343 research outputs found

    Collaborative Professional Learning in Early Literacy: The Impact on Teacher Knowledge, Actions, and Beliefs

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    Literacy is the foundation for individual success and economic independence. Early literacy development is an area of importance; thus, professional learning in early literacy is critical and significant. This study examined the impact of a collaborative professional learning model in early literacy on teacher knowledge, actions, and efficacy and how learning transfer resulted in changes to instructional practices. The study utilized an explanatory sequential mixed methods design. Data were collected from participants in a specific collaborative professional learning model, the Early Literacy Professional Development (ELPD) model. Quantitative data were collected through surveys to identify professional learning topics perceived as having an impact on theoretical knowledge, collaborative features from the professional learning experience perceived as having an impact on teaching practices, and the relationship between the professional learning and teacher self-efficacy. Qualitative data were collected to examine how instructional practices were influenced by these topics and how collaborative features of professional learning affected learning transfer and impacted practices. Findings indicated close observation as formative assessment and the reciprocity of reading and writing as topics impacting theoretical understanding of early literacy acquisition. Changed instructional practices were identified from these topics: varied grouping, responsiveness, reciprocity, and strategy instruction. Discussions and conversations, shared teaching demonstrations, and teacher leader support through coaching and modeling were collaborative features perceived as impacting practices. Conversations, authentic experiences with students, and shared teaching demonstrations were collaborative features affecting the transfer of learning. The findings showed a correlation between the professional learning and self-efficacy, resulting in a statistically significant relationship

    Climate change and the kidney

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    The worldwide increase in temperature has resulted in a marked increase in heat waves (heat extremes) that carries a markedly increased risk for morbidity and mortality. The kidney has a unique role not only in protecting the host from heat and dehydration but also is an important site of heat-associated disease. Here we review the potential impact of global warming and heat extremes on kidney diseases. High temperatures can result in increased core temperatures, dehydration, and blood hyperosmolality. Heatstroke (both clinical and subclinical whole-body hyperthermia) may have a major role in causing both acute kidney disease, leading to increased risk of acute kidney injury from rhabdomyolysis, or heat-induced inflammatory injury to the kidney. Recurrent heat and dehydration can result in chronic kidney disease (CKD) in animals and theoretically plays a role in epidemics of CKD developing in hot regions of the world where workers are exposed to extreme heat. Heat stress and dehydration also has a role in kidney stone formation, and poor hydration habits may increase the risk for recurrent urinary tract infections. The resultant social and economic consequences include disability and loss of productivity and employment. Given the rise in world temperatures, there is a major need to better understand how heat stress can induce kidney disease, how best to provide adequate hydration, and ways to reduce the negative effects of chronic heat exposure.Published versio

    The impact of long term medical conditions on the outcomes of psychological therapy for depression and anxiety

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    Background: Long term conditions (LTC) often coexist with depression and anxiety. Aims: To assess the effectiveness of stepped care psychological therapies for patients with LTC. Method: Data from 28498 patients were analysed using regression to model depression (PHQ-9) and anxiety (GAD-7) outcomes. Post-treatment symptoms and effect sizes (d) were estimated for cases with and without LTC, controlling for covariates. The likelihood of access and response to intensive psychological interventions was also examined. Results: Higher post-treatment symptoms were predicted for patients with musculoskeletal problems (d = .22 to .27), COPD (d = .26 to .33), diabetes (d = .05 to .13) and psychotic disorders (d = .50 to .58). Most LTC were associated with greater odds of accessing high intensity therapies (HIT), yet HIT cases continued to have higher average post-treatment symptoms. Conclusions: Some LTC are associated with greater intensity of care and poorer outcomes after therapy

    The advance of Fusarium wilt tropical race 4 in Musaceae of Latin America and the Caribbean: Current situation

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    The fungus Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense tropical race 4 (syn. Fusarium odoratissimum) (Foc TR4) causes vascular wilt in Musaceae plants and is considered the most lethal for these crops. In Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC), it was reported for the first time in Colombia (2019), later in Peru (2021), and recently declared in Venezuela (2023). This work aimed to analyze the evolution of Foc TR4 in Musaceae in LAC between 2018 and 2022. This perspective contains a selection of topics related to Foc TR4 in LAC that address and describe (i) the threat of Foc TR4 in LAC, (ii) a bibliometric analysis of the scientific production of Foc TR4 in LAC, (iii) the current situation of Foc TR4 in Colombia, Peru, and Venezuela, (iv) medium-term prospects in LAC member countries, and (v) export trade and local food security. In this study, the presence of Foc TR4 in Venezuela and the possible consequences of the production of Musaceae in the long term were reported for the first time. In conclusion, TR4 is a major threat to banana production in Latin America and the world, and it is important to take measures to control the spread of the fungus and minimize its impact on the banana industry. It is important to keep working on the control of Foc TR4, which requires the participation of the local and international industry, researchers, and consumers, among others, to prevent the disappearance of bananas

    An automated tuberculosis screening strategy combining X-ray-based computer-aided detection and clinical information.

