Stellenbosch University SUNScholar Repository

    Risky sexual behaviour and contraceptive use in contexts of displacement : insights from a cross-sectional survey of female adolescent refugees in Ghana

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    CITATION: Ganle, J. K., et al. 2019. Risky sexual behaviour and contraceptive use in contexts of displacement : insights from a cross-sectional survey of female adolescent refugees in Ghana. International Journal for Equity in Health, 18:127, doi:10.1186/s12939-019-1031-1.The original publication is available at https://equityhealthj.biomedcentral.comBackground: Difficulty in accessing sexual and reproductive healthcare is one of the challenges young refugee women face worldwide, in addition to sexual exploitation, violence and abuse. Although Ghana hosts several refugees, little is known about their sexual behaviour and contraceptive use. This study assesses sexual behaviour and contraceptive use among female adolescent refugees in Ghana. Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted between June and August 2016. Respondents comprised 242 female adolescent refugees aged 14–19 years. Structured validated questionnaires were used to collect data. Descriptive statistical methods and multivariate logistic regression statistical analyses methods were used to analyze data. Findings: Over 78% of respondents have had penetrative sex; 43% have had coerced sex; 71% have had transactional sex; 36% have had sex while drunk, 57% have had 4–6 sexual partners in the last 12 months before the study, and 38% have had both coerced and transactional sex. Factors that predicted ever having transactional sex included being aged 14–16 compared to those aged 17–19 (AOR = 4·80; 95% CI = 2·55–9·04); being from Liberia compared to being from Ghana (AOR = 3·05; 95% CI = 1.69–13·49); having a mother who had no formal education compared to having a mother with tertiary education (AOR = 5.75; 95CI = 1.94– 14.99); and living alone (self) compared to living with parents (AOR = 3.77; 95CI = 1.38–10.33). However, having 1–3 sexual partners in the last 12months as against having 4–6 partners significantly reduced the odds of ever having transactional sex (AOR = 0·02; 95% CI = 0·01–0·08). Awareness about contraceptives was 65%, while ever use of contraceptives was 12%. However, contraceptive use at last sexual intercourse was 8.2%, and current use was 7.3%. Contraceptive use was relatively higher among those who have never had sex while drunk, as well as among those who have never had transactional sex and coerced sex. Contraceptive use was similarly higher among those who had 1–3 sexual partners in the last 12 months compared to those who had 4–6 during the same time period. Conclusion: In this time of global migration crises, addressing disparities in knowledge and access to contraception as well as high risk sexual behaviours in refugee situations is important for reducing inequalities in reproductive health outcomes and ensuring both universal health coverage and global health justice. Sex and contraception education and counselling, self-efficacy training, and skills acquisition are needed to help young refugee women negotiate and practice safe sex and resist sexual pressures.'s versio

    Managerial judging and alternative dispute resolution in Australia : an example for South Africa to emulate. part 1

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    CITATION: De Vos, W. Le R. & Broodryk, T. 2017. Managerial judging and alternative dispute resolution in Australia : an example for South Africa to emulate? (part 1). Journal of South African Law / Tydskrif vir die Suid-Afrikaanse Reg, 2017(4):683-703.The original publication is available at English common law heritage of the states and territories in Australia (most of which were former British colonies) ensured that these different jurisdictions all embraced the adversarial system of civil litigation. Essentially, this meant that a passive role was accorded to the judge, especially during the pre-trial phase, while the parties, through their lawyers, played an active role during both the pre-trial and trial stages. By virtue of the principle of party control the parties were in charge of preparing their cases for trial and presenting their evidence and arguments at the trial. During the pre-trial phase the judge would react only if a party sought interlocutory relief, and even during the trial the judge assumed the role of a passive arbitrator, only ensuring that the lawyers conducted themselves in a seemly manner and complied with the “rules of the game”

    Quality, dissonance and rhythm within higher education

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    CITATION: Waghid, Y. 2019. Quality, dissonance and rhythm within higher education. South African Journal of Higher Education, 33(3):1-7, doi:10.20853/33-3-3569.The original publication is available at this article, I argue for a position of quality in higher education commensurate with the cultivation of dissonance and rhythmic action. I focus specifically on the (South) African university and the reason why dissonance and rhythm offer pragmatic ways to respond to changes in and about university education. Without being oblivious of the tremendous strides universities have made on the African continent, my contention is that not enough has been done to ensure that quality and change have been enhanced. My argument is deconstructive and conceptual in the sense that I endeavour to imagine what universities will look like beyond merely consolidating their claims of rationality. In this article, I offer my thoughts on new imaginings for higher education as propositional pieces cohered by the central themes of dissonance and rhythm.'s versio

