764 research outputs found

    XMM-Newton Detects a Hot Gaseous Halo in the Fastest Rotating Spiral Galaxy UGC 12591

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    We present our XMM-Newton observation of the fastest rotating spiral galaxy UGC 12591. We detect hot gas halo emission out to 110 kpc from the galaxy center, and constrain the halo gas mass to be smaller than 3.5e11 solar masses. We also measure the temperature of the hot gas as T=0.64\pm0.03 keV. Combining our X-ray constraints and the near-infrared and radio measurements in the literature, we find a baryon mass fraction of 0.03-0.04 in UGC 12591, suggesting a missing baryon mass of 75% compared with the cosmological mean value. Combined with another recent measurement in NGC 1961, the result strongly argues that the majority of missing baryons in spiral galaxies does not reside in their hot halos. We also find that UGC 12591 lies significantly below the baryonic Tully-Fisher relationship. Finally, we find that the baryon fractions of massive spiral galaxies are similar to those of galaxy groups with similar masses, indicating that the baryon loss is ultimately controlled by the gravitational potential well. The cooling radius of this gas halo is small, similar to NGC 1961, which argues that the majority of stellar mass of this galaxy is not assembled as a result of cooling of this gas halo.Comment: 20 pages, 8 figures, submitted to Ap

    On the Baryon Fractions in Clusters and Groups of Galaxies

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    We present the baryon fractions of 2MASS groups and clusters as a function of cluster richness using total and gas masses measured from stacked ROSAT X-ray data and stellar masses estimated from the infrared galaxy catalogs. We detect X-ray emission even in the outskirts of clusters, beyond r_200 for richness classes with X-ray temperatures above 1 keV. This enables us to more accurately determine the total gas mass in these groups and clusters. We find that the optically selected groups and clusters have flatter temperature profiles and higher stellar-to-gas mass ratios than the individually studied, X-ray bright clusters. We also find that the stellar mass in poor groups with temperatures below 1 keV is comparable to the gas mass in these systems. Combining these results with individual measurements for clusters, groups, and galaxies from the literature, we find a break in the baryon fraction at ~1 keV. Above this temperature, the baryon fraction scales with temperature as f_b \propto T^0.20\pm0.03. We see significantly smaller baryon fractions below this temperature, and the baryon fraction of poor groups joins smoothly onto that of systems with still shallower potential wells such as normal and dwarf galaxies where the baryon fraction scales with the inferred velocity dispersion as f_b \propto \sigma^1.6. The small scatter in the baryon fraction at any given potential well depth favors a universal baryon loss mechanism and a preheating model for the baryon loss. The scatter is, however, larger for less massive systems. Finally, we note that although the broken power-law relation can be inferred from data points in the literature alone, the consistency between the baryon fractions for poor groups and massive galaxies inspires us to fit the two categories of objects (galaxies and clusters) with one relation.Comment: 21 pages, 5 figures, ApJ in pres

    A radio continuum study of NGC 2082

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    We present radio continuum observations of NGC 2082 using ASKAP, ATCA and Parkes telescopes from 888 MHz to 9000 MHz. Some 20 arcsec from the centre of this nearby spiral galaxy, we discovered a bright and compact radio source, J054149.24–641813.7, of unknown origin. To constrain the nature of J054149.24–641813.7, we searched for transient events with the Ultra-Wideband Low Parkes receiver, and compare its luminosity and spectral index to various nearby supernova remnants (SNRs), and fast radio burst (FRB) local environments. Its radio spectral index is flat (α = 0.02 ± 0.09), which is unlikely to be either an SNR or pulsar. No transient events were detected with the Parkes telescope over three days of observations, and our calculations show J054149.24–641813.7 is two orders of magnitude less luminous than the persistent radio sources associated with FRB 121102 and 190520B. We find that the probability of finding such a source behind NGC 2082 is P = 1.2%, and conclude that the most likely origin for J054149.24–641813.7 is a background quasar or radio galaxy

