29,751 research outputs found

    The application of gibberellic acid increases berry size of ‘Emperatriz’ seedless grape

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    Gibberellic acid (GA3) increases berry size of "Emperatriz" seedless grape, the response depending on the phenological stage of vine at treatment date and on the concentration applied. From berry fruit set to 21 days later, 80 mg/L GA3 increased commercial berry weight by 50%-90%, depending on the year, reaching similar size to that of "Aledo" seeded grape, used as comparison. This effect takes place through: a) a larger berry growth rate; b) an early glucose, fructose and sucrose uptake; c) an increase of absolute glucose and fructose content (mg/berry) of seedless berries up to similar values to those of seeded berries; and d) an increase of absolute berry water content but not of relative content to fresh weight, thus water potential and osmotic potential are not significantly modified by treatments. GA3 does not affect berry pericarp cell number but increases pericarp cell diameter

    State religion and freedom : a comparative analysis

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    State religions form one of the main features of the international political landscape, but scholarly research into their dynamics and effects remains limited. This article aims to address this deficiency through a comparative examination of state religions and levels of political and religious freedom. The findings show that countries with a state religion have substantially lower levels of freedom across a range of measurements than countries with no state religion. The absence of any clear correlation to levels of human development, religious diversity and religiosity indicates a key causal role for the institutional mechanics of state religion itself

    Assimetrias do crânio de javalis (Sus scrofa LINNAEUS, 1758)

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    Organisms can develop different kinds of asymmetry when deviations from expected perfect symmetry occur. Among others are fluctuating asymmetry (FA) and directional asymmetry (DA). FA represents small random differences between corresponding parts on the left and right sides of an individual in bilaterally paired structures. It is thought that FA reflects an organism's ability to cope with genetic and environmental stress during growth. DA occurs whenever one side on the plane of symmetry develops more than the other side, and has a genetic component. In this research, we examined the expression of morphological symmetry in 38 skulls of different age groups of wild boar (Sus scrofa), on their ventral aspect, using two-dimensional coordinates of 27 landmarks. Analyses showed the presence of significant FA and DA in the entire sample, detecting also distinctive differences between age groups. The obtained results show that the shape differences in different age groups could reasonably be a consequence of a response to environmental factors for FA and a masticatory lateralization for DA.Os organismos podem desenvolver diferentes tipos de assimetria quando ocorrem desvios da pefeita simetria esperada. Entre os diversos tipos de assimetria existentes duas merecem especial destaque: a flutuante (AF) e a directional (AD). A AF é representada por pequenas diferenças casuais entre as partes correspondents das laterais direita e esquerda de um indivíduo em estruturas pareadas bilateralmente; acredita-se que elas reflitam a habilidade de um organismo adaptar-se a fatores estressantes genéticos e ambientais observados durante o seu crescimentos. A AD ocorre quando um lado da assimetria plana desenvolve-se mais do que o outro e há um componente genético. No presente trabalho foi analisada a expresssão da simetria morfológica de 38 crânios de diferentes grupos etários de javalis (Sus scrofa), nos seus aspectos ventrais, com o emprego de duas coordenadas dimensionais de 27 pontos anatômicos homólogos. As análises efetuadas revelaram a existência de valores significantes de AF e AD em toda a amostra trabalhada, detectando inclusive diferenças entre os grupos etários. Os resultados obtidos demonstraram que as diferentes formas observadas nos diferentes grupos etários podem ser consequência de uma resposta a fatores ambientais para a AF e a lateralização da mastigação para a AD

    Use of structural adhesive joints in construction applications

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    The Research Group of Materials Performance works in the development of structural adhesive joints and their performance in service in collaboration with some adhesive manufacturer companies. It is sought to increase the number of adhesive manufacturer companies to work with, as well as to find construction companies interested in the application of this technology.Contrato Programa de Comercialización e Internacionalización. Sistema Regional de Investigación Científica e Innovación Tecnológica. (Comunidad de Madrid; Universidad Carlos III de Madrid

    A nonparametric model-based estimator for the cumulative distribution function of a right censored variable in a finite population

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    In survey analysis, the estimation of the cumulative distribution function (cdf) is of great interest: it allows for instance to derive quantiles estimators or other non linear parameters derived from the cdf. We consider the case where the response variable is a right censored duration variable. In this framework, the classical estimator of the cdf is the Kaplan-Meier estimator. As an alternative, we propose a nonparametric model-based estimator of the cdf in a finite population. The new estimator uses auxiliary information brought by a continuous covariate and is based on nonparametric median regression adapted to the censored case. The bias and variance of the prediction error of the estimator are estimated by a bootstrap procedure adapted to censoring. The new estimator is compared by model-based simulations to the Kaplan-Meier estimator computed with the sampled individuals: a significant gain in precision is brought by the new method whatever the size of the sample and the censoring rate. Welfare duration data are used to illustrate the new methodology.Comment: 18 pages, 5 figure

    Wage and Earnings Profiles at Older Ages

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    The inverted U shape of the lifetime wage profile is frequently taken to be a stylized fact. This implies a smooth decline in wages as workers approach retirement. Instead, this paper shows that the hourly wage of the typical older worker increases slightly with age for as long as he is employed full time. It declines discretely only when he enters partial retirement, a transitional period characterized by the prevalence of part-time work, and remains mostly at thereafter. That is, the wage path at older ages is best represented by a step function. The smoothly- declining profile often found in the literature is the result of aggregation over individuals who enter partial retirement at di_erent ages. This conclusion is robust to controlling for self-selection into partial and full retirement. More importantly, the transition out of full time work is a choice for most workers, and the subsequent wage change is endogenously determined. While standard labor supply models would rationalize the reduction in hours worked upon partial retirement as a response to an exogenously declining wage trajectory, the evidence presented in the paper indicates instead that workers choose to trade more leisure for a lower hourly wage in a context in which a better paid, full-time job is available. In other words, wages and hours are jointly determined at older ages. These findings have important implications for the analysis of saving and labor supply decisions over the life cycle.wage profile, earnings profile, wage determination, retirement

    Distribution of silicon between kamacite and taenite

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    Meteorites formed under highly reducing conditions can incorporate substantial amounts of Si in solid solution in their metallic phases. In enstatite meteorites, reduced Si appears in shreibersite, perryite and, in variable amounts, in the kamacite, taenite, and tetrataenite. Microprobe bulk analysis of Si in Fe,Ni particles of aubrites show a large variation from grain to grain; this large compositional range has been attributed to local equilibrium conditions in the specific T and/or fO2 environments in which they are formed. Si concentrations are homogeneous in the kamacite; in contrast, the Ni-rich phases (taenite and tetrataenite) show a characteristic Si profile. Concentrations of this element in tetrataenite are substantially higher than in the adjacent kamacite, and decrease smoothly towards the center of the taenite grain, matching very closely the M-shaped profile of Ni. Other elements with similar distribution patterns are Ge and Cu. A satisfactory explanation for this behavior cannot be given in the absence of experimental data for the diffusion of Si between alpha and gamma-Fe alloys. However, two end-member possibilities can be envisioned: the distribution of Si between kamacite and taenite may be controlled by (1) the crystallographic structure or (2) the chemical composition of the host phases. These possibilities are explored

    Use of paints in construction applications

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    The Research Group of Materials Performance works in collaboration with some paint manufacturer and paint applier companies. It is sought to open the scope of this activity through tests that include and link activities of both sectors. This improvement will widen the application areas to construction companies.Contrato Programa de Comercialización e Internacionalización. Sistema Regional de Investigación Científica e Innovación Tecnológica. (Comunidad de Madrid; Universidad Carlos III de Madrid
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