2,394 research outputs found

    Linguistics

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    Contains table of contents, an introduction and abstracts for two doctoral dissertations

    Climate Action In Megacities 3.0

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    "Climate Action in Megacities 3.0" (CAM 3.0) presents major new insights into the current status, latest trends and future potential for climate action at the city level. Documenting the volume of action being taken by cities, CAM 3.0 marks a new chapter in the C40-Arup research partnership, supported by the City Leadership Initiative at University College London. It provides compelling evidence about cities' commitment to tackling climate change and their critical role in the fight to achieve global emissions reductions

    Testing causality violation on spacetimes with closed timelike curves

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    Generalized quantum mechanics is used to examine a simple two-particle scattering experiment in which there is a bounded region of closed timelike curves (CTCs) in the experiment's future. The transitional probability is shown to depend on the existence and distribution of the CTCs. The effect is therefore acausal, since the CTCs are in the experiment's causal future. The effect is due to the non-unitary evolution of the pre- and post-scattering particles as they pass through the region of CTCs. We use the time-machine spacetime developed by Politzer [1], in which CTCs are formed due to the identification of a single spatial region at one time with the same region at another time. For certain initial data, the total cross-section of a scattering experiment is shown to deviate from the standard value (the value predicted if no CTCs existed). It is shown that if the time machines are small, sparsely distributed, or far away, then the deviation in the total cross-section may be negligible as compared to the experimental error of even the most accurate measurements of cross-sections. For a spacetime with CTCs at all points, or one where microscopic time machines pervade the spacetime in the final moments before the big crunch, the total cross-section is shown to agree with the standard result (no CTCs) due to a cancellation effect.Comment: 28 pages, 8 figures, late

    Relinquishing and Governing the Volatile: The Many Afghanistans and Critical Research Agendas of NATO's Governance

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    This article invites academics and policy analysts to examine the mechanisms and legacy of NATO's security and development governance of Afghan social spaces by using critical theory concepts. It argues that such scholarly endeavors are growing in importance as the United States and NATO gradually pull their troops out of Afghanistan. Thus, the article suggests a broad twofold research agenda. First, it points out that researching social spaces such as towns, villages, marketplaces, and neighborhoods beyond the realm of intergovernmental politics can lead to thick descriptions of how such places have been governed from within by agents external to them. Second, the study argues for a multifaceted examination of instruments, strategies, and institutions of security governance, its conduct and social effects by deploying critical and Foucauldian concepts such as the rationality and apparatuses of power relations. Thereby, it proposes an inquiry into Provincial Reconstruction Teams and Afghan National Security Forces as spatially and temporally specific apparatuses of surveillance and security

    Therapeutic Vaccine for Genital Herpes Simplex Virus-2 Infection: Findings from a Randomized Trial

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    Background. Genital herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) infection causes recurrent lesions and frequent viral shedding. GEN-003 is a candidate therapeutic vaccine containing HSV-2 gD2∆TMR and ICP4.2, and Matrix-M2 adjuvant. Methods. Persons with genital herpes were randomized into 3 dose cohorts to receive 3 intramuscular doses 21 days apart of 10 µg, 30 µg, or 100 µg of GEN-003, antigens without adjuvant, or placebo. Participants obtained genital swab specimens twice daily for HSV-2 detection and monitored genital lesions for 28-day periods at baseline and at intervals after the last dose. Results. One hundred and thirty-four persons received all 3 doses. Reactogenicity was associated with adjuvant but not with antigen dose or dose number. No serious adverse events were attributed to GEN-003. Compared with baseline, genital HSV-2 shedding rates immediately after dosing were reduced with GEN-003 (from 13.4% to 6.4% for 30 μg [P < .001] and from 15.0% to 10.3% for 100 µg [P < .001]). Lesion rates were also significantly (P < .01) reduced immediately following immunization with 30 µg or 100 µg of GEN-003. GEN-003 elicited increases in antigen binding, virus neutralizing antibody, and T-cell responses. Conclusions. GEN-003 had an acceptable safety profile and stimulated humoral and cellular immune responses. GEN-003 at doses of 30 µg and 100 µg reduced genital HSV shedding and lesion rates

    Audit of medical (non-targeted) liver biopsy specimen quality, pathology reporting and effect on patient management

