14,568 research outputs found

    Student engagement with self-instructional course materials : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Education in Distance and On-line Learning at Massey University, Extramural, New Zealand

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    This study is concerned with understanding how students engage with self-instructional materials on campus and at a distance within the context of the hybrid course offered at ABC College. This study examines the interrelationship of (a) time engaged with course materials, (b) the perceived value of course materials, (c) student approaches to engagement and (d) the integration of the course materials into the student learning experience in order to construct an understanding of student engagement with course materials. This study employed multiple case studies which formed a holistic collective case study. Data on student engagement with the course materials was collected using a questionnaire instrument. The resulting data was analysed using descriptive statistics to create a picture of how students engaged with the course materials. Correlation statistics were used to identify possible relationships between the items. Emerging themes were then explored in focus groups. Subsequent analysis of the focus group data explored the causation and interrelationships between themes resulting in an understanding of student engagement with the course materials. The findings from this study suggests that student engagement with self-instructional course materials (readings, learning guide, multimedia, etc.) are the result of complex interactions between a student's preferred approach to engagement, their locus of control and the method of integration of the course materials. The majority of participants preferred to engage with the course materials using a deep approach. Participants with an external locus of control reflected the assumptions and approaches they perceived from the method of integration. Participants with an internal locus of control engaged with the course materials using their preferred approach unless they were convinced that another approach served their needs better. The majority of participants exhibited an external locus of control. When a presentation or supplemental method of integrating was used, participants were more likely to engage with the course materials using a surface approach to engagement. They were also more likely to spend less time engaging with the course materials and place a lower value on the course materials. When a discussion or springboard method of integration was used participants were more likely to engage the course materials using a deep approach to engagement. They were also more likely to spend more time engaging with the course materials and place a higher value on the course materials

    Understanding the role of bystanders and peer support in school bullying

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    Research into school bullying has traditionally focussed on the actual protagonists – the perpetrators and the targets. Consequently, we know a great deal about the psychological characteristics of bullies and victims and the consequences of bullying in undermining the emotional well-being of both targets and perpetrators. While an understanding of the personal aspects of the bully-victim relationship is important, it only addresses part of the issue. Bullying is experienced within a group of peers who adopt different participant roles and who experience a range of emotions. In this article, I argue that bullies do not act alone but rely on reinforcement from their immediate group of friends as well as the tacit approval of the onlookers. This article explores the conflicting emotions often experienced by the bystanders. It also makes some suggestions about interventions to empower bystanders to take action against bullying through, for example, such interventions as peer support.peer-reviewe

    Coping with the emotional impact of bullying and cyberbullying : how research can inform practice

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    Despite more than two decades of anti-bullying initiatives in schools, children and young people regularly mention relationships within the peer group as the major factor that causes them to feel unsafe at school. The situation is complicated by the fact that these interpersonal safety issues are actually generated by the peer group and often in contexts that are difficult for adults to control. The recent upsurge of cyberbullying is a case in point. Teachers and parents often feel powerless to intervene in the private world that children and young people create for themselves. This article explores the strategies that are commonly recommended for dealing with cyberbullying and examines what research tells us about their effectiveness. The conclusion is that, whatever the value of technological tools for tackling cyberbullying, we cannot avoid the fact that this is also an interpersonal problem. The implication for practice is that we already know many approaches for preventing and reducing cyberbullying and should build on this knowledge rather than treating the issue as something completely new.peer-reviewe

    Gender Differences in Non-Suicidal Self-Injury in a Sample of Treatment-Seeking Gamblers

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    Gambling Disorder (GD) is a public health concern with tremendous implications (Smith & Wynne, 2002). The disorder rarely occurs in isolation, often presenting with other conditions. Suicidal ideation and attempts are common among treatment-seeking gamblers (Maccallum & Blaszczynski, 2003). An important yet overlooked risk factor for suicidality is non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI; Klonsky et al., 2013). NSSI can serve many functions: relief of negative emotions; generation of positive states; escape from interpersonal obligations; attention or facilitation of resources (Nock & Prinstein, 2004). Previous research has found gender differences in NSSI. Despite NSSI’s relationship to suicidality and the noted gender differences, literature on gender differences within a gambling population is scarce. Therefore, we investigated gender differences in the form and function of NSSI in a clinical sample of 364 treatment-seeking gamblers. Overall, results suggest that females engaged in more hair pulling. Further, females endorsed often engaging in NSSI for the relief of negative emotions and for attention or facilitation of resources. Understanding gender differences in the form and functions of NSSI can provide insight into appropriate prevention, intervention, and treatment opportunities. Importantly, given the relationship of NSSI to suicide, understanding differences in NSSI may inform intervention efforts for this vulnerable population

    Learning perspectives: Implications for pedagogy in science education.

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    How we understand learning has implications for the learning outcomes we value and how we seek to achieve them particularly when we want to do something about learning. In this paper I outline, albeit briefly, the implications for the relations between teaching and learning,for teacher roles and responsibilities, and for the goals of education and curriculum-making of the cognitive-constructivist and situated-social views of learning. The proposal here is not that either of the views is right or better but rather that each foregrounds different aspects of the teaching-learning process and supports particular ways of acting and interacting and hence learning and teaching

    A decision support tool for supporting individuals living with long-term conditions make informed choices: LTC-Choices tool for continuous healthcare

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    An increasing number of individuals are now living with some form of chronic, long-term condition (LTC). The holistic perspective of LTCs makes it important to acknowledge that priorities and decisions are in fluctuation over the course of an individual’s life. The landscape of digital healthcare is full of information systems that capture individuals’ health data, clinical guidelines and/or advice on health conditions, which taken together can help create a comprehensive overview of suitable lifestyle choices to optimise health and well-being. Despite this, there is no evidence of existing frameworks to support individuals living with LTCs from a continuum of care perspective. In this paper, we propose such a multidimensional model for a decision support tool – LTC-Choices. This tool was developed from existing work conducted by the authors around use of multicriteria to support health decisionmaking. We illustrate how LTC-Choices can be implemented using the example of individuals living post-stroke

    The Meanings of Deindustrialization

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    The point of departure for any discussion of deindustrialization must be respect for the despair and betrayal felt by workers as their mines, factories, and mills were padlocked, abandoned, turned into artsy shopping spaces, or even dynamited. While economists and business leaders often speak in neutral, even hopeful, terms such as restructuring, downsizing, or creative destruction, metaphors of defeat and subjugation are more appropriate for the workers who banked on good-paying industrial jobs for the livelihoods of their families and their communities

    Exports, Technical Progress and Productivity Growth in Chinese Manufacturing Industries

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    Theories suggesting either static or dynamic productivity gains derived from exports often assume the prior existence of a perfect market. In the presence of market failure, however, the competition effect and the resource reallocation effect of exports on productive efficiency may be greatly reduced; and there may actually be disincentives for innovation. This paper analyses the impact of exports on total factor productivity (TFP) growth in a transition economy using a panel of Chinese manufacturing industries over the period 1990-1997. TFP growth is estimated by employing a non-parametric approach and is decomposed into technical progress and efficiency change. We have not found evidence suggesting significant productivity gains at the industry level resulting from exports. Findings of the current study suggest that, for exports to generate significant positive effect on TFP growth, a well?developed domestic market and a neutral, outward-oriented policy are necessary.exports, industrial efficiency, technical progress, productivity