolytes to help in the extraction of metals. The aim of this paper was to evaluate the effect of different types of biodegradable electrolytes, including the use of deep eutectic solvents, in the electromining process. Six experiments were conducted applying an electric field of 1.0 V cm−1, and all electrolytes were used at a concentration of 0.1 mol L−1. The results showed that different electrolytes achieved different selectivities. The maximum efficiency using acetic acid resulted in 69.1% of Ce4+, citric acid removed 62.3% of La3+, and oxalic acid extracted 21.5% of La3+. The electromining efficiencies using deep eutectic solvents presented minor results. Therefore, considering the biodegradability and selectivity of the organic acids used, electromining showed to be a promising eco-friendly alternative for preferential extraction of metal species from soils.proofpublishe

    Semear leapfrog program for expansion - Santarém diagnosis

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    An expansion blueprint was executed covering the topics of resources & capabilities, customers & market, logistics, stakeholders and external factors. These five areas were further subdivided and thoroughly analysed via KPIs, in the context of Santarém. As a result, the organization can leverage on a good platform of resources and capabilities, stakeholders and on an attractive and growing market to expand, despite less attractive landscapes regarding logistics and other external factors. Even with significant risks associated, the Santarém district seems a good fit for the expansion of Semear’s business model from a conceptual perspective

    Using Autoencoders and XGboost

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    Crisóstomo, J., Lobo, V., & Bação, F. (2023). Detecting Fraudulent Wallets in Ethereum Blockchain Combining Supervised and Unsupervised Techniques: Using Autoencoders and XGboost. In J. M. Machado, P. Vieira, A. Abelha, L. Vigneri, J. Prieto, H. Peixoto, & D. Arroyo (Eds.), Blockchain and Applications, 5th International Congress: BLOCKCHAIN 2023 (pp. 224-233). (Lecture Notes in Networks and Systems; Vol. 778). Springer, Cham. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-031-45155-3_23The illicit activity in Blockchain reached an all-time high in 2021. In this work, we combined two machine learning techniques, Autoencoder (AE) and Extreme Gradient Boosting (XGBoost), to improve the performance of predicting illicit activity at the account level. The choice of autoencoding technique allows us to be able to detect new MOs (modus operandi) from fraudsters. With an Autoencoder trained only with healthy accounts, we are not misleading the model to focus on specific MOs as it happens with tree-based models. This allows us to introduce a dimension that could capture future fraudulent behaviours. Furthermore, the dataset was generated considering the real applicability of the model, i.e. it mimics what can realistically be obtained in a practical situation. With this approach, we were able to improve the state-of-the-art performance. In our test set the precision-recall AUC (area under the curve) of our final model increased by 12,07% when compared with our baseline.authorsversionpublishe

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