Stellenbosch University SUNScholar Repository

    Anti-HIV-1 activity of salivary MUC5B and MUC7 mucins from HIV patients with different CD4 counts

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    Includes bibliographyBackground: We have previously shown that MUC5B and MUC7 mucins from saliva of HIV negative individuals inhibit HIV-1 activity by 100% in an in vitro assay. The purpose of this subsequent study was to investigate whether MUC5B and MUC7 from saliva of HIV patients or with full blown AIDS had a similar inhibitory activity against the virus. Methods Salivary MUC5B and MUC7 from HIV patients with different CD4 counts ( 400) were incubated with HIV-1 prior to infection of the human T lymphoblastoid cell line (CEM SS cells). Cells were then cultured and viral replication was measured by a qualitative p24 antigen assay. The size, charge and immunoreactivity of mucins from HIV negative and positive individuals was also analysed by SDS-PAGE, Western blot and ELISA respectively. Results: It was shown that irrespective of their CD4 counts both MUC5B and MUC7 from HIV patients, unlike the MUC5B and MUC7 from HIV negative individuals, did not inhibit HIV-1 activity. Size, charge and immunoreactivity differences between the mucins from HIV negative and positive individuals and among the mucins from HIV patients of different CD4 count was observed by SDS-PAGE, Western blot and ELISA. Conclusions: Purified salivary mucins from HIV positive patients do not inhibit the AIDS virus in an in vitro assay. Although the reason for the inability of mucins from infected individuals to inhibit the virus is not known, it is likely that there is an alteration of the glycosylation pattern, and therefore of charge of mucin, in HIV positive patients. The ability to inhibit the virus by aggregation by sugar chains is thus diminished.Peer Reviewe

    Spontaneous kidney rupture in polyarteritis nodosa presenting as an acute abdomen

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    CITATION: Edelstein, C. L. & Welke, H. 1991. Spontaneous kidney rupture in polyarteritis nodosa presenting as an acute abdome. South African Medical Journal, 79:52-53.The original publication is available at http://www.samj.org.zaAn acute abdomen in a patient with polyarteritis nodosa (PAN) is a perplexing and challenging problem for both the physician and the surgeon.Publisher’s versio

    The impact of Social Networking 2.0 on organisations

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    The purpose of this paper is to increase the understanding of what electronic social networking encompasses. The article also aims to educate IT, business decision-makers and knowledge workers about the various applications benefits and risks associated with social networking. After a literature review of the available resources (academic literature, journal articles, white papers, popular media and books) the benefits and perceived risks associated with electronic social networking on organisations are investigated. An individuals’ success in society depends on the shape and size of his social network and his ability to network and form connections with other social groups. Organisations who can harness this innate human ability to manage knowledge will be able to lower transactions costs and become more profitable. This article increases the understanding of: what electronic social networking encompasses and how it can be utilised for business purposes

    Signatures of seaway closures and founder dispersal in the phylogeny of a circumglobally distributed seahorse lineage

