34 research outputs found

    A pragmatic approach to risk assessment in pulmonary arterial hypertension using the 2015 European Society of Cardiology/European Respiratory Society guidelines

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    open12noTo optimise treatment of patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH), the 2015 European Society of Cardiology/European Respiratory Society guidelines recommend using risk stratification, with the aim of patients achieving low-risk status. Previous analyses of registries made progress in using risk stratification approaches, however, the focus is often on patients with a low-risk prognosis, whereas most PAH patients are in intermediate-risk or high-risk categories. Using only six parameters with high prognostic relevance, we aimed to demonstrate a pragmatic approach to individual patient risk assessment to discriminate between patients at low risk, intermediate risk and high risk of death.This work was supported by Department of Experimental, Diagnostic and Specialty Medicine-DIMES, University of Bologna, Bologna, Italy and by the National Institute of Biostructures and Biosystems, Rome, Italy.openDardi, Fabio; Manes, Alessandra; Guarino, Daniele; Zuffa, Elisa; De Lorenzis, Alessandro; Magnani, Ilenia; Rotunno, Mariangela; Ballerini, Alberto; Lo Russo, Gerardo Vito; Nardi, Elena; Galiè, Nazzareno; Palazzini, MassimilianoDardi, Fabio; Manes, Alessandra; Guarino, Daniele; Zuffa, Elisa; De Lorenzis, Alessandro; Magnani, Ilenia; Rotunno, Mariangela; Ballerini, Alberto; Lo Russo, Gerardo Vito; Nardi, Elena; Galiè, Nazzareno; Palazzini, Massimilian

    Laparoscopic and robotic ureteral stenosis repair: a multi-institutional experience with a long-term follow-up

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    The treatment of ureteral strictures represents a challenge due to the variability of aetiology, site and extension of the stricture; it ranges from an end-to-end anastomosis or reimplantation into the bladder with a Boari flap or Psoas Hitch. Traditionally, these procedures have been done using an open access, but minimally invasive approaches have gained acceptance. The aim of this study is to evaluate the safety and feasibility and perioperative results of minimally invasive surgery for the treatment of ureteral stenosis with a long-term follow-up. Data of 62 laparoscopic (n\uc2 =\uc2 36) and robotic (n\uc2 =\uc2 26) treatments for ureteral stenosis in 9 Italian centers were reviewed. Patients were followed according to the referring center\ue2\u80\u99s protocol. Laparoscopic and robotic approaches were compared. All the procedures were completed successfully without open conversion. Average estimated blood loss in the two groups was 91.2\uc2 \uc2\ub1\uc2 71.9\uc2 cc for the laparoscopic and 47.2\uc2 \uc2\ub1\uc2 32.3\uc2 cc for the robotic, respectively (p\uc2 =\uc2 0.004). Mean days of hospitalization were 5.9\uc2 \uc2\ub1\uc2 2.4 for the laparoscopic group and 7.6\uc2 \uc2\ub1\uc2 3.4 for the robotic group (p\uc2 =\uc2 0.006). No differences were found in terms of operative time and post-operative complications. After a median follow-up of 27\uc2 months, the robotic group yielded 2 stenosis recurrence, instead the laparoscopic group shows no cases of recurrence (p\uc2 =\uc2 0.091). Minimally invasive approach for ureteral stenosis is safe and feasible. Both robotic and pure laparoscopic approaches may offer good results in terms of perioperative outcomes, low incidence of complications and recurrence

    Clinical comparison between conventional and microdissection testicular sperm extraction for non-obstructive azoospermia: Understanding which treatment works for which patient