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    Lack of human resources and radiological interpretation expertise impair tuberculosis (TB) screening programmes in TB-endemic countries. Computer-aided detection (CAD) constitutes a viable alternative for chest radiograph (CXR) reading. However, no automated techniques that exploit the additional clinical information typically available during screening exist. To address this issue and optimally exploit this information, a machine learning-based combination framework is introduced. We have evaluated this framework on a database containing 392 patient records from suspected TB subjects prospectively recruited in Cape Town, South Africa. Each record comprised a CAD score, automatically computed from a CXR, and 12 clinical features. Comparisons with strategies relying on either CAD scores or clinical information alone were performed. Our results indicate that the combination framework outperforms the individual strategies in terms of the area under the receiving operating characteristic curve (0.84 versus 0.78 and 0.72), specificity at 95% sensitivity (49% versus 24% and 31%) and negative predictive value (98% versus 95% and 96%). Thus, it is believed that combining CAD and clinical information to estimate the risk of active disease is a promising tool for TB screening

    Enfermedad renal crónica de causa desconocida: investigaciones en Guatemala y oportunidades para su prevención

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    El Centro para la Salud, el Trabajo y el Ambiente (CHWE por sus siglas en inglés) inició un proyecto de colaboración con Pantaleon, una empresa agrícola de caña de azúcar en Guatemala, para hacer frente a una epidemia de enfermedad renal crónica (ERC) de causa no tradicional (ERCnT) que afecta a las comunidades agrícolas en Centroamérica y otros lugares. Este artículo describe el conocimiento actual de la epidemia en Centroamérica, las manifestaciones clínicas, el tratamiento y el manejo; las hipótesis actuales de su etiología, la colaboración y el enfoque de CHWE-Pantaleon. Nuestro enfoque de Total Worker Health® (TWH) para abordar la salud renal en Guatemala incluye múltiples estudios de investigación con trabajadores de caña de azúcar, para evaluar la prevalencia, incidencia y factores de riesgo de la lesión renal aguda y la ERC; se incluye también el desarrollo e implementación de medidas de prevención mejoradas e intervenciones para proteger a los trabajadores abordando los factores de riesgo ya conocidos. Se examinan también las necesidades futuras de investigación y las implicaciones globales de la ERCnT, al igual que la producción de bienes y la economía, así como las recomendaciones actuales para las estrategias de prevención ocupacional y comunitaria

    Revisiting the need for a literature search narrative:A brief methodological note

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    In this method note, we question if the primary search strategy in a systematic review should be accompanied by a search narrative. A search narrative could offer a conceptual and contextual report on the search strategy, which we suggest might benefit the peer review of literature searches and increase engagement with, and discussion of, the literature search strategy from review stakeholders, topic experts, and lay users of research. Search narratives would also increase the transparency of decision‐making in literature searching

    Habituation and sensitization of protective reflexes: dissociation between cardiac defense and eye-blink startle

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    We examined the habituation and recovery of two protective reflexes, cardiac defense and eye-blink startle, simultaneously elicited by a white noise of 500 ms as a function of the time interval between stimulus presentations. Participants were 90 volunteers (54 women) randomly distributed into 6 inter-trial interval (ITI) conditions. They all received three presentations of the stimulus with a time interval of 30 min between the first and third noise. The timing of the second noise was manipulated in six steps, using a between-group design, in order to increase the ITI between Trials I and 2 and symmetrically decrease the ITI between Trials 2 and 3. Cardiac defense showed fast habituation at the shortest ITI (2.5 min), but reduced habituation and increased recovery at the longest ITI (27.5 min). In contrast, eye-blink startle showed sensitization irrespective of the ITI. This pattern of findings highlights dissociations between protective reflexes when simultaneously examined. The results are discussed in the context of the cascade model of defense reactions. (C) 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved
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