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    Includes bibliography.Background: The importance of vicariance events on the establishment of phylogeographic patterns in the marine environment is well documented, and generally accepted as an important cause of cladogenesis. Founder dispersal (i.e. long-distance dispersal followed by founder effect speciation) is also frequently invoked as a cause of genetic divergence among lineages, but its role has long been challenged by vicariance biogeographers. Founder dispersal is likely to be common in species that colonize remote habitats by means of rafting (e.g. seahorses), as long-distance dispersal events are likely to be rare and subsequent additional recruitment from the source habitat is unlikely. In the present study, the relative importance of vicariance and founder dispersal as causes of cladogenesis in a circumglobally distributed seahorse lineage was investigated using molecular dating. A phylogeny was reconstructed using sequence data from mitochondrial and nuclear markers, and the well-documented closure of the Central American seaway was used as a primary calibration point to test whether other bifurcations in the phylogeny could also have been the result of vicariance events. The feasibility of three other vicariance events was explored: a) the closure of the Indonesian Seaway, resulting in sister lineages associated with the Indian Ocean and West Pacific, respectively; b) the closure of the Tethyan Seaway, resulting in sister lineages associated with the Indo-Pacific and Atlantic Ocean, respectively, and c) continental break-up during the Mesozoic followed by spreading of the Atlantic Ocean, resulting in pairs of lineages with amphi-Atlantic distribution patterns. Results: Comparisons of pairwise genetic distances among the seahorse species hypothesized to have diverged as a result of the closure of the Central American Seaway with those of published teleost sequences having the same distribution patterns show that the seahorses were among the last to diverge. This suggests that their cladogenesis was associated with the final closure of this seaway. Although two other divergence events in the phylogeny could potentially have arisen as a result of the closures of the Indonesian and Tethyan seaways, respectively, the timing of the majority of bifurcations in the phylogeny differed significantly from the dates of vicariance events suggested in the literature. Moreover, several divergence events that resulted in the same distribution patterns of lineages at different positions in the phylogeny did not occur contemporaneously. For that reason, they cannot be the result of the same vicariance events, a result that is independent of molecular dating. Conclusion: Interpretations of the cladogenetic events in the seahorse phylogeny based purely on vicariance biogeographic hypotheses are problematic. We conclude that the evolution of the circumglobally distributed seahorse lineage was strongly influenced by founder dispersal, and suggest that this mode of speciation may be particularly important in marine organisms that lack a pelagic dispersal phase and instead disperse by means of rafting.Peer reviewe

    The regulation of in-flight films

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    BibliographyIn South Africa, as in many other jurisdictions, the showing of films in public is legally regulated through a system of classification. This system entails that a film must first be classified by the Film and Publication Board in terms of the Film and Publication Act 65 of 1996 before it may be screened in public and then only subject to the restrictions imposed under the classification. Non-compliance with such restrictions is a crime. One of the main aims of this regulatory system is the protection of children against harmful materials. The screening of films on aeroplanes is today an integral part of any long-haul flight, especially internationally. Since (young) children are often passengers on such flights, the question emerges whether the regulatory approach to film classification also applies to in-flight films. In this article the interaction between film regulation and aviation regulation is assessed where they intersect at the regulation of in-flight films. The conclusion is that there is a regulatory gap where these two sets of regulations meet, with a resultant unregulated activity within otherwise highly regulated contexts, i.e. film and aviation. A number of policy considerations in favour of greater regulation of in-flight film are assessed and potential ways in which such regulation can be implemented proposed

    Quetiapine augmentation of SRIs in treatment refractory obsessive-compulsive disorder : a double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled study [ISRCTN83050762]

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    Background: Although serotonin reuptake inhibitors are effective in the treatment of OCD, many patients fail to respond to these agents. Growing evidence from open-label and placebo-controlled trials suggests a role for augmentation of SRIs with atypical antipsychotics in OCD. Quetiapine is generally well tolerated and previous open-label data has produced mixed results in OCD and additional controlled data is needed. Methods: We undertook a double-blind, randomised, parallel-group, flexible-dose, placebo-controlled study of quetiapine augmentation in subjects who had responded inadequately to open-label treatment with an SRI for 12 weeks. Following informed consent and screening, forty-two subjects were randomised to either placebo or quetiapine for six weeks. Results: There was significant improvement from baseline to endpoint on the Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale in both the quetiapine and placebo groups (quetiapine, n = 20, p < 0.0001; placebo, n = 21, p = 0.001) with 40% (n = 8) of quetiapine and 47.6% (n = 10) of placebo treated subjects being classified as responders. Quetiapine did not demonstrate a significant benefit over placebo at the end of the six-week treatment period (p = .636). Similarly quetiapine failed to separate from placebo in the subgroup of subjects (n = 10) with co-morbid tics. Quetiapine was generally well tolerated. Conclusions: In this study, quetiapine augmentation was no more effective than placebo augmentation of SRIs. A number of limitations in study design make comparisons with previous studies in this area difficult and probably contributed to our negative findings. Future work in this important clinical area should address these limitations.Peer Reviewe

    Role of cultivation media in the development of yeast strains for large scale industrial use