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    Objectives: The superiority of microdissection testicular sperm extraction (mTESE) over conventional TESE (cTESE) for men with non-obstructive azoospermia (NOA) is debated. We aimed to compare the sperm retrieval rate (SRR) of mTESE to cTESE and to identify candidates who would most benefit from mTESE in a cohort of Caucasian-European men with primary couple’s infertility. Material and methods: Data from 49 mTESE and 96 cTESE patients were analysed. We collected demographic and clinical data, serum levels of LH, FSH and total testosterone. Patients with abnormal karyotyping were excluded from analysis. Age was categorized according to the median value of 35 years. FSH values were dichotomized according to multiples of the normal range (N) (N and 1.5 N: 1-18 mIU/mL, and > 18 mIU/mL). Testicular histology was recorded for each patient. Descriptive statistics and logistic regression analyses tested the impact of potential predictors on positive SRR in both groups. Results: No differences were found between groups in terms of clinical and hormonal parameters with the exception of FSH values that were higher in mTESE patients (p = 0.004). SRR were comparable between mTESE and cTESE (49.0% vs. 41.7%, p = 0.40). SRRs were significantly higher after mTESE in patients with Sertoli cell-only syndrome (SCOS) (p = 0.038), in those older than 35 years (p = 0.03) and with FSH >1.5N (p 1.5N (p = 0.018). Moreover, increased FSH levels (p = 0.03) and both SCOS (p = 0.01) and MA histology (p = 0.04) were independent predictors of SRR failure. Conclusions: Microdissection and cTESE showed comparable success rates in our cohort of patients with NOA. mTESE seems beneficial for patients older than 35 years, with high FSH values, or when SCOS can be predicted. Given the high costs associated with the mTESE approach, the identification of candidates most likely to benefit from this procedure is a major clinical need

    Changes in renal function after nephroureterectomy for upper urinary tract carcinoma: analysis of a large multicenter cohort (Radical Nephroureterectomy Outcomes (RaNeO) Research Consortium)

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    Purpose To investigate prevalence and predictors of renal function variation in a multicenter cohort treated with radical nephroureterectomy (RNU) for upper tract urothelial carcinoma (UTUC). Methods Patients from 17 tertiary centers were included. Renal function variation was evaluated at postoperative day (POD)-1, 6 and 12 months. Timepoints differences were Delta 1 = POD-1 eGFR - baseline eGFR; Delta 2 = 6 months eGFR - POD-1 eGFR; Delta 3 = 12 months eGFR - 6 months eGFR. We defined POD-1 acute kidney injury (AKI) as an increase in serum creatinine by >= 0.3 mg/dl or a 1.5 1.9-fold from baseline. Additionally, a cutoff of 60 ml/min in eGFR was considered to define renal function decline at 6 and 12 months. Logistic regression (LR) and linear mixed (LM) models were used to evaluate the association between clinical factors and eGFR decline and their interaction with follow-up. Results A total of 576 were included, of these 409(71.0%) and 403(70.0%) had an eGFR < 60 ml/min at 6 and 12 months, respectively, and 239(41.5%) developed POD-1 AKI. In multivariable LR analysis, age (Odds Ratio, OR 1.05, p < 0.001), male gender (OR 0.44, p = 0.003), POD-1 AKI (OR 2.88, p < 0.001) and preoperative eGFR < 60 ml/min (OR 7.58, p < 0.001) were predictors of renal function decline at 6 months. Age (OR 1.06, p < 0.001), coronary artery disease (OR 2.68, p = 0.007), POD-1 AKI (OR 1.83, p = 0.02), and preoperative eGFR < 60 ml/min (OR 7.80, p < 0.001) were predictors of renal function decline at 12 months. In LM models, age (p = 0.019), hydronephrosis (p < 0.001), POD-1 AKI (p < 0.001) and pT-stage (p = 0.001) influenced renal function variation (ss 9.2 +/- 0.7, p < 0.001) during follow-up. Conclusion Age, preoperative eGFR and POD-1 AKI are independent predictors of 6 and 12 months renal function decline after RNU for UTUC

    Ureteral Stent and Percutaneous Nephrostomy in Managing Malignant Ureteric Obstruction of Gastrointestinal Origin: A 10 Years’ Experience

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    Background: Malignant ureteral obstruction (MUO) is variable in presentation and there is no consensus on its management, especially when caused by gastrointestinal (GI) malignancies. Our aim was to describe our experience with this oncological complication. Methods: We retrospectively analyzed the outcomes of ureteral stent and nephrostomy tube (NT) positioning for GI-related MUO from 2010 to 2020. We performed descriptive analysis, survival analysis, and uni- and multi-variate analysis. Results: We included 51 patients. NT was mainly used when bladder involvement occurred and when MUO revealed an ex novo cancer diagnosis. Survival was poorer in patients with new diagnoses and in those receiving no treatment after decompression. Moreover, MUO caused by upper-GI tumors was related to shorter overall survival. Conclusions: GI tumors causing MUO should be considered of poor prognosis. Treatment decisions should be weighted accurately by both specialists and the patient

    Is There Still a Place for Percutaneous Nephrolithotomy in Current Times?

