27,201 research outputs found

    Does mammographic screening and a negative result affect attitudes towards future breast screening?

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    OBJECTIVES:To investigate the impact of an experience of a benign mammographic result on intention to seek medical help immediately in the case of breast abnormalities, and on intentions and thoughts about future participation in screening. SETTING:The Dutch Breast Cancer Screening Programme for women aged 50¿69. METHODS:Subjects were women who were invited for an initial breast examination: 223 women filled out a questionnaire about 10 days before and about 6 weeks after their initial breast examination. To be able to control for possible test effects, another group of 293 women filled out a questionnaire only after mammography. Changes in thoughts and intentions were examined. RESULTS:Most women were very satisfied with the course of their initial breast examination, although pain or discomfort was often mentioned. No clues to suggest false reassurance were found: more than 99% of the women would consider the possibility of breast cancer if they felt a lump in one of their breasts. In such a situation, most women intended to seek medical help within a week. These variables were not influenced by the experience of mammography with a benign result. In general, women were very positive about (repeat) participation, both before and after screening. After screening, the average woman perceived fewer costs in participating, and perceived her own ability to engage in future screening as higher. However, the experience of pain and anxiety during the initial screening did lead to reverse effects. Women who were less satisfied about their treatment by the staff were more likely to change their intentions to reparticipate in a negative way. CONCLUSIONS:As, in general, women became more positive about regular participation after they had attended breast cancer screening, efforts to improve first round attendance must be continued. At the same time, the screening organisations must continue to prioritise the high level of client friendliness throughout the screening. No evidence for detrimental effects of screening through false reassurance among participants was found

    ROSAT Detection and High Precision Localization of X-ray Sources in the November 19, 1978 Gamma-Ray Burst Error Box

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    We report on observations of the 1978, November 19 Gamma-Ray Burst source, performed with the ROSAT X-ray HRI experiment. Two sources were detected, one of which is possibly variable. The latter source is identical to the source discovered in 1981 by the EINSTEIN satellite, and recently detected by ASCA. The precise localization of these sources is given, and our data are compared with optical, radio and previous X-ray data.Comment: 10 pages with 2 figures, Accepted for publication in the Astrophysical Journal (Letters), Latex, aastex macros neede

    Implementing collaborative improvement, top-down, bottom-up, or both?

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    The research presented in this paper was aimed at increasing the current understanding of the process of developing collaborative improvement in Extended Manufacturing Enterprises (EME). Based on action research and action learning of three EMEs involving a total of thirteen companies from five European countries, the present study identifies three different approaches to collaborative improvement (CoI), that is, inter-organisational continuous improvement. One approach to CoI focuses on learning at a practical level, developing this knowledge into strategic and theoretical knowledge. We call this the bottom-up learning-bydoing approach. Another approach focuses on goal alignment and assessment to provide a foundation for improvement before actually improving. We call this the top-down directive approach. Yet another approach focuses on shared goals/vision and meeting on equal terms, and joint work in a non-directive matter. This is the laissez-faire approach. The different approaches influence the collaborative improvement results achieved, and how and why they do so is the question addressed this article

    Design of fibre reinforced PV concepts for building integrated applications

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    Fibre reinforced polymers present an interesting encapsulation medium for PV-modules. Glass fibres can provide increased strength and stiffness to thin polymer layers overcoming the brittleness and limited deformability of glass-panes. Glass fibre reinforced polymers allows for transparency over a broad range of the solar spectrum while the material properties and integral production processes create possibilities for novel product concepts with embedded PV technology. To explore such possibilities, innovative design methods were used to design novel PV product concepts for applications in the build environment.\ud In our paper three conceptual designs are presented; (1) a thin film module with an adjoining interconnection system functioning as structural element for geodetic roofing structures, (2) a PV lamella with single-axis tracking utilizing a linear concentration effect caused by the geometry of the product and the materials applied, and (3) a prepreg PV-material which allows for easy shaping during the production of PV modules with complex geometries. Each concept employs a specific PV technology and demonstrates a possible application aimed at a specific market. In this way we show the potential of integration of PV technology in fibre reinforced composites. The paper will be illustrated by concept renderings

    Estrous behavior in dairy cows: identification of underlying mechanisms and gene functions

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    Selection in dairy cattle for a higher milk yield has coincided with declined fertility. One of the factors is reduced expression of estrous behavior. Changes in systems that regulate the estrous behavior could be manifested by altered gene expression. This literature review describes the current knowledge on mechanisms and genes involved in the regulation of estrous behavior. The endocrinological regulation of the estrous cycle in dairy cows is well described. Estradiol (E2) is assumed to be the key regulator that synchronizes endocrine and behavioral events. Other pivotal hormones are, for example, progesterone, gonadotropin releasing hormone and insulin-like growth factor-1. Interactions between the latter and E2 may play a role in the unfavorable effects of milk yield-related metabolic stress on fertility in high milk-producing dairy cows. However, a clear understanding of how endocrine mechanisms are tied to estrous behavior in cows is only starting to emerge. Recent studies on gene expression and signaling pathways in rodents and other animals contribute to our understanding of genes and mechanisms involved in estrous behavior. Studies in rodents, for example, show that estrogen-induced gene expression in specific brain areas such as the hypothalamus play an important role. Through these estrogen-induced gene expressions, E2 alters the functioning of neuronal networks that underlie estrous behavior, by affecting dendritic connections between cells, receptor populations and neurotransmitter releases. To improve the understanding of complex biological networks, like estrus regulation, and to deal with the increasing amount of genomic information that becomes available, mathematical models can be helpful. Systems biology combines physiological and genomic data with mathematical modeling. Possible applications of systems biology approaches in the field of female fertility and estrous behavior are discusse

    N=8 matter coupled AdS_3 supergravities

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    Following the recent construction of maximal (N=16) gauged supergravity in three dimensions, we derive gauged D=3, N=8 supergravities in three dimensions as deformations of the corresponding ungauged theories with scalar manifolds SO(8,n)/(SO(8)x SO(n)). As a special case, we recover the N=(4,4) theories with local SO(4) = SO(3)_L x SO(3)_R, which reproduce the symmetries and massless spectrum of D=6, N=(2,0) supergravity compactified on AdS_3 x S^3.Comment: 11 pages, LaTeX2

    Integrals over Products of Distributions and Coordinate Independence of Zero-Temperature Path Integrals

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    In perturbative calculations of quantum-statistical zero-temperature path integrals in curvilinear coordinates one encounters Feynman diagrams involving multiple temporal integrals over products of distributions, which are mathematically undefined. In addition, there are terms proportional to powers of Dirac delta-functions at the origin coming from the measure of path integration. We give simple rules for integrating products of distributions in such a way that the results ensure coordinate independence of the path integrals. The rules are derived by using equations of motion and partial integration, while keeping track of certain minimal features originating in the unique definition of all singular integrals in 1ϵ1 - \epsilon dimensions. Our rules yield the same results as the much more cumbersome calculations in 1- epsilon dimensions where the limit epsilon --> 0 is taken at the end. They also agree with the rules found in an independent treatment on a finite time interval.Comment: Author Information under http://www.physik.fu-berlin.de/~kleinert/institution.html . Latest update of paper (including all PS fonts) at http://www.physik.fu-berlin.de/~kleinert/33