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    Includes bibliography.Abstract: The composition of cultivation media in relation to strain development for industrial application is reviewed. Heterologous protein production and pentose utilization by Saccharomyces cerevisiae are used to illustrate the influence of media composition at different stages of strain construction and strain development. The effects of complex, defined and industrial media are compared. Auxotrophic strains and strain stability are discussed. Media for heterologous protein production and for bulk bio-commodity production are summarized.Peer reviewe

    HIV/AIDS knowledge, awareness and perception of undergraduate first-year students at the Cape Institute for Agricultural Training : higher education and training

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    Thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Philosophy (HIV/AIDS Management) at the Stellenbosch UniversityThesis (MPhil (Industrial Psychology. Africa Centre for HIV/AIDS Management))--University of Stellenbosch, 2010.ENGLISH ABSTRACT: In a developing country as South – Africa, one of the most disturbing facts about HIV/AIDS is that the infection rate is growing at an alarming rate and as yet, there is no cure for the disease. More than 5 million South Africans are currently HIV positive. HIV and AIDS is an epidemic fuelled by social, cultural, behavioural and economic factors. Therefore, our country needs effective interventions to reduce the high HIV infection rate. One of the critical aspects of HIV prevention is ensuring that vulnerable groups, such as the youth, are not excluded or overlooked by prevention and treatment programmes. The aim of this study is to determine the knowledge, awareness and perception level of undergraduate first- year students registered at the Cape Institute for Agricultural Training: Higher Education and Training at Elsenburg regarding HIV and AIDS. Questionnaires consisting of close – ended questions on a 4 – point Lickert scale was distributed to 130 students and a total of 103 responded by completed it. The results of the study indicated that students had a high awareness and perception level about HIV/AIDS. However, this study found a significant difference between males and females in terms of total awareness and perception level. In comparison with awareness and perception levels, students scored a low percentage in terms of total knowledge. Recommendations and future research at the Cape Institute for Agricultural Training: Higher Education and Training at Elsenburg regarding HIV and AIDS are proposed.AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: In ‘n ontwikkelende land soos Suid – Afrika is een van die mees hinderlike feite van MIV/VIGS dat die infeksie koers teen ‘n angswekkende snelheid groei en dat daar nie huidiglik ‘n geneesmiddel vir die siekte is nie. Meer as 5 miljoen Suid – Afrikaners is huidiglik MIV positief. VIGS is ‘n epidemie wat aangevuur word deur sosiale, kulturele, gedrags- en ekonomiese faktore. Daarvoor benodig ons land effektiewe intervensies om die hoë MIV infeksie koers te verminder. Een van die kritiese aspekte rondom MIV voorkoming is om te verseker dat kwesbare groepe, soos die jeug, nie uitgesluit of oorgesien word by voorkomings- en behandelingsprogramme nie. Die doel van hierdie studie is om te bepaal die kennis-, bewustheids- en persepsie vlakke van voorgraadse eerstejaar studente geregistreerd aan die Kaapse Instituut vir Landbou Opleiding: Hoër Onderwys en Opleiding te Elsenburg rakende MIV en VIGS. Vraelyste bestaande uit geslote – vrae op ‘n 4 – punt Likert skaal was versprei onder 130 studente waarvan 103 dit voltooi het. Resultate van die studie dui daarop dat studente ‘n hoë bewustheids- en persepsie vlak rakende MIV/VIGS het. Daar was wel ‘n beduidende verskil tussen mans en vroue in terme van algehele bewustheid en persepsie vlak. In vergelyking met bewustheid en persepsie vlakke, het studente ‘n lae telling behaal vir hul algehele kennis vlak. Aanbevelings en toekomstige navorsing aan die Kaapse Instituut vir Landbou Opleiding: Hoër Onderwys en Opleiding te Elsenburg rakende MIV en VIGS word aanbeveel

    Payment of clinical trial participants

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    The original publication is available at http://www.samj.org.za[No abstract available]Editoria

    Post-exposure prophylaxis for rape survivors

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    CITATION: Pluddemann, A., Reuter, H. & Johnson, C. 2007. Post-exposure prophylaxis for rape survivors. South African Medical Journal, 97(1):12-13The original publication is available at http://www.samj.org.za[No abstract available]Publisher’s versio
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