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    Background: Percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL) and its miniaturized modifications are usually considered the standard surgical options for large (&gt;20 mm) staghorn and infected stones. Moreover, PCNL is a viable alternative to retrograde intrarenal surgery (RIRS) for smaller stones (&lt;20 mm) in the presence of anatomical malformations or inaccessible lower pole stones. However, due to the advancements in laser and scope technology, RIRS is expanding its indications with the potential benefits of lower complications and a shorter hospital stay. Methods: A literature search using the PUBMED database from inception to June 2022 was performed to explore the current role of PCNL in endourology. The analysis involved a narrative synthesis. Results: PCNL confirmed its role in the treatment of large and complex stones; moreover, miniaturized PCNL has become more competitive, gaining space among classic indications of flexible ureteroscopy. Conclusions: considering all the evaluated subgroups, we can conclude that PCNL is an old fascinating procedure and is here to stay

    Posterior Musculofascial Reconstruction After Radical Prostatectomy: An Updated Systematic Review And A Meta-Analysis

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    To evaluate the influence of posterior musculofascial plate reconstruction (PR) on early return of continence after radical prostatectomy (RP); an updated systematic review of the literature. A systematic review of the literature was performed in June 2015, following the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) statement and searching Medline, Embase, Scopus and Web of Science databases. We searched the terms posterior reconstruction prostatectomy, double layer anastomosis prostatectomy across the ‘Title’ and ‘Abstract’ fields of the records, with the following limits: humans, gender (male), and language (English). The authors reviewed the records to identify studies comparing cohorts of patients who underwent RP with or without restoration of the posterior aspect of the rhabdosphincter. A meta-analysis of the risk ratios estimated using data from the selected studies was performed. In all, 21 studies were identified, including three randomised controlled trials. The overall analysis of comparative studies showed that PR improved early continence recovery at 3–7, 30, and 90 days after catheter removal, while the continence rate at 180 days was statistically but not clinically affected. Statistically significantly lower anastomotic leakage rates were described after PR. There were no significant differences for positive surgical margins rates or for complications such as acute urinary retention and bladder neck stricture. The analysis confirms the benefits at 30 days after catheter removal already discussed in the review published in 2012, but also shows a significant advantage in terms of urinary continence recovery in the first 90 days. A multicentre prospective randomised controlled trial is currently being conducted in several institutions around the world to better assess the effectiveness of PR in facilitating an earlier recovery of postoperative urinary continence

    Posterior reconstruction of the rhabdosphincter

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    Urinary incontinence is still one of the major drawbacks following radical prostatectomy. It is considered even more bothersome than erectile dysfunction, even if its incidence is lower. According to the 2015 EAU guidelines mean continence rates at 12 months range from 89 to 100% for patients treated with robot-assisted RP (RARP) to 80-97% for patients treated with retropubic RP (Guidelines on prostate cancer, Arnhem, 2015)

    Current Knowledge on Genomic Profiling of Upper Tract Urothelial Carcinoma

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    Recent research in next-generation sequencing characterized the genomic landscape of urothelial cancer. However, the majority of the studies focused on bladder cancer (BC). Upper urinary tract urothelial carcinomas (UTUC) and BC share some histological characteristics, but, considering the differences in terms of embryologic precursors, epidemiology, genetics, medical and surgical management and response to therapy, UTUC and BC should be considered as two distinct diseases. Our objective is to analyze through a literature search the latest updates and the current knowledge about the genomics of UTUC. We also evaluate genetic differences between BC and UTUC and the potential implications for systemic therapy. Molecular subtyping and variant histology and their correlation with response to chemotherapy were also explored. In summary, the most frequent genomic variations in UTUC included FGFR3, chromatin remodeling genes, TP53/MDM2 and other tumor suppressors/oncogenes. The genomics of UTUC, integrated with clinical data, could drive the selection of patients who could benefit from targeted therapy or off-label treatment. Routine implementation of tumor genomic characterization in UTUC patients should therefore be contemplated and evaluated prospectively
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