1,261 research outputs found

    Further comments to proposal P160

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    Penning traps as a versatile tool for precise experiments in fundamental physics

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    This review article describes the trapping of charged particles. The main principles of electromagnetic confinement of various species from elementary particles to heavy atoms are briefly described. The preparation and manipulation with trapped single particles, as well as methods of frequency measurements, providing unprecedented precision, are discussed. Unique applications of Penning traps in fundamental physics are presented. Ultra-precise trap-measurements of masses and magnetic moments of elementary particles (electrons, positrons, protons and antiprotons) confirm CPT-conservation, and allow accurate determination of the fine-structure constant alpha and other fundamental constants. This together with the information on the unitarity of the quark-mixing matrix, derived from the trap-measurements of atomic masses, serves for assessment of the Standard Model of the physics world. Direct mass measurements of nuclides targeted to some advanced problems of astrophysics and nuclear physics are also presented

    The Ramsey method in high-precision mass spectrometry with Penning traps: Experimental results

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    The highest precision in direct mass measurements is obtained with Penning trap mass spectrometry. Most experiments use the interconversion of the magnetron and cyclotron motional modes of the stored ion due to excitation by external radiofrequency-quadrupole fields. In this work a new excitation scheme, Ramsey's method of time-separated oscillatory fields, has been successfully tested. It has been shown to reduce significantly the uncertainty in the determination of the cyclotron frequency and thus of the ion mass of interest. The theoretical description of the ion motion excited with Ramsey's method in a Penning trap and subsequently the calculation of the resonance line shapes for different excitation times, pulse structures, and detunings of the quadrupole field has been carried out in a quantum mechanical framework and is discussed in detail in the preceding article in this journal by M. Kretzschmar. Here, the new excitation technique has been applied with the ISOLTRAP mass spectrometer at ISOLDE/CERN for mass measurements on stable as well as short-lived nuclides. The experimental resonances are in agreement with the theoretical predictions and a precision gain close to a factor of four was achieved compared to the use of the conventional excitation technique.Comment: 12 pages, 14 figures, 2 table

    High-accuracy Penning trap mass measurements with stored and cooled exotic ions

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    The technique of Penning trap mass spectrometry is briefly reviewed particularly in view of precision experiments on unstable nuclei, performed at different facilities worldwide. Selected examples of recent results emphasize the importance of high-precision mass measurements in various fields of physics

    Relation Between a Three Parameter Formula for Isotope Shifts and Staggering Parameters

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    It is noted that the staggering parameters used to describe even-odd effects for isotope shifts can in some cases exhibit very rapidly varying behavior as a function of neutron number. On the other hand a three parameter formula (3P) with fixed coefficients can explain the same behaviour

    Robustness of spatial Penning trap modes against environment-assisted entanglement

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    The separability of the spatial modes of a charged particle in a Penning trap in the presence of an environment is studied by means of the positive partial transpose (PPT) criterion. Assuming a weak Markovian environment, described by linear Lindblad operators, our results strongly suggest that the environmental coupling of the axial and cyclotron degrees of freedom does not lead to entanglement at experimentally realistic temperatures. We therefore argue that, apart from unavoidable decoherence, the presence of such an environment does not alter the effectiveness of recently suggested quantum information protocols in Penning traps, which are based on the combination of a spatial mode with the spin of the particle.Comment: 11 pages, 2 figure

    Observation of Spin Flips with a Single Trapped Proton

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    Radio-frequency induced spin transitions of one individual proton are observed for the first time. The spin quantum jumps are detected via the continuous Stern-Gerlach effect, which is used in an experiment with a single proton stored in a cryogenic Penning trap. This is an important milestone towards a direct high-precision measurement of the magnetic moment of the proton and a new test of the matter-antimatter symmetry in the baryon sector

    Emergent Collectivity in Nuclei and Enhanced Proton-Neutron Interactions

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    Enhanced proton-neutron interactions occur in heavy nuclei along a trajectory of approximately equal numbers of valence protons and neutrons. This is also closely aligned with the trajectory of the saturation of quadrupole deformation. The origin of these enhanced p-n interactions is discussed in terms of spatial overlaps of proton and neutron wave functions that are orbit-dependent. It is suggested for the first time that nuclear collectivity is driven by synchronized filling of protons and neutrons with orbitals having parallel spins, identical orbital and total angular momenta projections, belonging to adjacent major shells and differing by one quantum of excitation along the z-axis. These results may lead to a new approach to symmetry-based theoretical calculations for heavy nuclei.Comment: 6 pages, 4 figure
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