    The Extended Distribution of Baryons Around Galaxies

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    We summarize and reanalyze observations bearing upon missing galactic baryons, where we propose a consistent picture for halo gas in L >~ L* galaxies. The hot X-ray emitting halos are detected to 50-70 kpc, where typically, M_hot(<50 kpc) ~ 5E9 Msun, and with density n \propto r^-3/2. When extrapolated to R200, the gas mass is comparable to the stellar mass, but about half of the baryons are still missing from the hot phase. If extrapolated to 1.9-3 R200, the baryon to dark matter ratio approaches the cosmic value. Significantly flatter density profiles are unlikely for R < 50 kpc and they are disfavored but not ruled out for R > 50 kpc. For the Milky Way, the hot halo metallicity lies in the range 0.3-1 solar for R < 50 kpc. Planck measurements of the thermal Sunyaev-Zeldovich effect toward stacked luminous galaxies (primarily early-type) indicate that most of their baryons are hot, near the virial temperature, and extend beyond R200. This stacked SZ signal is nearly an order of magnitude larger than that inferred from the X-ray observations of individual (mostly spiral) galaxies with M_* > 10^11.3 Msun. This difference suggests that the hot halo properties are distinct for early and late type galaxies, possibly due to different evolutionary histories. For the cooler gas detected in UV absorption line studies, we argue that there are two absorption populations: extended halos; and disks extending to ~50 kpc, containing most of this gas, and with masses a few times lower than the stellar masses. Such extended disks are also seen in 21 cm HI observations and in simulations.Comment: 22 pages, 20 figures, 2 tables, submitted to Ap

    A Novel Approach to Interface High-Q Fabry-P\'erot Resonators with Photonic Circuits

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    The unique benefits of Fabry-P\'erot resonators as frequency-stable reference cavities and as an efficient interface between atoms and photons make them an indispensable resource for emerging photonic technologies. To bring these performance benefits to next-generation communications, computation, and timekeeping systems, it will be necessary to develop strategies to integrate compact Fabry-P\'erot resonators with photonic integrated circuits. In this paper, we demonstrate a novel reflection cancellation circuit that utilizes a numerically optimized multi-port polarization-splitting grating coupler to efficiently interface high-finesse Fabry-P\'erot resonators with a silicon photonic circuit. This circuit interface produces spatial separation of the incident and reflected waves, as required for on-chip Pound-Drever-Hall frequency locking, while also suppressing unwanted back reflections from the Fabry-P\'erot resonator. Using inverse design principles, we design and fabricate a polarization-splitting grating coupler that achieves 55% coupling efficiency. This design realizes an insertion loss of 5.8 dB for the circuit interface and more than 9 dB of back reflection suppression, and we demonstrate the versatility of this system by using it to interface several reflective off-chip devices

    Construction of New Active Sites: Cu Substitution Enabled Surface Frustrated Lewis Pairs over Calcium Hydroxyapatite for CO2_{2} Hydrogenation

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    Calcium hydroxyphosphate, Ca10_{10}(PO4_{4})6_{6}(OH)2_{2}, is commonly known as hydroxyapatite (HAP). The acidic calcium and basic phosphate/hydroxide sites in HAP can be modified via isomorphous substitution of calcium and/or hydroxide ions to enable a cornucopia of catalyzed reactions. Herein, isomorphic substitution of Ca2+^{2+} ions by Cu2+^{2+} ions especially at very low levels of exchange created new analogs of molecular surface frustrated Lewis pairs (SFLPs) in Cux_{x}Ca10x_{10-x}(PO4_{4})6_{6}(OH)2_{2}, thereby boosting its performance metrics in heterogeneous CO2_{2} photocatalytic hydrogenation. In situ Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy characterization and density functional theory calculations provided fundamental insights into the catalytically active SFLPs defined as proximal Lewis acidic Cu2+^{2+} and Lewis basic OH^{-}. The photocatalytic pathway proceeds through a formate reaction intermediate, which is generated by the reaction of CO2_{2} with heterolytically dissociated H2_{2} on the SFLPs. Given the wealth of information thus uncovered, it is highly likely that this work will spur the further development of similar classes of materials, leading to the advancement and, ultimately, large-scale application of photocatalytic CO2_{2} reduction technologies