    Always reforming? : nurturing a church for human rights in South Africa

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    CITATION: Palm, S. 2018. Always reforming? : nurturing a church for human rights in South Africa. Stellenbosch Theological Journal, 4(1):321-346, doi:10.17570/stj.2018.v4n1.a15.The original publication is available at article explores the post-apartheid call to South African churches to play an ongoing theological role in the shared task of building a human rights culture for all. It seeks a counter-hegemonic human rights praxis that emphasises the lack of a human rights culture and turns to the early insights of German Reformed theologian Jürgen Moltmann on human rights realisation. This points to an important task for local congregations today. It places this in conversation with current South African empirical realities to argue for a theological disruption of the power-laden imagery underpinning much human rights abuse. It concludes that a liberating Trinitarian praxis for human rights can shape a transformational ecclesiology that speaks to concerns raised by South African church youth within a local church today with a history of struggle involvement. Their voices offer a challenge to churches to be “always reforming” on human rights concerns.'s versio

    Is God in Nigeria? : land dislocation and the challenge of confessing Belhar in Nigeria today

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    CITATION: Akper, G. I. 2018. Is God in Nigeria? : land dislocation and the challenge of confessing Belhar in Nigeria today. Stellenbosch Theological Journal, 4(1):61-72, doi:10.17570/stj.2018.v4n1.a03.The original publication is available at the view that “in the land full of enmity, God is in a special way the God of the destitute and the wronged”, the essay explores the challenge of confessing the third article in the Confession of Belhar in Nigeria today. Nigeria has recorded a high number of displaced persons in the years between 1982 and 2016, who have been dispossessed of their lands and their hopes for better living standards. This situation has often been caused by the activities of radical religious activists. Also, a number of communal crises among ethnic nationalities especially in some parts of what can be described as northern Nigeria have added to the statistics of Internally Displaced Persons (IDPs). These destitute, many of whom are Christians, continuously cry out, hoping that God may intervene, and change their situations for the better, but seemingly to no avail. For some of them, it seems like all hope is lost. With such agonising situations among Christians, what sense will it make, “to preach” to them that “God is in a special way” their God? The essay examines this question by juxtaposing the Nigerian situation with South Africa’s past, when the Christians in South Africa confessed that God was still on their side amidst a seemingly hopeless situation. It also explores whether some lessons from the South African experience can be of any assistance or relevance to the Christians in Nigeria today.'s versio

    Investigation of four carbon monoxide isotopomers in natural abundance by laser-induced fluorescence in a supersonic jet

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    CITATION: Du Plessis, A., Rohwer, E. G. & Steenkamp, C. M. 2007. Investigation of four carbon monoxide isotopomers in natural abundance by laser-induced fluorescence in a supersonic jet. Journal of Molecular Spectroscopy, 243(2):124-133, doi:10.1016/j.jms.2007.01.009.The original publication is available at four carbon monoxide (CO) isotopomers 12C16O, 13C16O, 12C18O and 12C17O have been detected simultaneously in a CO gas sample of natural isotopic abundance by measuring rovibronic excitation spectra of six vibronic bands in the Fourth Positive System. The CO sample was flow cooled by adiabatic expansion in a pulsed supersonic jet. The rovibronic excitation spectra were obtained using a novel pulsed laser source (pulse duration ∼25 ns, spectral bandwidth ∼5 GHz) continuously tunable in the 139–155 nm vacuum ultraviolet wavelength region for excitation and recording the total fluorescence. In the present paper we report on the spectroscopic results obtained, including transition wavelengths of three forbidden rovibronic bands (e3Σ− − X1Σ+(1, 0), d3Δ − X1Σ+(5, 0), a′3Σ+ − X1Σ+(14, 0)) of 12C16O and band origins of six rovibronic bands (A1Π(v′ = 0–5) − X1Σ+(v″ = 0)) of the rare isotopomer 12C17O, and on the experimental conditions facilitating the high sensitivity of the measurements. The exceptional sensitivity demonstrated by the results has been achieved by fine tuning experimental conditions including the conditions in the supersonic expansion, the jet pulse duration and the laser pulse timing.