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    Aims: To evaluate our medical liver pathology practice and its influence on patient management, using audit templates published by the UK Royal College of Pathologists (RCPath). Methods: We audited medical liver biopsies reported in our centre in 2019 using RCPath proformas. Data were collected from pathology reports and corresponding electronic patient record. Results: 60 cases were selected for audit from 135 eligible biopsies reported in 2019. 58/60 cases were core biopsies and 2/60 were laparoscopic wedge biopsies. 53/57 (93%) core biopsies with available data met RCPath adequacy criteria (length &gt;15 mm and/or ≥6 portal tracts). Most reports (57/60; 95%) were judged to have helped patient management. 25/60 (42%) biopsy reports helped to clarify the clinical diagnosis and 48/60 (80%) led to altered management. Conclusions: We demonstrate the utility of the RCPath audit templates, highlighting the clinical value of medical liver biopsies in the diagnostic work-up and management of patients with liver disease

    'It's small steps, but that leads to bigger changes': evaluation of a nurture group intervention

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    This article presents the results of a small-scale research project that aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of a part-time nurture group recently established in one primary school. Qualitative interviews were used to gather staff, pupil and parental perceptions about the nurture group. These focused on what difference the nurture group was making to the pupils concerned but also on views about what factors contributed to noted changes. All stakeholder groups identified areas of development for nurture group pupils. These included improved social skills, growth in personal confidence, greater engagement with academic tasks, and fewer incidences of undesirable behaviour. The evidence gathered so far suggests that the nurture group offered an effective way of supporting the social, emotional and behavioural skills of a group of 'at-risk' pupils. A range of factors thought to be important in achieving these outcomes are highlighted. These align broadly with the theoretical underpinnings of nurture groups

    Patient emergency health-care use before hospital admission for COVID-19 and long-term outcomes in Scotland: a national cohort study

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    BackgroundIt is unclear what effect the pattern of health-care use before admission to hospital with COVID-19 (index admission) has on the long-term outcomes for patients. We sought to describe mortality and emergency readmission to hospital after discharge following the index admission (index discharge), and to assess associations between these outcomes and patterns of health-care use before such admissions.MethodsWe did a national, retrospective, complete cohort study by extracting data from several national databases and linking the databases for all adult patients admitted to hospital in Scotland with COVID-19. We used latent class trajectory modelling to identify distinct clusters of patients on the basis of their emergency admissions to hospital in the 2 years before the index admission. The primary outcomes were mortality and emergency readmission up to 1 year after index admission. We used multivariable regression models to explore associations between these outcomes and patient demographics, vaccination status, level of care received in hospital, and previous emergency hospital use.FindingsBetween March 1, 2020, and Oct 25, 2021, 33 580 patients were admitted to hospital with COVID-19 in Scotland. Overall, the Kaplan-Meier estimate of mortality within 1 year of index admission was 29·6% (95% CI 29·1-30·2). The cumulative incidence of emergency hospital readmission within 30 days of index discharge was 14·4% (95% CI 14·0-14·8), with the number increasing to 35·6% (34·9-36·3) patients at 1 year. Among the 33 580 patients, we identified four distinct patterns of previous emergency hospital use: no admissions (n=18 772 [55·9%]); minimal admissions (n=12 057 [35·9%]); recently high admissions (n=1931 [5·8%]), and persistently high admissions (n=820 [2·4%]). Patients with recently or persistently high admissions were older, more multimorbid, and more likely to have hospital-acquired COVID-19 than patients with no or minimal admissions. People in the minimal, recently high, and persistently high admissions groups had an increased risk of mortality and hospital readmission compared with those in the no admissions group. Compared with the no admissions group, mortality was highest in the recently high admissions group (post-hospital mortality HR 2·70 [95% CI 2·35-2·81]; pInterpretationLong-term mortality and readmission rates for patients hospitalised with COVID-19 were high; within 1 year, one in three patients had died and a third had been readmitted as an emergency. Patterns of hospital use before index admission were strongly predictive of mortality and readmission risk, independent of age, pre-existing comorbidities, and COVID-19 vaccination status. This increasingly precise identification of individuals at high risk of poor outcomes from COVID-19 will enable targeted support.FundingChief Scientist Office Scotland, UK National Institute for Health Research, and UK Research and Innovation
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