    Th e Leibholz-Schmitt connection’s formative influence on Bonhoeffer’s 1932–33 entry into public theology

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    CITATION: Radler, K. S. 2018. Th e Leibholz-Schmitt connection’s formative influence on Bonhoeffer’s 1932–33 entry into public theology. Stellenbosch Theological Journal, 4(2):683-702, doi:10.17570/stj.2018.v4n2.a31.The original publication is available at Bonhoeffer’s brother-in-law Gerhard Leibholz’s insight into the Fascist theory of the state’s messianic leadership and myth of creating communal life became a major source of information for Bonhoeffer. Leibholz had gained this knowledge in close jurisprudential cooperation with Carl Schmitt as is evidenced by Leibholz’s 1929 habilitation thesis which at the same time intersected with Bonhoeffer’s academic work. Their original political leanings towards authoritarianism, Volk, and Vitalism were revised by Bonhoeffer and Leibholz in November 1932 through stepping out into a coordinated public opposition to the approaching political changes. But both only recognized the populist xenophobic destructiveness of such a life, hidden beneath the myth of unity, once Schmitt turned to National Socialism in early 1933. Bonhoeffer’s theology, built on the Leibholz-Schmitt discourse, remains a call for vigilance against the abuse of power, populism, and xenophobia, and continues to call for seeking Godrevealed life.'s versio

    The Kairos of karos : revisiting notions of temporality in Africa

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    CITATION: Cilliers, J. H. 2018. The Kairos of karos : revisiting notions of temporality in Africa. Stellenbosch Theological Journal, 4(1):113-132, doi:10.17570/stj.2018.v4n1.a06.The original publication is available at speaking, many Christian traditions have been influenced in their liturgy and preaching by Western understandings of time, i.e. as a linear progression from past, to present, to future. Africans do have a strong sense, not only of the past, but also of the future – in contrast to what some scholars would advocate. But African notions of time also harbour a particular understanding of the present, as the experience of social events. In Africa, time is not so much duration as it affects the fate of the individual, as it is the rhythm of the breathing of the social group. Perhaps the image of a spiral depicts best what Africans understand as time – a spiral that includes both linear and cyclical dimensions, as it reflects the rhythms of life. In this paper, an attempt is made to reflect on the contribution of a decolonised understanding of time on preaching in Africa, in dialogue with keywords like memory, present, community, event, and movement.'s versio

    Public trust and good governance : a comparative study of Brazil and South Africa

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    CITATION: Pillay, P. 2017. Public trust and good governance : a comparative study of Brazil and South Africa. African Journal of Public Affairs, 9(8):31-47.The original publication is available at exploration of public trust towards a democratic government has taken different forms throughout history because it is a multi-dimensional and complicated process determined by actions, inactions, political, social and economic processes and societal power relationships. It is widely accepted that good governance, in turn, is a crucial element in the process of building citizens’ trust in government. This implies that unethical, corrupt actions negatively affect citizens’ trust, which is one of the reasons the relationship between social trust and governance has been a focal point of the academic and policy-making communities. The present case studies are based on primary and secondary qualitative research and deal with concerns such as those in South Africa and Brazil. They seek to explore the causal relationship between good governance and citizens’ trust and the effect of corrupt actions. Citizens’ trust takes different forms that fluctuate from the ‘general’ to the ‘particular/specific’ and such realities have different effects on governance as well as the shaping of public policy, attitudes and political imperatives. In both of the aforementioned countries, issues of political, economic and social transformation and development are societal imperatives. Empirical studies on such relations of trust and good governance can pave the way forward in re-evaluating the differences, similarities and forms of the struggle against corruption. versio

    The perceived value and perceived benefits experienced by customers using travel agents

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    CITATION: Terblanche, N. S. & Taljaard, A. 2018. The perceived value and perceived benefits experienced by customers using travel agents. South African Journal of Business Management, 49(1):a7, doi:10.4102/sajbm.v49i1.7.The original publication is available at https://sajbm.orgAlthough many predictions have been made about the demise of travel agents because of the impact of the Internet on travel agencies, many customers still prefer that a travel agent should take care of their travel arrangements instead of doing it themselves. This study endeavours to identify the benefits customers perceive to obtain when they use a travel agent for their travel arrangements. The exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses following the personal in-depth interviews with 26 customers of a travel agency and an extensive literature review revealed significant positive relationships between four perceived benefits and customer loyalty. These perceived benefits were identified as financial benefits, emotional benefits, expertise and support. An assessment of the internal consistency of all these dimensions was undertaken and all the Cronbach’s alpha coefficients of the dimensions were above the generally accepted cut-off value of 0.7. The structural model’s fit statistics (X2 = 349.27; df = 125; X2/df = 2.79; RMSEA = 0.0548) suggested that the data fitted the theoretical model reasonably well.'s versio
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